Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry

Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry, 1st Edition

Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry, 1st Edition,Karthikeyan Subramani,Waqar Ahmed,James K. Hartsfield,ISBN9781455731275

Subramani   &   Ahmed   &   Hartsfield   

William Andrew




235 X 191

With contributors from around the world, this book helps researchers and clinicians alike to unlock the potential of nanomaterials for the field of clinical dentistry in the fields of dental implants, theraputics and and medical devices

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Key Features

  • Book prepared by an interdisciplinary and international group of scientists and practitioners in the fields of nanomaterials, dental implants, medical devices and clinical practice
  • Comprehensive professional reference for the subject covering materials fabrication and use of materials for all major diagnostic and therapeutic dental applications - repair, restoration, regeneration, implants and prevention
  • Complements the editors' previous book on nanotechnology applications for dentistry


New nanomaterials are leading to a range of emerging dental treatments that utilize more biomimetic materials that more closely duplicate natural tooth structure (or bone, in the case of implants).

This book brings together an international team of experts from the fields of materials science, nanotechnology and dentistry, to explain these new materials and their applications for the restoration, fixation, replacement, or regeneration of hard and soft tissues in and about the oral cavity and craniofacial region.

The main topics covered include applications in dental specialties (Orthodontics, Endodontics, Pediatric dentistry, Periodontics, Prosthodontics and Implant dentistry), salivary diagnostics using bioMEMS/NEMS systems, nanochips for oral cancer diagnosis, biomimetic nanomaterials, and nanotechnology for tooth repair and regeneration.

The editors' previous book, Emerging Nanotechnologies in Dentistry focused on the fabrication/manufacturing processes of materials and dentistry applications. This second book complements the first covers with coverage of the range of nanomaterials available today in clinical dentistry, explaining the innovative techniques and applications in all of the main clinical dental specialties.

Nanobiomaterial engineers, biomedical researchers, biomedical engineers and dental/oral pre-clinical and clinical researchers will find the comprehensive coverage essential for working with nanotechnologies and materials in both clinical and research settings.


Post-docs / researchers / R&D in the fields of nanomaterials / biomedical nanotechnology, biochemistry, oral biology. Dental nanomaterials R&D / manufacturers. Dental researchers and clinical practitioners, primarily in the areas of dental materials, restorative dentistry, implantology, oral surgery and periodontics

Karthikeyan Subramani

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Orthodontics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Waqar Ahmed

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head of Institute of Nanotechnology and Bioengineering at University of Central Lancashire, UK

View additional works by Waqar Ahmed

James K. Hartsfield

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Dentistry, University of Kentucky, USA

Nanobiomaterials in Clinical Dentistry, 1st Edition


Foreword by Professor C.N.R. Rao

Foreword by Professor Peixuan Guo


Section 1: Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Approaches to nanotechnology

1.3 Nanotechnology on a large scale and volume

1.4 Applications

1.5 Future considerations

1.6 Nanobiomaterials in clinical dentistry


Chapter 2. Nanotechnology and Nanobiomaterials in Dentistry

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Nanoscale materials

2.3 Nanodentistry

2.4 Nanobiomaterials in dentistry

2.5 Nanobiomaterials in preventive dentistry

2.6 Nanobiomaterials in restorative dentistry

2.7 Nanocomposites in bone regeneration

2.8 Conclusions


Section 2: Nanoscale Materials and Their Applications in Dental Biomaterials

Chapter 3. Carbon Nanotube-Based Materials—Preparation, Biocompatibility, and Applications in Dentistry

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Preparation of CNT composites

3.3 Conductivity

3.4 CNT cytotoxicity

3.5 CNT applications in dentistry

3.6 Summary and conclusions


Chapter 4. Dental and Skeletal Applications of Silica-Based Nanomaterials

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Silica nanoparticles

4.3 Synthesis of silica-based nanomaterials

4.4 Physicochemical properties of silica-based nanomaterials

4.5 Dental applications of silica-based nanomaterials

4.6 Skeletal applications of silica-based nanomaterials

4.7 Conclusions



Chapter 5. Nanoparticles, Properties, and Applications in Glass Ionomer Cements

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Smart dental materials

5.3 Nanotechnology and dentistry

5.4 Glass ionomer cement

5.5 Modified GIC

5.6 Resin-modified nano-glass ionomer composites

5.7 Nanoparticles-based GIC

5.8 Conclusions


Chapter 6. Nanostructured Dental Composites and Adhesives with Antibacterial and Remineralizing Capabilities for Caries Inhibition

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Development of antibacterial nanocomposite with CaP nanoparticles

6.3 Durability of antibacterial nanocomposite in water-aging

6.4 Antibacterial dentin primer

6.5 Antibacterial adhesive

6.6 Antibacterial and remineralizing adhesive containing NACP

6.7 Summary and conclusions




Chapter 7. Nanotechnology and Nanoparticles in Contemporary Dental Adhesives

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Brief history of dental adhesives

7.3 Contemporary adhesive systems

7.4 Chemical compositions of contemporary adhesives

7.5 Ketac nanoprimer

7.6 Nanoleakage

7.7 Atomic force microscopy in the field of dental adhesion

7.8 How can nanoscience and nanotechnology improve the outcome of clinical adhesive dentistry?

7.9 Future prospective of nanotechnology in the field of adhesive dentistry

7.10 Conclusions and future directions


Section 3: Nanobiomaterials in Preventive and Restorative Dentistry

Chapter 8. Nanobiomaterials in Preventive Dentistry

8.1 Introduction—current challenges in preventive dentistry

8.2 The ubiquitous phenomenon of bioadhesion on dental hard tissues

8.3 Main strategies for implementation of nanosized materials in dental prophylaxis

8.4 Modulation of bioadhesion and biofilm management

8.5 Effects on de- and remineralization

8.6 Erosion

8.7 Nanosized calcium fluoride

8.8 Dentin hypersensitivity

8.9 Regeneration of dental hard substances

8.10 Discussion and clinical recommendations

8.11 Conclusions


Chapter 9. Silver and Phosphate Nanoparticles: Antimicrobial Approach and Caries Prevention Application

9.1 Welcome to nanoworld

9.2 Nanoparticles X “BUGS”

9.3 Phosphates micro- and nanoparticles and caries prevention

9.4 Pros and cons of nanoparticles toward biological-dental application

9.5 Conclusions


Chapter 10. Nanoparticles and the Control of Oral Biofilms

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Biofilms and oral infections

10.3 Antimicrobial nanoparticles and oral biofilm control

10.4 Antiadhesive nanoparticles and oral biofilm control

10.5 Photodynamic therapy and the use of nanoparticles to control oral biofilms

10.6 Biocompatibility of nanoparticles within the oral cavity

10.7 Conclusions



Section 4: Nanobiomaterials in Orthodontics

Chapter 11. Nanotechnology in Orthodontics–1: The Past, Present, and a Perspective of the Future

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy studies on orthodontic brackets and archwires

11.3 Friction reducing nanocoatings on orthodontic archwires

11.4 Nanoparticles in orthodontic adhesives

11.5 Nanoparticle delivery from orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

11.6 Developing and future applications of nanotechnology in dentistry and orthodontics

11.7 Temporary anchorage devices

11.8 Conclusions


Chapter 12. Nanotechnology in Orthodontics–2: Facts and Possible Future Applications

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Nanoscale in orthodontics

12.3 Nanotechnology and gene therapy in orthodontics

12.4 Nanofabricated ultrasound device for orthodontics

12.5 Nanomechanical sensors for orthodontic forces and moments measurement

12.6 Future applications of nanotechnology in orthodontics

12.7 Conclusions



Chapter 13. Nanoparticle Coating of Orthodontic Appliances for Friction Reduction

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Friction in orthodontics

13.3 Materials considerations: fullerene-like nanoparticles

13.4 Orthodontic appliances coated with nanoparticles

13.5 Safety: toxicity and biocompatibility

13.6 Conclusions: from the lab to the clinic



Section 5: Nanobiomaterials in Prosthodontics

Chapter 14. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Incorporated Acrylic-Based Tissue Conditioner with Antimicrobial Effect and Cytocompatibility

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Preparation and identification of silver nanoparticles

14.3 Acrylic tissue conditioner combined with silver nanoparticles

14.4 Characterization of Ag°-tissue conditioner composites

14.5 Conclusions


Section 6: Nanobiomaterials in Periodontics, Implant Dentistry, and Dental Tissue Engineering

Chapter 15. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles for Periodontal Regeneration and Applications in Dentistry

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Composition and synthesis of bioactive glass nanoparticles

15.3 Bioactivity of glass nanoparticles

15.4 Bioactive glass in dentistry

15.5 Bioactive glass nanoparticles in periodontal regeneration

15.6 Bioactive glass nanocomposites

15.7 Bioactive glass nanocomposite applications in bone regeneration and dental implants

15.8 The future of bioactive glass nanoparticles in dentistry

15.9 Conclusions



Chapter 16. Impact of Nanotechnology on Dental Implants

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Nanoscale surface modifications

16.3 Interactions of surface dental implants with blood

16.4 Interactions between surfaces and mesenchymal stem cells

16.5 Tissue integration

16.6 Conclusions



Chapter 17. Titania Nanotube Coatings on Dental Implants with Enhanced Osteogenic Activity and Anti-Infection Properties

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Fabrication of NTs on Ti

17.3 Factors influencing the bioactivity of the NTs

17.4 In vitro bioactivity of the NTs and in vivo osseointegration

17.5 Drug-loading NTs for better bioactivity and antibacterial properties

17.6 Conclusions



Chapter 18. Carbon Nanomaterials for Implant Dentistry and Bone Tissue Engineering

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Enhanced functions of osteoblasts on carbon nanomaterials

18.3 CNT/CNF applications in dentistry

18.4 Fabrication of carbon nanomaterials

18.5 Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials

18.6 Fabrication of carbon nanomaterials with improved osteogenic bioactivity

18.7 Unique properties of CaP nanoparticles–embedded CNFs for bone tissue engineering

18.8 Conclusions


Chapter 19. Nanoceramics for Bone Regeneration in the Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Complex

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Nanoceramics and bone repair

19.3 Hydroxyapatite

19.4 Nano-HA–collagen composites

19.5 Hydrogels and nano-HA

19.6 Chitosan and nano-bioactive glass composites

19.7 Nanocalcium sulfate

19.8 Conclusions



Chapter 20. Biomimetics Using Nanotechnology/Nanoparticles in Dental Tissue Regeneration

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Nanotechnology for craniofacial bone and cartilage tissue engineering

20.3 Nanotechnology for periodontal regeneration

20.4 Nanotechnology for tooth regeneration

20.5 Conclusions


Section 7: Nanobiomaterials in Endodontics

Chapter 21. Scope of Nanotechnology in Endodontics

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Clinical applications

21.3 Applications for repair and pulp regeneration

21.4 Repair and regeneration

21.5 Nanotechnology applications for repair and pulp regeneration

21.6 Conclusion



Section 8: Salivary Diagnostics and Nanoparticles as Dental Drug Delivery Systems and Their Biocompatibility/Toxicity

Chapter 22. Saliva as an Emerging Biofluid for Clinical Diagnosis and Applications of MEMS/NEMS in Salivary Diagnostics

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Saliva as a biofluid for disease detection

22.3 Applications of saliva for early detection of ischemic heart disease and in head and neck cancers

22.4 Future outlook and conclusions



Chapter 23. Nanoparticles as Dental Drug-Delivery Systems

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Definitions

23.3 Dental applications of nanoparticles

23.4 Future trends



Chapter 24. Orally Delivered Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems for Dental Applications and Their Toxicity on Systemic Organs

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Dental applications of nano drug delivery

24.3 Toxicity of nanoparticles

24.4 Conclusions



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