Test and Measurement: Know It All, 1st Edition

Test and Measurement: Know It All, 1st Edition,Jon Wilson,Stuart Ball,Creed Huddleston,Edward Ramsden,Dogan Ibrahim,ISBN9781856175302

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Key Features

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors
• Topics include the Technology of Test and Measurement, Measurement System Types, and Instrumentation for Test and Measurement.
• The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume


The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Field Application engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Test and Measurement Know It All covers every angle including Machine Vision and Inspection, Communications Testing, Compliance Testing, along with Automotive, Aerospace, and Defense testing.


Field Application Engineers; Electronics Engineers; Communications Engineers

Jon Wilson

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Consultant, The Dynamic Consultant, CA, USA

View additional works by Jon S. Wilson

Stuart Ball

Senior Electrical Engineer who has worked for the past twenty years in the field of embedded control systems. He previously worked on Global Positioning Systems and secure communications equipment at Rockwell International, on document processing equipment at Banctec, and on medical electronics at Organon-Teknika. He has written several books and many articles for periodicals such as Circuit Cellar INK, and Modern Electronics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Embedded Systems consultant and author

View additional works by Stuart Ball

Creed Huddleston

Affiliations and Expertise

Real-Time by Design, LLC, Raleigh, NC, USA

Edward Ramsden

Ed Ramsden is an electrical engineer who has been working with Hall effect sensors since 1988. His experience ranges from designing Hall effect integrated circuits to developing novel magnetic processing techniques. He has written over a dozen technical articles on sensor-related topics, and he holds four U.S patents in the area of magnetic sensor technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Engineer, Lattice Semiconductor, Hillsboro, OR, USA

Dogan Ibrahim

Prof Dogan Ibrahim graduated from the University of Salford with First Class Honours in Electronic Engineering. He then completed an MSc course in Automatic Control Engineering at the University of Manchester, and PhD in Digital Signal Processing at the City University in London. Prof Ibrahim worked at several companies before returning to the academic life. He is currently a lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems at the Near East University. Prof Ibrahim is a Fellow of the IET, and a Chartered Electrical Engineer. His interests are in the fields of microcontroller based automatic control, digital signal processing, and computer aided design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Traffic Control Systems Unit, South Bank University, UK, and lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems, Near East University, Lefkosa, Cyprus

View additional works by Dogan Ibrahim

Test and Measurement: Know It All, 1st Edition

Chapter 1 Fundamental of measurement
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Fundamental concepts

Chapter 2 Sensors and Transducers
2.1 Basic Sensor Technology
2.2 Sensor Systems
2.3 Application Considerations
2.4 Sensor Characteristics
2.5 System Characteristics
2.6 Instrument Selection
2.7 Data Acquisition and Readout
2.8 Installation
2.9 Measurement Issues and Criteria

Chapter 3. Data acquisition hardware and software
3.1 ADCs
3.2 Types of ADCs
3.3 ADC Comparison
3.4 Sample and Hold
3.5 Real Parts
3.6 Microprocessor Interfacing
3.7 Clocked Interfaces
3.8 Serial Interfaces
3.9 Multichannel ADCs
3.10 Internal Microcontroller ADCs
3.11 Codecs
3.12 Interrupt Rates
3.13 Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers
3.14 Design Checklist

Chapter 4. Overview of measurement systems
4.1 Transducers
4.2 Methods of measurement
4.3 Sensitivity
4.4 Zero, linearity and span
4.5 Resolution, hysteresis and error
4.6 Fourier analysis
4.7 Dynamic response
4.8 PID control
4.9 Accuracy and repeatability
4.10 Mechanical models

Chapter 5 Acceleration, Shock and Vibration
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Technology Fundamentals
5.3 Selecting and Specifying Accelerometers
5.4 Applicable Standards
5.5 Interfacing and Designs
5.6 Machinery Vibration Monitoring Sensors

Chapter 6 Flow
6.1 General
6.2 Differential pressure flowmeters
6.3 Turbine flowmeters
6.4 Vortex shedding flowmeters
6.5 Electromagnetic flowmeters
6.6 Ultrasonic flowmeters
6.7 Hot wire anemometer
6.8 Mass flowmeters

Chapter 7 Temperature
7.1 Temperature scales
7.2 Types of temperature sensors
7.3 Measurement errors
7.4 Selecting a temperature sensor
7.5 Thermocouple Temperature Sensors
7.6 RTD Temperature Sensors
7.7 Thermistor Temperature Sensors
7.8 Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensors

Chapter 8 Pressure
8.1 Introduction
8.2 SI and other units
8.3 Absolute, gauge and differential pressure modes
8.4 Primary standards
8.5 Spinning ball gauge standard
8.6 Secondary standards
8.7 Working standards
8.8 Pressure measuring instruments
8.9 Calibration of pressure standards and instruments

Chapter 9. Position
9.1 Mechanical switch
9.2 Potentiometric sensor
9.3 Capacitive transducer
9.4 LVDT
9.5 Angular velocity transducer
9.6 Position sensitive diode array
9.7 Motion control

Chapter 10 Strain gauges, loadcells and weighing
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Stress and strain
10.3 Strain gauges
10.4 Bridge circuits
10.5 Load cells
10.6 Weighing systems

Chapter 11 Light
11.1 Light
11.2 Measuring light
11.3 Standards of measurement
11.4 Thermal detectors
11.5 Light dependent resistor (LDR)
11.6 Photodiode
11.7 Other semiconductor photodetectors
11.8 Optical detectors
11.9 Photomultiplier

Chapter 12 Signal Processing and Conditioning
12.1 Conditioning Bridge Circuits
12.2 Amplifiers for Signal Conditioning

Chapter 13 Interfacing and Data Communications
13.1 Interfacing
13.2 Input/Output ports
13.3 Polling
13.4 Interrupts
13.5 Direct memory access (DMA)
13.6 Serial port
13.7 Serial port addresses
13.8 Serial port registers
13.9 Serial port registers and interrupts
13.10 Serial port baud rate
13.11 Serial port operation
13.12 Parallel printer port
13.13 Parallel port registers
13.14 Parallel printer port operation
13.15 Communications
13.16 Byte to serial conversion
13.17 RS232 interface
13.18 Synchronisation
13.19 UART (6402)
13.20 Line drivers
13.21 UART clock
13.22 UART Master Reset
13.23 Null modem
13.24 Serial port BIOS services
13.25 Serial port operation in BASIC
13.26 Hardware handshaking
13.27 RS485
13.28 GPIB
13.29 USB
13.30 TCP/IP

Chapter 14 Data acquisition software
14.1 An overview of DA&C software
14.2 Data acquisition and control in real time
14.3 Implementing real-time systems on the PC
14.4 Robustness, reliability and safety

Chapter 15. Scaling and calibration
15.1 Scaling of linear response curves
15.2 Linearization
15.3 Polynomial linearization
15.4 Interpolation between points in a look-up table
15.5 Interpolation vs. power-series polynomials
15.6 Interactive calibration programs
15.7 Practical issues

Chapter 16. Synthetic instruments
16.1 What is a Synthetic Instrument?
16.2 History of Automated Measurement
16.3 Synthetic Instruments Defined
16.4 Advantages of Synthetic Instruments
16.5 Synthetic Instrument Misconceptions
16.6 Synthetic Measurement System Hardware Architectures
16.7 System Concept—The CCC Architecture
16.8 Hardware Requirements Traceability
16.9 Stimulus
16.10 Stimulus Digital Signal Processing
16.11 Stimulus Triggering
16.12 The Stimulus D/A
16.13 Stimulus Conditioning
16.14 Stimulus Cascade—Real-World Example
16.15 Real-World Design: A Synthetic Measurement System
16.16 Universal High-Speed RF Microwave Test System
16.17 System Architecture
16.18 DUT Interface
16.19 Calibration
16.20 Software Solutions
16.21 Conclusions

Chapter 17 Real-world measurement applications
17.1 Precision Measurement and Sensor Conditioning

Chapter 18. Testing methods
18.1 The Order-of-Magnitude Rule
18.2 A Brief (Somewhat Apocryphal) History of Test
18.3 Test Options
18.4 Summary

Chapter 19 Boundary Scan Techniques
19.1 Latch-Scanning Arrangements
19.2 Enter Boundary Scan
19.3 Hardware Requirements
19.4 Modes and Instructions
19.5 Implementing Boundary Scan
19.6 Partial-Boundary-Scan Testing
19.7 Other Alternatives
19.8 Summary

Chapter 20 Inspection Test
20.1 Striking a Balance
20.2 Post-Paste Inspection
20.3 Post-Placement/Post-Reflow
20.4 Summary

Chapter 21 EMC fundamentals
21.1 What is EMC?
21.2 Compatibility between and within systems

Chapter 22 Measuring RF emissions
22.1 Emissions measuring instruments
22.2 Transducers
22.3 Sites and facilities

Chapter 23 Test methods
23.1 Test set-up
23.2 Test procedure
23.3 Tests above 1GHz
23.4 Military emissions tests
23.5 Measurement uncertainty

Chapter 24 Test planning
24.1 The need for a test plan
24.2 Contents of the test plan
24.3 Immunity performance criteria

CHAPTER 25 Accelerated testing fundamentals
25.1 Scenario One: A key physical property is wrong.
25.2 Scenario Two: A primary failure mode of a product.
25.3 Scenario Three: The Mean Time to Failure (MTTF).

Chapter 26 HALT and FMVT
26.1 A Typical HALT
26.2 Hot Temperature Steps
26.3 Cold Temperature Steps
26.4 Ramp Rates
26.5 Vibration
26.6 Combined Run
26.7 Business Structures
26.8 Failure Mode Verification Testing (FMVT)
26.9 Development FMVT
26.10 More About Stress
26.11 What can break the product?
26.12 More About Failures
26.13 More About Setup and Execution
26.14 More on Data Analysis
26.15 Comparison FMVT
26.16 Method One: Time to First Failure
26.17 Method Two: Failure Mode Progression Comparison
26.18 FMVT Life Prediction – Equivalent Wear and Cycle Counting
26.19 FMVT Warranty
26.20 More on Vibration
26.21 Reliability and Design Maturity
26.22 Business Considerations

Appendix A: Standard Interfaces
A.1 IEEE 1451.2
A.2 4–20 ma Current Loop
A.3 Fieldbus
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