Plastic Films in Food Packaging

Plastic Films in Food Packaging, 1st Edition

Materials, Technology and Applications

Plastic Films in Food Packaging, 1st Edition,Sina Ebnesajjad,ISBN9781455731121

S Ebnesajjad   

William Andrew




276 X 216

Plastic food packaging is ubiquitous, with new technologies improving food hygiene and longevity, enhancing visual appeal, preserving flavor and offering materials that are recyclable and compostable. This book enables plastics engineers and other packaging specialists to achieve these aims, while keeping costs low

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Key Features

  • Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working at all stages of the food packaging lifecycle: from design through manufacture to recycling
  • Includes key published material on plastic films in food packaging, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material on the regulatory framework and safety aspects
  • Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design and manufacturing decisions


The value of the groceries purchases in the USA is over $500 billion annually, most of which is accounted for by packaged foods. Plastic packaging of foods is not only ubiquitous in developed economies, but increasingly commonplace in the developing world, where plastic packaging is instrumental in decreasing the proportion of the food supply lost to spoilage.

This new handbook is a combination of new material and updated chapters, chosen by Dr. Sina Ebnesajjad, from recently published books on this subject. Plastic Films in Food Packaging offers a practical handbook for engineers, scientists and managers working in the food packaging industry, providing a tailor-made package of science and engineering fundamentals, best practice techniques and guidance on new and emerging technologies.

By covering materials, design, packaging processes, machinery and waste management together in one book, the authors enable the reader to take a lifecycle approach to food packaging.

The Handbook addresses questions related to film grades, types of packages for different types of foods, packaging technologies, machinery and waste management. Additionally the book provides a review of new and emerging technologies. Two chapters cover the development of barrier films for food packaging and the regulatory and safety aspects of food packaging.


 Food Producers (fresh and processed), food packaging industries, plastic resin manufacturers (such as polyolefin suppliers), plastic and plastic film manufacturers, multilayer film convertors (laminators) and package fabricators. Packaging R&D personnel, packaging design engineer, manufacturing engineer, process engineer, plastic film R&D engineer, polymer R&D personnel, plastic additive R&D personnel, package and label designers, researchers, logistics, purchasing and regulatory specialists

Sina Ebnesajjad

Sina Ebnesajjad is the series editor of Plastics Design Library (PDL) published in the William Andrew imprint of Elsevier. This Series is a unique series, comprising technology and applications handbooks, data books and practical guides tailored to the needs of practitioners. Sina was the editor-in-chief of William Andrew Publishing from 2005 to 2007, which was acquired by Elsevier in 2009. He retired as a Senior Technology Associate in 2005 from the DuPont fluoropolymers after nearly 24 years of service. Sina founded of FluoroConsultants Group, LLC in 2006 where he continues to work. Sina earned his Bachelor of Science from the School of Engineering of the University of Tehran in 1976, Master of Science and PhD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, all in Chemical Engineering. He is author, editor and co-author of fifteen technical and data books including five handbooks on fluoropolymers technology and applications. He is author and co-author of three books in surface preparation and adhesion of materials, two of which are in their second editions. Sina has been involved with technical writing and publishing since 1974. His experiences include fluoropolymer technologies (polytetrafluoroethylene and its copolymers) including polymerization, finishing, fabrication, product development, failure analysis, market development and technical service. Sina holds six patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fluoroconsultants Group, Chadds Ford, PA, USA

View additional works by Sina Ebnesajjad

Plastic Films in Food Packaging, 1st Edition


1. Introduction to Use of Plastics in Food Packaging

1.1 Background

1.2 Polyolefins

1.3 Polyester

1.4 Polystyrene

1.5 Polyvinyl Chloride

1.6 Polyvinylidene Chloride

1.7 Polyamide

1.8 Ethylene–Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer

1.9 Renewable Resource and Biodegradable Polymers

1.10 Summary


2. Polypropylene Films

2.1 Unoriented Film

2.2 Cast Film

2.3 Biaxially Oriented Film


3. PE-Based Multilayer Film Structures

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Polymer Selection

3.3 Mechanical Properties

3.4 Barrier Properties

3.5 Polymer Sealability

3.6 Adhesive Polymers

3.7 Applications for Flexible Packaging Film Structures

3.8 Summary


4. Biaxially Oriented Films for Packaging Applications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Orienting Technologies

4.3 Oriented Film Types—Applications

4.4 Trends for Oriented Films


5. Development of High-Barrier Film for Food Packaging

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Background

5.3 Improvement of Barrier Properties of Films

5.4 Review of Permeation

5.5 Multilayer Flexible Packaging Structures

5.6 Measurement of Barrier Properties of Films


6. Applications of Polypropylene Films

6.1 Automotive Applications

6.2 Medical Applications

6.3 Appliances

6.4 Textiles and Nonwovens

6.5 Packaging

6.6 Consumer Products

6.7 Building and Construction


7. Emerging Technologies in Food Packaging: Overview

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Innovations in Food Processing and Packaging

7.3 Food Packaging Technologies

7.4 New Food Processing Technologies

7.5 Future Trends in Food Packaging


8. Introduction to Active Food Packaging Technologies

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Drivers for Choice of Active Packaging

8.3 Forms of Active Packaging

8.4 History of Active Packaging

8.5 Impact on Packaging Materials and Processes

8.6 Active Packaging and the Distribution Chain

8.7 Regulatory Environment


9. Oxygen-Scavenging Packaging

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Reviews

9.3 History

9.4 Application to Food and Beverage Packaging

9.5 Future Opportunities


10. Antimicrobial Packaging Systems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Food Safety

10.3 Antimicrobial Packaging

10.4 Antimicrobial Agents

10.5 System Design

10.6 Commercialization


11. Damage Reduction to Food Products During Transportation and Handling

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Functions of Packaging

11.3 Food Product Categories

11.4 Food Product Distribution Environment

11.5 Major Causes of Food Spoilage/Damage in Supply Chain

11.6 Packaging Materials

11.7 “Smart” Packaging

11.8 Trends in Protective Food Packaging of 2000 and Beyond


12. Food Packaging Machinery

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Filling Machines

12.3 Volumetric Fillers

12.4 Weight Filling

12.5 In-Line or Rotary Fillers

12.6 Cap Application Machines

12.7 Induction Cap Sealing

12.8 Flexible Packaging

12.9 Form-Fill-Seal Equipment

12.10 Canning Machinery

12.11 Carton Filling and Closing Machinery

12.12 Metal Detectors

13. Compostable Polymer Properties and Packaging Applications

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources

13.3 Biodegradable Polymers from Petrochemical Sources

13.5 Summary


14. Waste Management for Polymers in Food Packaging Industries

14.1 Biodegradable Synthetic Copolymers and Composites

14.2 Chitosan–Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blends

14.3 Landfill

14.4 Incineration

14.5 Pyrolysis

14.6 Reuse and Recovery

14.7 Composting

14.8 Recycling

14.9 The Issue of Contamination on Recycling


Relevant Websites

15. Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Why Blend?

15.3 Blending Processes

15.4 Physics of Blending

15.5 Thermodynamics

15.6 Morphology Development in Immiscible Blends

15.7 Morphology Development in Blown Film

15.8 Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites

15.9 Rheology of Polymer Blends

15.10 Conclusion


16. A Survey of Regulatory Aspects of Food Packaging

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Determining the Regulatory Status of Components of a Food Contact Material in the United States

16.3 Regulatory Report: FDA’s FCS Notification Program

16.4 Preservation of Foods by Irradiation

16.5 Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Plastics—US FDA View

16.6 EU Legislation on Food Contact Plastics

16.7 European Union Legislation for Recycled Plastics

16.8 Questions and Answers on Recycled Plastics in Food Contact Materials


Appendix: Model of the Sorption of Surrogate Contaminants into Plastic


Further Reading


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