Handbook of Thin Film Deposition

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition, 3rd Edition

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition, 3rd Edition,Krishna Seshan,ISBN9781437778731


William Andrew




229 X 152

Seshan’s handbook is a practical survey of the key technologies and new developments, aimed at the engineers and managers involved in all stages of the process: design, fabrication, quality assurance and applications

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Key Features

  • A practical survey of thin film technologies aimed at engineers and managers involved in all stages of the process: design, fabrication, quality assurance and applications
  • Covers core processes and applications in the semiconductor industry and new developments in the photovoltaic and optical thin film industries
  • The new edition takes covers the transition taking place in the semiconductor world from Al/SiO2 to copper interconnects with low-k dielectrics
  • Written by acknowledged industry experts from key companies in the semiconductor industry including Intel and IBM
  • Foreword by Gordon E. Moore, co-founder of Intel and formulator of the renowned ‘Moore’s Law’ relating to the technology development cycle in the semiconductor industry


The Handbook of Thin Film Deposition is a comprehensive reference focusing on thin film technologies and applications used in the semiconductor industry and the closely related areas of thin film deposition, thin film micro properties, photovoltaic solar energy applications, new materials for memory applications and methods for thin film optical processes.  In a major restructuring, this edition of the handbook lays the foundations with an up-to-date treatment of lithography, contamination and yield management, and reliability of thin films. The established physical and chemical deposition processes and technologies are then covered, the last section of the book being devoted to more recent technological developments such as microelectromechanical systems, photovoltaic applications, digital cameras, CCD arrays, and optical thin films.


New third edition of the popular book on deposition. Aimed at engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries

Krishna Seshan

Affiliations and Expertise

was formerly Assistant Professor in Materials Science at the University of Arizona and has extensive professional experience as a technologist with both the IBM and Intel Corporations.

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition, 3rd Edition





About the Editor

List of Contributors


Introduction to Chapter 1

1. A Perspective on Today’s Scaling Challenges and Possible Future Directions

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Review and Update of Generalized Scaling

1.3 Energy/Performance Considerations

1.4 Design Issues with Back-Gated Thin SOI CMOS

1.5 Carrier Confinement and Quantization Effects

1.6 Potential of Low-Temperature Operation

1.7 Conclusion



2. Scaling and Its Implications for the Integration and Design of Thin Film and Processes

2.1 Scaling: Basics, Causes, and Consequences

2.2 FEOL Scaling: State of the Art Transistors Described in Refs [51,52]

2.3 Silicon on Insulator and System on a Chip

2.4 Back End of the Line Scaling

2.5 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, See Ref. [65]

2.6 Miscellaneous Effects

2.7 Scaling and Reliability [38,40,63]

2.8 Economics of Scaling

2.9 Summary and Conclusions



Appendix 1 Basis for Scaling: Shannon’s Theorem

Appendix 2 Rent’s Rule and Consequences for Scaling

Appendix 3 Comparison of Changes and New Materials Going from Micro- to Nanotransistors

Appendix 4 Summary of Back-End Changes in Materials and Processing

Appendix 5 List of Abbreviations

3. Scaling—Its Effects on Heat Generation and Cooling of Devices. A “Thermal Moore’s” Law?

3.1 Purpose of This Section

3.2 Heat Generation Trends from Chips

3.3 The Chip-Cooling Problem and Its Importance

3.4 Definition of TDP, Thermal Resistance, TDD Versus SPECINT; and Their Use [4]

3.5 Where Is the Need for Cooling?

3.6 The Cooling Package Design

3.7 Role and Kind of Packages

3.8 The Inefficiency of Computing: The Dilemma

3.9 Kinds of Electronic Packages

3.10 In Conclusion: A Thermal Moore’s Law?



Summing Up

Thin Film Deposition, Equipment and Processing

4. Sputter Processing

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Energy and Kinematics of Sputtered Atoms

4.3 Energy Dependence of Sputtering

4.4 Plasmas and Sputtering Systems

4.5 Reactive Sputter Deposition

4.6 Sputter-Tool Design and Applications for Semiconductor Technology

4.7 Contamination and Metrology

4.8 Future Directions


5. Thin-Film Strain Engineering and Pattern Effects in Dielectrics CVD

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Basics of Strained Silicon Technology

5.3 Strain Metrology and Characterization Techniques

5.4 Stress in Amorphous Dielectric Thin Films

5.5 CVD Techniques Aimed at Generation of High Intrinsic Stress in Dielectric Thin Films

5.6 Pattern Effects in Dielectrics CVD

5.7 ALD of FEOL Dielectric Thin Films

5.8 Conclusions



6. Equipment and Manufacturability Issues in CVD Processes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Basic Principles of CVD

6.3 A Brief History of CVD Equipment

6.4 CVD Applications and Their Impact on Scaling

6.5 Contamination and Metrology

6.6 Summary of CVD Technologies

6.7 CVD Tool Selection for Research and Manufacturing

6.8 CVD Trends and Projection


7. CMP Method and Practice

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Fundamental Aspects of CMP

7.3 Silicon-Based Materials

7.4 Polishing of Metals

7.5 Future Directions


8. Process Technology for Copper Interconnects

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Device Scaling

8.3 Copper Interconnect Processing

8.4 Reliability

8.5 Conclusion


New Applications

9. Optical Thin Films

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Nature of Light

9.3 Surfaces and Films

9.4 Optical Materials

9.5 Metals and Dielectrics in Coatings

9.6 Admittance Transformer

9.7 Applications to Coatings

9.8 Coating Manufacture

9.9 Control

9.10 Production Tolerances

9.11 Optical Instruments. Modeling Their Optical Behavior

9.12 Future Possibilities


Further Reading


10. Thin Films in Photovoltaics

10.1 Introduction

10.2 PV Cell Structure and Operation

10.3 Manufacturing Processes

10.4 Cost and Performance Comparisons

10.5 Reliability Survey

10.6 Future Trends

10.7 Summary and Conclusions


11. Application of Thin Films in Semiconductor Memories

11.1 Introduction

11.2 DRAM

11.3 Flash Memory

11.4 Alternative Memories

11.5 Summary



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