Digital Compression for Multimedia

Digital Compression for Multimedia, 1st Edition

Principles and Standards

Digital Compression for Multimedia, 1st Edition,Jerry Gibson,Toby Berger,Tom Lookabaugh,Rich Baker,David Lindbergh,ISBN9781558603691

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Drawing on their experience in industry, research, and academia, this powerful author team combines their expertise to provide an accessible guide to data compression standards and techniques and their applications. The essential ideas and motivation behind the various compression methods are presented, and insight is provided into the evolution of the standards. Standards-compliant design alternatives are discussed, and some noncompliant designs also are treated.

Covering the fundamental underpinnings of the most widely used compression methods, this book is intended for engineers and computer scientists designing, manufacturing, and implementing compression systems, as well as system integrators, technical managers, and researchers. It provides, in a single source, an overview of the current standards for speech, audio, video, image, fax, and file compression.

  • Authored by five experts from industry and academia who are heavily involved in research, development, and standards-setting activities
  • Covers the full spectrum of multimedia compression standards including those for lossless data compression, speech coding, high-quality audio coding, still image compression, facsimile, and video compression
  • Provides enough theory for you to understand the building blocks of the compression systems discussed, with appendices containing necessary algorithmic details and mathematical foundations

Jerry Gibson

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

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Digital Compression for Multimedia, 1st Edition



1 Introduction to Data Compression

1.1 Why Compress?

1.2 The Data Compression Problem

1.2.1 Synonyms for Data Compression

1.2.2 Components of a Data Compression Problem

1.2.3 Types of Compression Problems

1.3 Input Source Formats

1.4 Reconstructed Source Quality

1.4.1 Performance Measurement

1.4.2 Perceptual Distortion Measures

1.5 System Issues and Performance Comparisons

1.6 Applications and Standards

1.7 Outline of the Book

2 Lossless Source Coding

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Instantaneous Variable-Length Codes

2.3 Unique Decipherability

2.4 Huffman Codes

2.5 Nonbinary Hufmann Codes

2.6 The Kraft Inequality and Optimality

2.7 Group 3 and Group 4 Fax Standards

2.7.1 Group 3 Fax

2.7.2 Group 4 Fax

2.7.3 Noise and Half-Toning

2.8 Line Drawing Compression

2.9 Entropy and a Bound on Performance

2.9.1 Some Inequalities

2.9.2 Entropy

2.9.3 Entropy Lower Bounds Achievable Compression

2.10 Conditional Entropy and Mutual Information

2.11 Entropy Rate of a Stationary Source

2.11.1 Joint Entropy and the Chain Rule

2.11.2 Definitions of Entropy Rate

2.11.3 Shannon-Fano Codes

3 Universal Lossless Source Coding

3.1 Adaptivity and Universality

3.2 Parsing

3.3 LZ Compression

3.3.1 LZ78

3.3.2 LZW

3.3.3 LZY

3.3.4 LZ77

3.4 Elias Coding, Arithmetic Coding, and JBIG Fax

3.4.1 Elias Coding

3.4.2 Arithmetic Coding

3.4.3 The JBIG Fax Standard

4 Quantization

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Scalar Quantization

4.2.1 Uniform Quantization

4.2.2 Nonuniform Quantization

4.2.3 Logarithmic Companding

4.2.4 Adaptive Quantization

4.2. 5 Embedded Quantization

4.3 Vector Quantization

4.3.1 VQ Structure, Design, and Performance

4.3.2 Optimal VQ

4.3.3 Structured VQ

4.4 Summary

5 Predictive Coding

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Linear Prediction Model and Linear Predictive Coding

5.2.1 Coefficient Calculation

5.2.2 Other Parameters

5.2.3 Voiced/Unvoiced Decision and Excitation Signal

5.2.4 Pitch Period Estimation

5.2.5 Excitation Gain

5.2.6 LPC Performance

5.3 Delta Modulation and Differential PCM

5.3.1 Delta Modulation

5.3.2 Nyquist-Sampled Predictive Coders

5.3.3 Short-Term Predictor Adaptation

5.4 Embedded DPCM

5.5 Multipulse Linear Predictive Coding (MPLPC)

5.6 Code Excited Linear Predictive Coding

5.7 Perceptual Weighting and Postfiltering

5.8 Summary

6 Linear Predictive Speech Coding Standards

6.1 Introduction

6.2 ITU G.721/G.726/G.727

6.3 U.S. Federal Standard 1015

6.4 U.S. Federal Standard 1016

6.5 GSM 13-kbps Coder

6.6 TIA 8-kbps VSELP


6.8 LD-CELP, ITU G.728

6.9 ITU G.729

6.10 ITU G.723.1

6.11 JDC (PDC) Full Rate, GSM Half Rate, and JDC Half Rate

6.12 U.S. Federal Standard at 2.4 kbps

6.13 Additional and Forthcoming Standards

7 Frequency Domain Coding

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Subband Coding of Speech

7.2.1 Example 1

7.2.2 Example 2

7.3 Subband Coding of Images

7.4 Transform Coding of Speech and Images

7.4.1 Discrete Transforms

7.5 Wavelet Coding

7.6 Fractal Coding

7.7 Summary

8 Frequency Domain Speech and Audio Coding Standards

8.1 Introduction

8.2 ITU G.722 Wideband Audio and Lower Rate Extensions

8.3 Simulatenous Masking and Temporal Masking in Audio

8.4 High-Quality Audio for Video Standards

8.4.1 MPEG-1 Audio

8.4.2 MPEG-2 Audio

8.4.3 Dolby AC-2 and AC-3

8.4.4 AT&T's Perceptual Audio Coder

8.5 Coding for Audio Storage Devices

8.5.1 DCC PASC Coder

8.5.2 Minidisc ATRAC Coder

8.6 INMARSAT Speech Coder

8.7 Summary

9 JPEG Still-Image Compression Standard

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Baseline JPEG

9.3 Progressive Encoding

9.4 Hierarchical (Pyramidal) Encoding

9.5 Entropy Coding

9.5.1 Example of DCT Coefficient Encoding

9.6 Image Data Conventions

9.7 Lossless Encoding Mode

9.8 Summary

10 Multimedia Conferencing Standards

10.1 Introduction

10.2 H.320 for ISDN Videoconferencing

10.2.1 The H.320 Standards Suite

10.2.2 H.221 Multiplex

10.2.3 System Control Protocol

10.2.4 Audio Coding

10.2.5 Video Coding

10.2.6 H.231 and H.243--Multipoint

10.2.7 H.233 and H.234--Encryption

10.2.8 H.224 and H.281--Real-Time Far-End Camera Control

10.2.9 H.331 Broadcast

10.3 H.320 Network Adaptation Standards: H.321 and H.322

10.3.1 H.321--Adaptation of H.320 to ATM and B-ISDN

10.3.2 H.322--Adaptation of H.320 to IsoEthernet

10.4 A New Generation H.323, H.324, adn H.310

10.4.1 H.245 Control Protocol

10.4.2 Audio and Video Codecs

10.4.3 H.323 for Packet Switched Networks

10.4.4 H.324 for Low-Bit-Rate Circuit Switched Networks

10.4.5 H.310 for ATM and B-ISDN Networks

10.5 T.120 Data Conferencing and Conference Control

10.5.1 T.120 Infrastructure

10.5.2 T.120 Application Protocols

10.6 Delay in Multimedia Conferencing Systems

10.6.1 Sources of Audio Delay

10.7 Summary

11 MPEG Compression

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The MPEG Model

11.2.1 Key Applications and Problems

11.2.2 Strategy for Standardization

11.2.3 Parts of the MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Standards

11.3 MPEG Video

11.3.1 The Basic Algorithm

11.3.2 Temporal Prediction

11.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition

11.3.4 Quantization

11.3.5 Variable-Length Coding

11.3.6 Syntactical Layering in MPEG

11.3.7 Rate Control

11.3.8 Constrained Parameters, Levels, and Profiles

11.4 MPEG Audio

11.4.1 Layers

11.4.2 The Basic Algorithm

11.4.3 Subband Decomposition

11.4.4 Scaling, Quantization, and Coding

11.4.5 Multichannel Compression

11.5 MPEG Systems

11.5.1 Timing

11.5.2 System and Program Streams

11.5.3 Transport Streams

11.5.4 Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) and MPEG-1 Packets

11.5.5 Program-Specific Information

11.6 More MPEG

11.6.1 MPEG-4

11.6.2 Digital Storage Media Command and Control

11.6.3 Advanced Audio Coding

11.6.4 The Professional or 4:2:2 Profile

11.7 Summary

Appendix A - Speech Quality and Intelligibility

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Phases of Speech Coder Evaluation

A.3 Informal Tests

A.3.1 Objective Measures

A.3.2 Subjective Tests

A.4 Formal Tests

A.4.1 Intelligibilty

A.4.2 Quality

A.5 Important Considerations

Appendix B - Proof That Huffman Codes Minimize

Appendix C - Proof That Every UD Code Satisfies the Kraft Inequality

Appendix D - Behavior of Approximations to Entropy Rate

Appendix E - Proof of Forward March Property for LZY

Appendix F - Efficient Coding of Lk for LZ77




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