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Organic Synthesis
 
 

Organic Synthesis, 3rd Edition

 
Organic Synthesis, 3rd Edition,Michael Smith,ISBN9781890661403
 
 
 

  

Academic Press

9781890661403

9780124158849

1534

A synthesis-based approach to learning and teaching organic reactions.

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Key Features

    • New publisher, new edition; extensively updated and corrected
    • Over 950 new references with more than 6100 references in total
    • Over 600 new reactions and figures replaced or updated
    • Over 300 new homework problems from the current literature to provide nearly 800 problems to test reader understanding of the key principles
    • Free molecular modeling software to explore 60 new synthesis-oriented molecular modeling problems; designed to aid visualisation and understanding of organic synthesis

    Description

    A reactions oriented course is a staple of most graduate organic programs, and synthesis is taught either as a part of that course or as a special topic. Ideally, the incoming student is an organic major, who has a good working knowledge of basic reactions, stereochemistry and conformational principles. In fact, however, many (often most) of the students in a first year graduate level organic course have deficiencies in their undergraduate work, are not organic majors and are not synthetically inclined.

    To save students much time catching up this text provides a reliable and readily available source for background material that will enable all graduate students to reach the same high level of proficiency in organic chemistry. Produced over many years with extensive feedback from students taking an organic chemistry course this book provides a reaction based approach. The first two chapters provide an introduction to functional groups; these are followed by chapters reviewing basic organic transformations (e.g. oxidation, reduction). The book then looks at carbon-carbon bond formation reactions and ways to ‘disconnect’ a bigger molecule into simpler building blocks.

    Most chapters include an extensive list of questions to test the reader’s understanding. There is also a new chapter outlining full retrosynthetic analyses of complex molecules which highlights common problems made by scientists.

    The book is intended for graduate and postgraduate students, scientific researchers in chemistry

    Readership

    advanced undergraduates, post graduates, postdocs in organic chemistry and organic synthesis

    Michael Smith

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, USA

    Organic Synthesis, 3rd Edition

    Chapter 1 Retrosynthesis, Stereochemistry, and Conformations 1

    1.1. Introduction 0001

    1.2. The disconnection protocol 0005

    1.3. Bond proximity and implications for chemical reactions 0011

    1.4. Stereochemistry 0012

    1.5. Conformations 0035

    1.6. Conclusion 0071

    Homework 0072

    Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Functional Group Exchange Reactions 77

    2.1. Introduction 0077

    2.2. Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases 0081

    2.3. Lewis acids 0093

    2.4 Hard-Soft acid-base theory 0096

    2.5. Acyl addition, substitution and conjugate addition 0106

    2.6. Substitution reactions 0112

    2.7. Characteristics of reactions involving nucleophiles 0137

    2.8. Substitution by halogen 0144

    2.9. Elimination reactions 0153

    2.10. Addition reactions 0177

    2.11. Functional group manipulation by rearrangement 0188

    2.12. Aromatic substitution 0193

    2.13. Conclusion 0210

    Homework 0211

    Chapter 3 Oxidation 219

    3.1. Introduction 0219

    3.2. Alcohols to carbonyls (CH-OH ¿ C=O) 0226

    3.3. Formation of phenols and quinones 0261

    3.4. Conversion of alkenes to epoxides 0268

    3.5. Conversion of alkenes to diols (C=C ¿ CHOH-CHOH) 0291

    3.6. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation RCOR' ¿ RCO2R') 0307

    3.7. Oxidative bond cleavage (C=C ¿ C=O + O=C) 0313

    3.8. Oxidation of alkyl or alkenyl fragments (CH ¿ C=O or C-OH) 0324

    3.9. Oxidation of sulfur, selenium, and nitrogen 0334

    3.10. Conclusion 0340

    Homework 0340

    Chapter 4 Reduction 347

    4.1. Introduction 0347

    4.2. Reduction with complex metal hydrides 0348

    4.3. Alkoxyaluminate reagents 0363

    4.4. Reductions with borohydride 0369

    4.5. Alkoxy- and alkylborohydrides 0377

    4.6. Borane, aluminum hydride, and derivatives 0385

    4.7. Stereoselectivity in reductions 0391

    4.8. Catalytic hydrogenation 0422

    4.9. Dissolving metal reductions 0451

    4.10. Nonmetallic reducing agents 0472

    4.11. Conclusion 0483

    Homework 0484

    Chapter 5 Hydroboration 491

    5.1. Introduction 0491

    5.2. Preparation of alkyl and alkenyl boranes 0491

    5.3. Synthetic transformations 0505

    5.4. Formation of oxygen-containing functional groups 0514

    5.5. Amines and sulfides via hydroboration 0534

    5.6. Conclusion 0537

    Homework 0537

    Chapter 6 Stereocontrol and Ring Formation 541

    6.1. Introduction 0541

    6.2. Stereocontrol in acyclic systems 0541

    6.3. Stereocontrol in cyclic systems 0551

    6.4. Neighboring group effects and chelation effects 0560

    6.5. Acyclic stereocontrol via cyclic precursors 0563

    6.6. Ring-forming reactions 0564

    6.7. Conclusion 0582

    Homework 0582

    Chapter 7 Protecting Groups 587

    7.1. Introduction 0587

    7.2. When are protecting groups needed? 0589

    7.3. Protecting groups for alcohols, carbonyls, and amines 0593

    7.4. Conclusion 0619

    Homework 0620

    Chapter 8 Cd Disconnect Products: Nucleophilic Species That Form Carbon-Carbon Bonds 623

    8.1. Introduction 0623

    8.2. Cyanide 0623

    8.3. Alkyne anions (R-C=C:-) 0629

    8.4 Grignard reagents (C-Mg) 0636

    8.5. Organolithium reagents (C-Li) 0670

    8.6. Sulfur stabilized carbanions and umpolung 0696

    8.7 Organocopper reagents (C-Cu) 0713

    8.8. Ylids 0729

    8.9. Other organometallic carbanionic compounds 0758

    8.10. Allylic tin, alkyltitanium, and allylic silane complexes 0766

    8.11. Phenolic carbanions 0771

    8.12. Conclusion 0773

    Homework 0774

    Chapter 9 Cd Disconnect Products: Nucleophilic Species That Form Carbon-Carbon Bonds: Enolate Anions 781

    9.1. Introduction 0781

    9.2. Formation of enolate anions 0781

    9.3. Reactions of enolate anions with electrophiles 0803

    9.4. Enolate condensation reactions 0816

    9.5. Stereoselective enolate reactions 0850

    9.6 Enamines 0873

    9.7. Michael addition and related reactions 0877

    9.8. Enolate reactions of a-halo carbonyl derivatives 0883

    9.9. Conclusion 0888

    Homework 0889

    Chapter 10 Synthetic Strategies 897

    10.1. Introduction 0897

    10.2. Target selection 0898

    10.3. Retrosynthesis 0907

    10.4. Synthetic strategies 0914

    10.5 The strategic bond approach 0920

    10.6. Strategic bonds in rings 0934

    10.7. Selected synthetic strategies: pancratistatin 0942

    10.8. Biomimetic approach to retrosynthesis 0948

    10.9. The chiral template approach 0954

    10.10. Computer generated strategies 0961

    10.11. Degradation techniques as a tool for retrosynthesis 0973

    10.12. Combinatorial chemistry 0978

    10.13. Conclusion 0988

    Homework 0989

    Table of Contents vi

    Chapter 11 Pericyclic Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions: Multiple Bond Disconnections 999

    11.1. Introduction 0999

    11.2. Frontier molecular orbital theory 0999

    11.3. Allowed and forbidden reactions 1010

    11.4. [4 + 2]-cycloadditions 1013

    11.5. Inverse electron demand and the retro Diels-Alder 1032

    11.6. Rate enhancement in Diels-Alder reactions 1037

    11.7. Heteroatom Diels-Alder reactions 1049

    11.8. Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions 1059

    11.9. Enantioselective Diels-Alder reactions 1066

    11.10. [2+2]-Cycloaddition reactions 1076

    11.11. Electrocyclic reactions 1097

    11.12. [3+2]-Cycloaddition reactions 1101

    11.13. Sigmatropic rearrangements 1116

    11.14. The ene reaction 1143

    11.15. Conclusion 1152

    Homework 1153

    Chapter 12 Ca Disconnect Products: Electrophilic Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions 1161

    12.1. Introduction 1161

    12.2. Carbocations 1161

    12.3. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions of carbocations 1182

    12.4. Friedel-Crafts reactions 1192

    12.5. Friedel-Crafts reactions: formation of heteroatom-containing derivatives 1210

    12.6. p-Allyl palladium complexes 1225

    12.7. Named palladium coupling reactions 1236

    12.8. p-Allyl nickel complexes 1245

    12.9. Electrophilic iron complexes 1248

    12.10. Conclusion 1250

    Homework 1251

    Chapter 13 Carbon Radical Disconnect Products: Formation of Carbon-Carbon Bonds Via Radicals and Carbenes 1257

    13.1. Introduction 1257

    13.2. Structure of radicals 1258

    13.3. Formation of radicals by thermolysis 1259

    13.4. Photochemical formation of radicals 1262

    13.5. Reactions of free radicals 1267

    13.6. Intermolecular radical reactions 1278

    13.7. Intramolecular radical reactions (radical cyclization) 1283

    13.8. Metal-induced radical reactions 1296

    13.9. Carbenes and carbenoids 1311

    13.10. Metathesis reactions 1334

    13.11. Pauson-Khand reaction 1342

    13.12. Conclusion 1345

    Homework 1346

    Chapter 14. Student Syntheses: The First Synthetic Problem 1353

    14.1. Introduction 1353

    14.2. Total synthesis of securamine C 1355

    14.3. Total synthesis of variecolol 1364

    Disconnection Index 1377

    General Index 1383

    nbsp;

    Instructions and code to accessnbsp;Spartan software

    Quotes and reviews

    "Smith (Univ. of Connecticut) has geared this book to graduate-level course in organic synthesis, and he reinforces material in each chapter with relevant homework problems. The third edition (2nd ed., 2001; 1st ed., 1994) includes more than 600 new reactions and 900 new references, compared to the second edition. These reactions and references are all new since 2002, clearly illustrating the field’s continuing growth. Another key addition is the integration of synthesis-related molecular modeling problems using SpartanModel into the homework problems. The extensive index allows the reader to easily find specific information. Coverage of the topic is thorough, with very little wasted space on any of the 1,506 pages…. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals/practitioners."--CHOICE

    "This is without doubt a must-have organic chemistry textbook. It is clear, concise and very readable. Trying to write a textbook is extremely difficult and demanding, but trying to write one that is the superlative book in a student's, or practicing chemist's, library is an almost impossible task. Michael Smith has achieved that. From the very beginning you are immersed in the fundamentals of retrosynthesis, stereochemistry, oxidations, reductions and protecting group strategies. This is made complete by the thorough blend of theory and referenced examples from the literature. With a comprehensive toolkit of named organic reaction mechanisms to piece it all together, this is by far the all-in- one book for organic chemists. Organic Synthesis outshines the most popular organic chemistry books in my own collection and now takes its seat as my companion both in the lab and on my desk. I can wholeheartedly recommend this book to chemists at all stages of their career."--Chemistry World, June 2012, page 61

     
     
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