Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics

Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics, 2nd Edition

Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics, 2nd Edition,Jean Berthier,ISBN9781455725502


William Andrew




235 X 191

Digital Microfluidics enables the testing of minute fluid samples without the need for pumps or pipes. The result of this is increasingly powerful ‘lab-on-chip’ devices with a lower manufacture cost. Applications range from microreactors (chemical engineering) to drug delivery and the testing of minute biological fluid samples

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Key Features

  • Authoritative reporting on the latest changes in microfluidic science, where microscopic liquid volumes are handled as ""microdrops"" and separately from ""nanodrops."
  • A methodical examination of how liquid microdrops behave in the complex geometries of modern miniaturized systems and interact with different morphological (micro-fabricated, textured) solid substrates
  • A thorough explanation of how capillary forces act on liquid interfaces in contact with micro-fabricated surfaces
  • Analysis of how droplets can be manipulated, handled, or transported using electric fields (electrowetting), acoustic actuation (surface acoustic waves), or by a carrier liquid (microflow)
  • A fresh perspective on the future of microfluidics


In this 2nd edition of Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics, Jean Berthier explores the fundamentals and applications of digital microfluidics, enabling engineers and scientists to design this important enabling technology into devices and harness the considerable potential of digital microfluidics in testing and data collection.

This book describes the most recent developments in digital microfluidics, with a specific focus on the computational, theoretical and experimental study of microdrops.

Unique in its emphasis on digital microfluidics and with diverse applications ranging from drug delivery to point-of-care diagnostic chips, organic synthesis to microreactors, Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics meets the needs of audiences across the fields of bioengineering and biotechnology, and electrical and chemical engineering.


Engineers, scientists, and developers in biotechnology, nanotechnology, MEMS, and pharmaceuticals. This book will also be an excellent text for a Masters level course in physics and biotechnology

Jean Berthier

Affiliations and Expertise

CEA/LETI (Laboratory of Electronics, Technology and Information), Grenoble, France

Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics, 2nd Edition



Chapter 1. Introduction: Digital Microfluidics in Today’s Microfluidics

1.1 The development of microfluidics

1.2 The advantages of digital and droplet microfluidics compared to conventional microflows

1.3 The respective place of digital and droplet microfluidics in today’s microfluidics

1.4 Summary


Chapter 2. Theory of Wetting

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Interfaces and surface tension

2.3 Laplace’s law and applications

2.4 Wetting—partial or total wetting

2.5 Contact angle—Young’s law

2.6 Work of adhesion, work of cohesion, and the Young–Dupré’s equation

2.7 Capillary force, force on a triple line

2.8 Measuring surface tension of liquids

2.9 Surface tension of solids

2.10 Minimization of the surface energy and minimal energy surface

2.11 Summary


Chapter 3. The Physics of Droplets

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The shape of microdrops

3.3 Drops on inhomogeneous surfaces

3.4 Drops moving by capillarity

3.5 Contact angle hysteresis

3.6 Droplet pinning

3.7 The effect of surfactants

3.8 Marangoni convection

3.9 Evaporation

3.10 Summary


Chapter 4. Electrowetting Theory

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Theoretical background

4.3 Lippmann–Young’s law and the electrocapillary equivalence

4.4 Saturation

4.5 Hysteresis

4.6 Working range of EWOD devices

4.7 Materials and substrates

4.8 Discussion: special substrates and new concepts

4.9 Summary


Chapter 5. EWOD Microsystems

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Open and covered EWOD microsystems

5.3 Droplet motion

5.4 Division of droplets

5.5 Droplet merging and mixing

5.6 Dilution

5.7 Magnetic beads in EWOD microsystems

5.8 Architecture of EWOD microsystems

5.9 Other EWOD microsystems

5.10 Summary


Chapter 6. Introduction to Liquid Dielectrophoresis

6.1 Introduction

6.2 DEP and the manipulation of particles

6.3 Liquid dielectrophoresis

6.4 Conclusions


Chapter 7. Electrowetting on Curved Surfaces

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Theory of curved electrowetting

7.3 Electrowetting on a wavy surface

7.4 Electrowetting on a rod

7.5 Electrowetting on a sphere

7.6 Conclusion


Chapter 8. Biological Applications of EWOD

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Biological liquids and physiological samples compatible with EWOD devices

8.3 Sample collection and analysis on an LOC platform

8.4 PCR on DMF systems

8.5 DNA repair microprocessor

8.6 Protein analysis coupled with mass spectrometry

8.7 Cell-on-a-chip microsystems: example of a cell concentrator

8.8 Summary


Chapter 9. Cell Manipulations in EWD

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Cells in EWOD devices

9.3 DMF for cell-based arrays

9.4 Virtual microwells

9.5 Hydrogel disks for DMF

9.6 Concentration of immune cells in blood

9.7 Conclusion



Chapter 10. Chemical Applications

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Nonaqueous solvents on EWOD chips

10.3 Chemical synthesis in droplets in EWOD-based systems

10.4 Conclusions and perspectives


Chapter 11. DMF for Optofluidic Microdevices

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Electrowetting screen display

11.3 Tunable lens

11.4 Electrowetting-actuated micromirrors

11.5 Polymer dispersed liquid crystals

11.6 Conclusion


Chapter 12. Droplet on Deformable Surfaces—Elasto-Capillarity and Electro-Elasto-Capillarity

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Neumann’s construction

12.3 Sessile droplet on a deformable substrate

12.4 Example of a cantilever

12.5 Elasto-capillarity and capillary origami

12.6 Electro-elasto-capillarity

12.7 Droplet at a liquid interface

12.8 Conclusion


Chapter 13. Acoustic Methods for Manipulating Droplets

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Digital microfluidics

13.3 Example 1: Acoustic mixing

13.4 Example 2: Acoustic droplet actuation

13.5 Applications

13.6 Summary



Chapter 14. Introduction to Droplet Microfluidics and Multiphase Microflows

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Two-phase flows: plugs in microchannels

14.3 Two-phase flows: flowing fluids separated by an interface

14.4 Droplets in two-phase flows

14.5 Summary


Chapter 15. Epilog

15.1 Increasing the domain of EWOD applicability

15.2 Interconnecting the different microfluidic toolboxes

15.3 Miniaturization: nano-EWOD

15.4 Other applications specific to DMF

15.5 Summary



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