Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives

Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, 2nd Edition

Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, 2nd Edition,George Wypych,ISBN9781895198454


ChemTec Publishing


234 X 155

A second edition of the standard reference on additives for plastics and polymers, this book covers all aspects of additive properties (from performance enhancements to process efficiency gains) and examines their applications across a range of industry sectors.

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Key Features

* The only available reference on antiblocking, slip, and release additives

* A comprehensive information source, with numerous references provided as a starting point for further investigation

* Evaluation of additives that can help speed up processes, improve product quality, and reduce waste


This handbook, now in its second edition, is the only comprehensive reference available on the subject of antiblocking, release, and slip additives, which are of high industrial importance. These additives are used to alter the properties and performance of polymers, and improve the efficiency and cost of processing methods. These characteristics make additives an important topic across the spectrum of industry sectors that employ plastics and polymers.

Topics covered include: Types and concentrations, Effect on polymer and/or other additives, and Typical formulations. Information on use of additives in various products is divided into the following sections: Types and concentrations, Reasons for use, Advantages and disadvantages of additive use, Effect on product properties, and Examples of formulations. Processing methods are discussed using the following breakdown: Types and concentrations, Effect on process, Effect on product properties, Advantages and disadvantages of additive use, Examples of formulations. A complete analysis of literature and patents available from the first use of these additives until now is included in the book.

Wypych considers all essential aspects of chemistry, physical properties, influence on properties of final products, formulations, methods of incorporation, analysis, and effects on health and environment. The book comprises 18 chapters, each addressing specific aspect of properties and applications of antiblocking, release, and slip agents.


Engineers and Scientists involved in the design and development of plastics materials and products; Engineers and Technicians involved in the design and optimization of production processes using plastics.

George Wypych

George Wypych has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research and development. He has published 18 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, 1st and 2nd Editions, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Material Biodegradation, Biodeterioration and Biostabilation, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release and Slip Additives 1st and 2nd Editions, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, PVC Degradation & Stabilization, The PVC Formulary, Atlas of Material Damage, and Handbook of Polymers (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.

Affiliations and Expertise

ChemTec Publishing, Ontario, Canada

View additional works by George Wypych

Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives, 2nd Edition

1 Introduction
1.1 Historical developments
1.2 Expectations from commercial additives
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Classification

2 Generic Types
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Characteristic properties of commercial additives
2.2.1 Antiblocking agents Inorganic Calcium carbonate Carbon nanotubes, fibers, graphite Ceramic and glass spheres and fly ash Diatomaceous earth and other natural silicas Synthetic silica Synthetic clay (laponite) Talc Zeolite Organic Microparticles
2.2.2 Mold release agents Fluorocompounds Polydimethylsiloxanes Polymeric waxes Other chemical compounds
2.2.3 Slip agents Acids Esters Fatty acid amides Natural wax and its substitutes Salts

3 Standard Methods of Control
3.1 Adhesives
3.2 Floor coverings
3.3 Footwear and walkway surfaces
3.4 Geosynthetics
3.5 Leather and coated fabrics
3.6 Lubricants
3.7 Medical1
3.8 Paints and coatings
3.9 Paper
3.10 Plastics and rubber
3.11 Roads and pavement
3.12 Sport equipment
3.13 Textiles

4 Transportation and Storage
4.1 Transportation
4.2 Storage

5 Mechanisms of Action
5.1 Antiblocking agents
5.2 Slip agents
5.3 Release agents

6 Compatibility and Performance

7 Diffusion and Migration
7.1 Diffusion
7.2 Distribution of additive in bulk and on surface
7.3 How mobility affects additive selection?
7.4 Additive transfer to material in contact
7.5 Additive loss

8 Interaction with Other Components of Formulation
8.1 Fillers
8.2 Other components of formulation
8.3 Synergy between surface additives
8.4 Other properties

9 Processing and Additive Performance

10 Effect on Product Properties
10.1 Mechanical properties
10.2 Mar and abrasion
10.3 Shrinkage and warpage
10.4 Blocking force
10.5 Adhesion to mold and demolding
10.6 Coefficient of friction
10.7 Residues on molds
10.8 Residues on molded parts
10.9 Optical properties
10.10 Rheological properties
10.11 Electrical properties
10.12 Structure and orientation
10.13 Thermal aging
10.14 UV radiation
10.15 Effect on other properties

11 Use in Specific Polymers
11.1 ABS
11.2 Acrylics
11.3 Bromobutyl rubber
11.4 Cellulose acetate
11.5 Cellulose, acetate, butyrate and propionate
11.6 Cellulose nitrate
11.7 Chlorinated polyvinylchloride
11.8 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene
11.9 Copolymers
11.10 Cyanoacrylates
11.11 Ethyl cellulose
11.12 Ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer, EPDM
11.13 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR
11.14 Epoxy resin
11.15 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA
11.16 Ionomers
11.17 Nitrile rubber
11.18 Polyamide
11.19 Polybutadiene
11.20 Polycarbonate
11.21 Polyester
11.22 Polyetherimide
11.23 Polyethylene
11.24 Polyimide
11.25 Polylactide
11.26 Polymethylmethacrylate
11.27 Polyoxymethylene
11.28 Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)
11.29 Polyphenylene ether
11.30 Polypropylene
11.31 Polystyrene
11.32 Polysulfone
11.33 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
11.34 Polyvinylacetate
11.35 Polyvinylalcohol
11.36 Polyvinylbutyral
11.37 Polyvinylchloride
11.38 Polyurethanes
11.39 Proteins
11.40 Rubber, natural
11.41 Silicone
11.42 Styrene-butadiene rubber
11.43 Styrene-butadiene-styrene
11.44 Starch

12 Use in Industrial Products
12.1 Adhesives and sealants
12.2 Aerospace
12.3 Agriculture
12.4 Automotive applications
12.5 Bottles
12.6 Ceramic materials
12.7 Composites
12.8 Coated fabrics
12.9 Cosmetics
12.10 Dental materials
12.11 Electronics
12.12 Fibers
12.11 Film
12.12 Food
12.13 Foams
12.14 Gaskets
12.15 Inks, varnishes, and lacquers
12.16 Medical devices
12.17 Membranes
12.18 Paints and coatings
12.19 Pharmaceutical products
12.20 Photographic materials
12.21 Pipes
12.22 Roofing materials
12.23 Tires
12.24 Toys
12.25 Wire & cable

13 Various Processing Methods
13.1 Blow molding
13.2 Calendering
13.3 Coextrusion
13.4 Compression molding
13.5 Compounding (mixing)
13.6 Dip coating
13.7 Dryblending
13.8 Extrusion
13.9 Extrusion blow molding
13.10 Injection molding
13.11 Printing
13.12 Reaction injection molding
13.13 Rotational molding
13.14 Rubber processing
13.15 Slip casting
13.16 Thermoforming
13.17 Transfer molding

14 Specialized Analytical Methods
14.1 Identification
14.2 Determination of concentration
14.3 Determination of volatility and molecular motion
14.4 Study of materials containing additives

15 Mathematical Modelling

16 Health, Safety and Environmental
16.1 Antiblocking agents
16.1.1 Inorganic Calcium carbonate Carbon related materials Ceramic and glass spheres and fly ash Diatomaceous earth and natural silicas Synthetic silica Synthetic clay (laponite) Talc
16.1.2 Organic Microparticles
16.2 Release agents
16.2.1 Fluorocompounds
16.2.2 Polydimethylsiloxane
16.2.3 Polymeric waxes
16.2.4 Other chemical compounds
16.3 Slip agents
16.3.1 Acids
16.3.2 Esters
16.3.3 Fatty acid amides
16.3.4 Natural wax
16.3.5 Salts

17 Regulations and Data
17.1 Toxic substance control
17.2. Carcinogenic effect
17.3 Workplace exposure limits
17.4 Food regulatory acts

18 Personal Protection
18.1 Clothing
18.2 Gloves
18.3 Eye protection
18.4 Respiratory protection

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