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High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications
 
 

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, 1st Edition

 
High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, 1st Edition,Subhash Singhal,ISBN9781856173872
 
 
 

  

Singhal   &   Kendall   

Elsevier Science

9781856173872

9780080508085

406

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Description

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications provides a comprehensive discussion of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCs are the most efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of chemical energy of hydrocarbon fuels into electricity, and have been gaining increasing attention for clean and efficient distributed power generation. The book explains the operating principle, cell component materials, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes, cell and stack performance, and applications of SOFCs. Individual chapters are written by internationally renowned authors in their respective fields, and the text is supplemented by a large number of references for further information. The book is primarily intended for use by researchers, engineers, and other technical people working in the field of SOFCs. Even though the technology is advancing at a very rapid pace, the information contained in most of the chapters is fundamental enough for the book to be useful even as a text for SOFC technology at the graduate level.

Readership

Designers, manufacturers and end-users of solid oxide and other fuel cells: researchers in fuel cell technology; membrane manufacturers.

Subhash Singhal

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, 1st Edition

List of Contributors Preface Chapter 1 Introduction to SOFCs 1.1 Background 1.2 Historical Summary 1.3 Zirconia Sensors for Oxygen Measurement 1.4 Zirconia Availability and Production 1.5 High-Quality Electrolyte Fabrication Processes 1.6 Electrode Materials and Reactions 1.7 Interconnection for Electrically Connecting the Cells 1.8 Cell and Stack Designs 1.9 SOFC Power Generation Systems 1.10 Fuel Considerations 1.11 Competition and Combination with Heat Engines 1.12 Application Areas and Relation to Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 1.13 SOFC-Related Publications References Chapter 2 History 2.1 The Path to the First Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells 2.2 From Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 2.3 First Detailed Investigations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 2.4 Progress in the 196Os 2.5 On the Path to Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells References Chapter 3 Thermodynamics 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Ideal Reversible SOFC 3.3. Voltage Losses by Ohmic Resistance and by Mixing Effects by Fuel Utilisation 3.4 Thermodynamic Definition of a Fuel Cell Producing Electricity and Heat 3.5 Thermodynamic Theory of SOFC Hybrid Systems 3.6 Design Principles of SOFC Hybrid Systems 3.7 Summary References Chapter 4 Electrolytes 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Fluorite-Structured Electrolytes 4.3 Zirconia-Based Oxide Ion Conductors 4.4 Ceria-Based Oxide Ion Conductors 4.5 Fabrication of ZrO2 and CeO2-Based Electrolyte Films 4.6 Perovskite-Structured Electrolytes 4.6.1 LaAlO3 4.6.2 LaGaO3 Doped with Ca, Sr and Mg 4.6.3 LaGaO3 Doped with Transition Elements 4.7 Oxides with Other Structures 4.7.1 Brownmillerites (e.g. Ba2In2O6) 4.7.2 Non-cubic Oxides 4.8 Proton-Conducting Oxides 4.9 Summary References Chapter 5 Cathodes 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Physical and Physicochemical Properties of Perovskite Cathode Materials 5.2.1 Lattice Structure, Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, and Valence Stability 5.2.2 Electrical Conductivity 5.2.3 Thermal Expansion 5.2.4 Surface Reaction Rate and Oxide Ion Conductivity 5.3 Reactivity of Perovskite Cathodes with ZrO2 5.3.1 Thermodynamic Considerations 5.3.2 Experimental Efforts 5.3.3 Cathode/Electrolyte Reactions and Cell Performance 5.3.4 Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature SOFCs 5.4 Compatibility of Perovskite Cathodes with Interconnects 5.4.1 Compatibility of Cathodes with Oxide Interconnects 5.4.2 Compatibility of Cathodes with Metallic Interconnects 5.5 Fabrication of Cathodes 5.6 Summary References Chapter 6 Anodes 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Requirements for an Anode 6.3 Choice of Cermet Anode Components 6.4 Cermet Fabrication 6.5 Anode Behavior under Steady-State Conditions 6.6 Anode Behavior under Transients Near Equilibrium 6.7 Behavior of Anodes under Current Loading 6.8 Operation of Anodes with Fuels Other Than Hydrogen 6.9 Anodes for Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 6.10 Summary References Chapter 7 Interconnects 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Ceramic Interconnects (Lanthanum and Yttrium Chromites) 7.2.1 Electrical Conductivity 7.2.2 Thermal Expansion 7.2.3 Thermal Conductivity 7.2.4 Mechanical Strength 7.2.5 Processing 7.3 Metallic Interconnects 7.3.1 Chromium-Based Alloys 7.3.2 Ferritic Steels 7.3.3 Other Metallic Materials 7.4 Protective Coatings and Contact Materials for Metallic Interconnects 7.5 Summary References Chapter 8 Cell and Stack Designs 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Planar SOFC Design 8.2.1 Cell Fabrication 8.2.2 Cell and Stack Performance 8.3 Tubular SOFC Design 8.3.1 Cell Operation and Performance 8.3.2 Tubular Cell Stack 8.3.3 Alternative Tubular Cell Designs 8.4 Microtubular SOFC Design 8.4.1 Microtubular SOFC Stacks 8.5 Summary References Chapter 9. Electrode Polarizations 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Ohmic Polarization 9.3 Concentration Polarization 9.4 Activation Polarization 9.4.1 Cathodic Activation Polarization 9.4.2 Anodic Activation Polarization 9.5 Measurement of Polarization (By Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) 9.6 Summary References Chapter 10 Testing of Electrodes, Cells and Short Stacks 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Testing Electrodes 10.3 Testing Cells and 'Short' Stacks 10.4 Area-Specific Resistance (ASR) 10.5 Comparison of Test Results on Electrodes and on Cells 10.5.1 Non-activated Contributions to the Total Loss 10.5.2 Inaccurate Temperature Measurements 10.5.3 Cathode Performance 10.5.4 Impedance Analysis of Cells 10.6 The Problem of Gas Leakage in Cell Testing 10.6.1 Assessment of the Size of the Gas Leak 10.7 Summary References Chapter 11 Cell, Stack and System Modeling 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Flow and Thermal Models 11.2.1 Mass Balance 11.2.2 Conservation of Momentum 11.2.3 Energy Balance 11.3 Continuum-Level Electrochemistry Model 11.4 Chemical Reactions and Rate Equations 11.5 Cell- and Stack-Level Modeling 11.6 System-Level Modeling 11.7 Thermomechanical Model 11.8 Electrochemical Models at the Electrode Level 11.8.1 Fundamentals and Strategy of Electrode-Level Models 11.8.2 Electrode Models Based on a Mass Transfer Analysis 11.8.3 One-Dimensional Porous Electrode Models Based on Complete Concentration, Potential, and Current Distributions 11.8.4 Monte Carlo or Stochastic Electrode Structure Model 11.9 Molecular-Level Models 11.10 Summary References Chapter 12 Fuels and Fuel Processing 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Range of Fuels 12.3 Direct and Indirect Internal Reforming 12.3.1 Direct Internal Reforming 12.3.2 Indirect Internal Reforming 12.4 Reformation of Hydrocarbons by Steam, CO2 and Partial Oxidation 12.5 Direct Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 12.6 Carbon Deposition 12.7 Sulfur Tolerance and Removal 12.8 Anode Materials in the Context of Fuel Processing 12.9 Using Renewable Fuels in SOFCs 12.10 Summary References Chapter 13 Systems and Applications 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Trends in the Energy Markets and SOFC Applicability 13.3 Competing Power Generation Systems and SOFC Applications 13.4 SOFC System Designs and Performance 13.4.1 Atmospheric SOFC Systems for Distributed Power Generation 13.4.2 Residential, Auxiliary Power and Other Atmospheric SOFC Systems 13.4.3 Pressurized SOFC/Turbine Hybrid Systems 13.4.4 System Control and Dynamics 13.4.5 SOFC System Costs 13.4.6 Example of a Specific SOFC System Application 13.5 SOFC System Demonstrations 13.5.1 Siemens Westinghouse Systems 13.5.2 Sulzer Hexis Systems 13.5.3 SOFC Systems of Other Companies 13.6 Summary References Index

Quotes and reviews

The information contained in most of the chapters is fundamental enough for the book to be useful as a textbook for students at graduate level....Scientists and researchers already active in the field will also find the book very interesting.
Paola Costamagna
DICHEP - University of Genova
Via Opera Pia 15
16145 Genova - Italy
 
 
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