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Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover

# Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover, 4th Edition

## All the Formulas You Need to Solve Drilling and Production Problems

&      &

Gulf Professional Publishing

9780128034170

9780128034309

394

229 X 152

A must-have, handy reference for oil field workers to help them perform calculations, conduct operations, and evaluate the performance of wells on-the-go.

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## Key Features

• Features a new chapter focused on cementing
• Includes on-the-job answers and formulas for today’s hydraulic fracturing methods
• Provides extra utility with an online basic equation calculator for 24/7 problem-solving access
• Covers topics such as drilling fluids, pressure control, engineering calculations, and air and gas calculations

## Description

Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover, All the Formulas You Need to Solve Drilling and Production Problems, Fourth Edition provides a convenient reference for oil field workers who do not use formulas and calculations on a regular basis, aiming to help reduce the volume of materials they must carry to the rig floor or job site.

Starting with a review of basic equations, calculations, and featuring many examples, this handy reference offers a quick look-up of topics such as drilling fluids, pressure control, engineering calculations, and air and gas calculations. The formulas and calculations are provided in either English field units or in metric units.

This edition includes additional coverage on cementing, subsea considerations, well hydraulics, especially calculating for hydraulic fracturing methods, and drill string design limitations.

This practical guide continues to save time and money for the oil field worker or manager, with an easy layout and organization to help confidently conduct operations and evaluate the performance of wells on-the-go.

Petroleum Engineers, Production Engineers, Drilling Engineers, Completion Engineers, Operations Engineers, Drilling Managers, Operations Managers, Project Production Engineers, and Graduate-level Petroleum Engineering Students

### William Lyons

New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico.

Affiliations and Expertise

New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico, USA

View additional works by William C. Lyons

### Thomas Carter

Mr. Carter has over fifty five years' experience in domestic and international engineering and management positions in the area of drilling, completion and E&P waste management with Conoco, Baroid, and several other drilling contractors. He has conducted seminars and schools on fluids, rig equipment, and drilling engineering related subjects associated with drilling optimization, cost reduction, and well control. Tom has served as Chairman of the API standardization committee (SC 13) on Drilling and Completion Fluid Materials. He was a SPE Distinguished Lecturer in 1993 and served as the Editor of the SPE reprint series book on drilling fluids. Currently, he is a member of the Chevron Clear Leader Center serving as a Technical Learning Advisor in Houston. He coordinates and has teaching participation in several subject areas such as Coiled Tubing Operations, Directional Drilling, Drilling Fluids, Drilling Practices, Fundamentals for Drilling and Completion, HPHT Drilling and Completions, and Solids Control and Waste Management. He is still active in several industry organizations and was President of the Houston chapter of the American Association of Drilling Engineers, Coordinator for the SPE North American Forum Series, Membership Chairman of the editorial committee for the Journal of Petroleum Technology and on the Board of Directors for the Ocean Energy Center Society (Ocean Star rig museum in Galveston). He has published 20 technical publications and holds five U.S. patents. He graduated with a BS in Geology from Centenary College in Shreveport, Louisiana in 1963.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Learning Advisor, Chevron, Houston, TX

### Norton J. Lapeyrouse

Norton J. Lapeyrouse was a technical training instructor in oilfield courses with international experience. He developed numerous training programs, courses, and manuals designed for supervisory and field personnel. He was a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME., the American Society for Teaching and Development, and the IADC. subcommittee of Well Control Trainers Roundtable.

Formulas and Calculations for Drilling, Production, and Workover, 4th Edition

• Preface
• Chapter One: Basic Equations
• Abstract
• 1.1 Terminology
• 1.2 Mud Weight MW (lb/ft.3), Mud Weight MW (ppg), and Specific Gravity (SG) [USCS/British]
• 1.3 Density ? (kg/m3 or kg/liter), Mud Weight MW (N/m3 or N/liter), and Specific Gravity (SG) [SI-Metric]
• 1.4 Hydrostatic Pressure (P) and (p) [USCS/British]
• 1.5 Hydrostatic Pressure (P) and (p) [SI-Metric]
• 1.6 Pressure Gradient ? (psi/ft.), G (ppg) [USCS/British]
• 1.7 Pressure Gradient G (SG) [SI-Metric]
• 1.8 Mud Pump Output q (bbl/stk) and Q (gpm) [USCS/British]
• 1.9 Hydraulic Horsepower
• 1.10 Estimated Weight of Drill Collars in Air
• 1.11 Open Hole and Tubular Capacity and Displacement Formulas
• 1.12 Amount of Cuttings Drilled per Foot of Hole Drilled
• 1.13 Annular Velocity (AV)
• 1.14 Pump Output Required in GPM for a Desired Annular Velocity, ft./min
• 1.15 Pump Pressure/Pump Stroke Relationship (the Roughneck’s Formula)
• 1.16 Buoyancy Factor (BF)
• 1.17 Formation Temperature (Tf)
• 1.18 Temperature Conversion Formulas
• Chapter Two: Rig Calculations
• Abstract
• 2.1 Accumulator Capacity
• 2.2 Slug Calculations
• 2.3 Bulk Density of Cutting Using the Mud Balance
• 2.4 Drill String Design
• 2.5 Depth of a Washout
• 2.6 Stuck Pipe Calculations
• 2.7 Calculations Required for Placing Spotting Pills in an Open Hole Annulus
• Chapter Three: Pressure Control: Kill Sheets and Related Calculations
• Abstract
• 3.1 Normal Kill Sheet
• 3.2 Calculations for the Pressure Chart
• 3.3 Formation Pressure Tests
• 3.5 Kick Tolerance
• 3.6 Kick Analysis
• 3.7 Gas Cut Mud Weight Measurement Calculations
• 3.8 Gas Migration in a Shut-In Well
• 3.9 Hydrostatic Pressure Decrease at TD Caused by Gas-Cut Mud
• 3.10 Maximum Pressures When Circulating Out a Kick (Moore Equations)
• 3.11 Gas Flow into the Wellbore
• 3.12 Pressure Analysis
• 3.13 Stripping/Snubbing Calculations
• 3.14 Subsea Considerations
• 3.15 Workover Operations
• 3.16 Controlling Gas Migration
• 3.17 Gas Lubrication
• 3.18 Annular Stripping Procedures
• 3.19 Barite Plug
• Chapter Four: Drilling Fluids
• Abstract
• 4.1 Mud Density Increase and Volume Change
• 4.2 Mud Weight Reduction with Base Liquid Dilution
• 4.3 Mixing Fluids of Different Densities
• 4.4 Oil-Based Mud Calculations
• 4.5 Solids Analysis
• 4.6 Solids Fractions (Barite Treated Muds)
• 4.7 Dilution of Mud System
• 4.8 Evaluation of Hydrocyclones
• 4.9 Evaluation of Centrifuge
• Chapter Five: Cementing Calculations
• Abstract
• 5.2 Water Requirements
• 5.3 Field Cement Additive Calculations
• 5.4 Weighted Cement Calculations
• 5.5 Calculations for the Number of Sacks of Cement Required
• 5.6 Calculations for the Number of Feet to Be Cemented
• 5.7 Setting a Balanced Cement Plug
• 5.8 Differential Hydrostatic Pressure Between Cement in the Annulus and Mud Inside the Casing
• 5.9 Hydraulicing Casing
• Chapter Six: Well Hydraulics
• Abstract
• 6.1 System Pressure Losses
• 6.2 Equivalent Circulating “Density” ECD (ppg) [USCS/British]
• 6.3 Surge and Swab Pressure Loss
• 6.4 Critical Velocity and Pump Rate
• 6.5 Equivalent Spherical Diameter for Drilled Cuttings Size Used in Slip Velocity Equations
• 6.6 Slip Velocity of Cuttings in the Annulus
• 6.7 Carrying Capacity Index
• 6.8 Pressure Required to Break Circulation
• 6.9 Initial Gel Strength Guidelines for Top Hole Drilling in High Angle Wells (After Zamora)
• 6.10 Bit Nozzle Selection—Optimized Hydraulics
• 6.11 Hydraulic Analysis
• 6.12 Minimum Flowrate for PDC Bits
• 6.13 Critical RPM: RPM to Avoid Due to Excessive Vibration (Accurate to Approximately 15%)
• Chapter Seven: Drilling and Completion Calculations
• Abstract
• 7.1 Control Drilling: Maximum Drilling Rate (MDR) When Drilling Large Diameter Holes (14¾ in. and Larger) in ft./h
• 7.2 Mud Effects on Rate of Penetration
• 7.3 Cuttings Concentration % by Volume
• 7.4 “d ” Exponent
• 7.5 Cost per Foot
• 7.7 Ton-Mile (TM) Calculations
• 7.8 Hydrostatic Pressure Decrease When Pulling Pipe Out of the Hole
• 7.9 Loss of Overbalance Due to Falling Mud Level
• 7.10 Lost Circulation
• 7.11 Core Analysis Techniques
• 7.12 Temperature Correction for Brines
• 7.13 Tubing Stretch
• 7.14 Directional Drilling Calculations
• Chapter Eight: Air and Gas Calculations
• Abstract
• 8.1 Static Gas Column
• 8.2 Direct Circulation: Flow Up the Annulus (from Annulus Bottomhole to Exit)
• 8.3 Direct Circulation: Flow Down the Inside of the Drill Pipe (from the Bottom of the Inside of the Drill String to the Injection at the Top of the Drill String)
• 8.4 Reverse Circulation: Flow Up the Inside of Tubing String
• 8.5 Reverse Circulation: Flow Down the Annulus
• 8.6 Reverse Circulation: Adjusting for Reservoir Pressure
• Appendix A
• A.1 Tank Capacity Determinations
• Appendix B
• Appendix C: Average Annual Atmospheric Conditions

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