Solar Cells, 2nd Edition

Materials, Manufacture and Operation

 
Solar Cells, 2nd Edition,Augustin McEvoy,L. Castaner,Tom Markvart,ISBN9780123869647
 
 
 

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Key Features

  • A thorough update to the definitive reference to solar cells, created by a cast of international experts from industry and academia to ensure the highest quality information from multiple perspectives
  • Covers the whole spectrum of solar cell information, from basic scientific background, to the latest advances in materials, to manufacturing issues, to testing and calibration.
  • Case studies, practical examples and reports on the latest advances take the new edition of this amazing resource beyond a simple amalgamation of a vast amount of knowledge, into the realm of real world applications

Description

Enormous leaps forward in the efficiency and the economy of solar cells are being made at a furious pace. New materials and manufacturing processes have opened up new realms of possibility for the application of solar cells. Crystalline silicon cells are increasingly making way for thin film cells, which are spawning experimentation with third-generation high-efficiency multijunction cells, carbon-nanotube based cells, UV light for voltage enhancement, and the use of the infrared spectrum for night-time operation, to name only a few recent advances.

This thoroughly updated new edition of Markvart and Castaner’s Solar Cells, extracted from their industry standard Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics, is the definitive reference covering the science and operation, materials and manufacture of solar cells. It is essential reading for engineers, installers, designers, and policy-makers who need to understand the science behind the solar cells of today, and tomorrow, in order to take solar energy to the next level.

Readership

Solar cell manufacturers, R&D Depts, PV equipment manufacturers and installers, environmental engineers, consultants, academics

Augustin McEvoy

Affiliations and Expertise

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

L. Castaner

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

Tom Markvart

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Solar Energy Laboratory School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton

View additional works by Tom Markvart

Solar Cells, 2nd Edition

List of Contributors

Part IA: Solar Cells

Chapter IA-1. Principles of Solar Cell Operation

1 Introduction

2 Electrical Characteristics

3 Optical Properties

4 Typical Solar Cell Structures

References

Chapter IA-2. Semiconductor Materials and Modelling

1 Introduction

2 Semiconductor Band Structure

3 Carrier Statistics in Semiconductors

4 The Transport Equations

5 Carrier Mobility

6 Carrier Generation by Optical Absorption

7 Recombination

8 Radiation Damage

9 Heavy Doping Effects

10 Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter IA-3. Ideal Efficiencies

1 Introduction

2 Thermodynamic Efficiencies

3 Efficiencies in Terms of Energies

4 Efficiencies Using the Shockley Solar Cell Equation

5 General Comments on Efficiencies

References

Part IB: Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Chapter IB-1. Crystalline Silicon: Manufacture and Properties

1 Introduction

2 Characteristics of Silicon Wafers for Use in PV Manufacturing

3 Feedstock Silicon

4 Crystal-Preparation Methods

5 Shaping and Wafering

References

Chapter IB-2. High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cell Concepts

1 Introduction

2 High-Efficiency Laboratory Cells

3 Screen-Printed Cells

4 Laser-Processed Cells

5 HIT Cell

6 Rear-Contacted Cells

7 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter IB-3. Thin Silicon Solar Cells

1 Introduction, Background, and Scope of Review

2 Light Trapping in Thin Silicon Solar Cells

3 Voltage Enhancements in Thin Silicon Solar Cells

4 Silicon Deposition and Crystal Growth for Thin Solar Cells

5 Thin Silicon Solar Cells Based on Substrate Thinning

6 Summary of Device Results

References

Part IC: Thin Film Technologies

Chapter IC-1. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) Layers

3 Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon (μc-Si:H) Layers

4 Functioning of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with p–i–n and n–i–p Structures

5 Tandem and Multijunction Solar Cells

6 Module Production and Performance

7 Conclusions

References

Chapter IC-2. CdTe Thin-Film PV Modules

1 Introduction

2 Steps for Making Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells

3 Making of Integrated Modules

4 Production of CdTe Thin-Film Modules

5 The Product and Its Application

6 The Future

References

Chapter IC-3. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Material Properties

3 Cell and Module Technology

4 Device Physics

5 Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

6 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter IC-4. Progress in Chalcopyrite Compound Semiconductor Research for Photovoltaic Applications and Transfer of Results into Actual Solar Cell Production

1 Introduction

2 Research Directions

3 Industrialisation

4 Conclusions and Outlook

References

Chapter IC-5. High-Efficiency Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells for One-Sun and Concentrator Applications

1 Introduction

2 Concentrator Applications of IBC Solar Cells

3 Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells

4 Modelling of Back-Contact Solar Cells

5 Perimeter and Edge Recombination

6 Manufacturing Process for Back-Contact Solar Cells

7 Stability of Back-Contact Cells

8 Toward 30% Efficiency Silicon Cells

9 How to Improve the Efficiency of Back-Contact Solar Cells

10 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter IC-6. High Efficiency III–V Multijunction Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Special Aspects of III–V Multijunction Solar Cells

3 III–V Solar Cell Concepts

4 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Part ID: Dye-Sensitized and Organic Solar Cells

Chapter ID-1. Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells

1 Introduction

2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

4 Future Outlook

References

Chapter ID-2. Organic Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Organic Electronic Materials

3 Principles of Device Operation

4 Optimising Solar Cell Performance

5 Production Issues

6 Conclusions

References

Part II: Testing, Industry and Environment

Chapter IIA-1. Characterization and Diagnosis of Silicon Wafers, Ingots, and Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Factors Affecting Carrier Recombination

3 Measurement of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime

4 Relationship between Device Voltage and Carrier Lifetime

5 Applications to Process Monitoring and Control of Silicon Solar Cells

6 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter IIA-2. Calibration, Testing, and Monitoring of Space Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Calibration of Solar Cells

3 Testing of Space Solar Cells and Arrays

4 Monitoring of Space Solar Cells and Arrays

Acknowledgements

References

Part IIB: Environment

Chapter IIB-1. Overview of Potential Hazards

1 Introduction

2 Overview of Hazards in PV Manufacture

3 Crystalline Silicon (x-Si) Solar Cells

4 Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Solar Cells

5 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Solar Cells

6 Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) Solar Cells

7 Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) High-Efficiency Solar Cells

8 Operation of PV Modules

9 Photovoltaic Module Decommissioning

10 Conclusion

References

Editor’s Note

Part IIC: Industry

Chapter IIC-1. The Photovoltaic Market

1 Asia and the Pacific Region

2 Emerging Markets

References

Chapter IIC-2. The Photovoltaic Industry

1 Technology Mix

2 Solar Cell Production Companies

3 Polysilicon Supply

4 Polysilicon Manufacturers

References

Appendix A: Constants, Physical Quantities, and Conversion Factors

Appendix B: List of Principal Symbols

Appendix C: Abbreviations and Acronyms

Appendix D: Useful Web Sites and Journals

Web Sites

Journals

Appendix E: International Standards with Relevance to Photovoltaics

IEC Standards

Draft IEC Standards

ASTM Standards

Other Standards and Guidelines

Appendix F: Books About Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Systems, and Applications

Index

 
 
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