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Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils
 
 

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils, 3rd Edition

 
Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils, 3rd Edition,ISBN9780323296441
 
 
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William Andrew

9780323296441

9780323296908

602

229 X 152

This updated third edition provides a broad audience of engineers, technicians, and production managers with an end-to-end understanding of roll-to-roll vacuum deposition systems, processes, and products, and includes a significant amount of new information on recent developments in barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest in atomic layer deposition.

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Key Features

  • Provides the know-how to maximize productivity of vacuum coating systems
  • Thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest on Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
  • Presents the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating
  • Enables engineers to specify systems more effectively and enhances dialogue between non-specialists and suppliers/engineers
  • Empowers those in rapidly expanding fields such as solar energy, display panels, and flexible electronics to unlock the potential of vacuum coating to transform their processes and products

Description

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs: Films and Foils, Third Edition, provides the latest information on vacuum deposition, the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll, thereby offering a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces such as glass.

This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging. Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology, including solar energy products that are moving from rigid panels onto cheaper and more versatile flexible substrates, flexible electronic circuit ‘boards’, and flexible displays.

In this third edition, all chapters are thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new information added, including newly developed barrier measurement techniques, improved in-vacuum monitoring technologies, and the latest developments in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

Readership

Professionals and practitioners in the vacuum coating / vacuum metalizing industry: Engineers and technicians (systems, quality, process, and maintenance), production managers, machinery designers and engineers and vendor sales and tech support staff.
Engineers and managers in the main industry sectors utilizing vacuum coating: food packaging, electronics, film production, pigment manufacturing, solar energy.
Research and Development staff

Vacuum Deposition onto Webs, Films and Foils, 3rd Edition

  • Introduction
  • Section 1
    • Chapter 1. What Is a Vacuum?
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 What Is a Gas?
      • 1.3 Pressure
      • 1.4 Partial Pressure
      • 1.5 Vapor Pressure
      • 1.6 Saturated Vapor Pressure
      • 1.7 Why Do We Need a Vacuum?
      • 1.8 Mean Free Path (mfp)
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 2. Products Using Vacuum Deposited Coatings
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Metalized Packaging Film
      • 2.3 Capacitor Films
      • 2.4 Optical Data Storage (ODS) Tapes
      • 2.5 Holographic Coatings
      • 2.6 Flake Pigments
      • 2.7 Barrier Coatings
      • 2.8 Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs)
      • 2.9 Energy Conservation Windows
      • 2.10 Solar Cells
      • 2.11 Solar Absorbers
      • 2.12 Flexible Circuits
      • 2.13 Optical Variable Devices (OVDs)
      • 2.14 Magnetic Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Tags
      • 2.15 Pyrotechnics
      • 2.16 Thin-Film Batteries
      • 2.17 Flexible Piezoelectric Films
      • 2.18 Coated Metal Substrates
      • 2.19 Medical Applications
      • 2.20 Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Films
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Pressure Measurement
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Bourdon Gauge
      • 3.3 Pirani and Thermocouple Gauges
      • 3.4 Capacitance Manometer
      • 3.5 Penning or Cold Cathode Ionization Gauge
      • 3.6 Ion or Hot-Cathode Ionization Gauge
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 4. Pumping
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Rotary or Roughing Pumps
      • 4.3 Roots Pumps or Blowers
      • 4.4 Diffusion Pumps
      • 4.5 Turbomolecular Pumps
      • 4.6 Getter or Sputter Ion Pump
      • 4.7 Cryopumps
      • 4.8 Cryopanels
      • 4.9 Pumping Strategy
      • 4.10 System Pumping
      • 4.11 Filtering
      • 4.12 Conclusions
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 5. Process Diagnostics and Coating Characteristics
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Reflectance (R), Transmittance (T), and Absorbtance (A) Measurements
      • 5.3 Optical Density
      • 5.4 Conductivity/Resistivity
      • 5.5 Online Resistance Monitoring
      • 5.6 Transparent Conducting Coatings
      • 5.7 Residual Gas Analyzers (RGA)
      • 5.8 Plasma Emission Monitors (PEM)
      • 5.9 Thickness
      • 5.10 Barrier
      • 5.11 Pinholes
      • 5.12 Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network Control Systems
      • 5.13 Chemometrics
      • 5.14 Surface Energy Measurements
      • 5.15 Emissivity
      • 5.16 Lambda Probe/Sensor/Gauge
      • 5.17 X-Ray Fluorescence Sensor
      • 5.18 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Leaks, Water Vapor, and Leak Testing
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Real Leaks
      • 6.3 Imaginary Leaks
      • 6.4 Outgassing and Water Vapor
      • 6.5 Leak Detection
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Mass Spectrometers, Helium Leak Detectors, and Residual Gas Analyzers
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Mass Spectrometers
      • 7.3 Residual Gas Analyzers
      • References
  • Section 2
    • Chapter 8. Substrates — Surface Quality, Cleaning — Adhesion, and Adhesion Testing
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Polymer Substrates
      • 8.3 Polymer Substrate Cleaning
      • 8.4 Polymer Surface Etching
      • 8.5 Higher Specification Polymer Substrates
      • 8.6 Paper
      • 8.7 Foams, Nonwovens, and Textiles
      • 8.8 Flexible Glass
      • 8.9 Cores
      • 8.10 Packaging
      • 8.11 Cost Benefit
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Adhesion and Adhesion Tests
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Adhesion Testing
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Surface Treatment of Webs and Foils
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Cleaning and Sealing
      • 10.3 Atmospheric Treatments
      • 10.4 Plasma Treatments
      • 10.5 System Design Considerations
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Polymer Coating Basic Information
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Polymer Coating Processes
      • 11.3 Radiation Cured Polymers — Acrylates
      • 11.4 Comments
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Nucleation, Coalescence, and Film Growth
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Thin Film — Thick Film
      • 12.3 Nucleation
      • 12.4 Coalescence
      • 12.5 Network and Percolation Threshold
      • 12.6 Holes
      • 12.7 Film Growth
      • 12.8 Energy
      • 12.9 Angular Deposition
      • 12.10 Electrical and Optical Performance
      • 12.11 Nodule Formation
      • 12.12 Crystal Structure
      • 12.13 Deposition Rules of Thumb
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Pattern Metallization
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Atmospheric Patterning Process
      • 13.3 In-Vacuum Pattering Processes
      • References
  • Section 3
    • Chapter 14. The DC Glow Discharge or Plasma
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 The Townsend Discharge
      • 14.3 The Breakdown Voltage
      • 14.4 The Transition Region
      • 14.5 The Normal Glow Discharge
      • 14.6 The Abnormal Glow Discharge
      • 14.7 The Arc
      • 14.8 Triodes and Magnetically Enhanced Plasmas
      • 14.9 Hollow Cathode Plasma Source
      • 14.10 Ion Sources
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Filaments and Electron Emission
      • 15.3 E-beam Control
      • 15.4 Power Supply
      • 15.5 Crucibles and Feed Systems
      • 15.6 System Design
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Thermal Evaporation
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Boats
      • 16.3 Wire Feeding
      • 16.4 Wire
      • 16.5 Spitting and Pinholes
      • 16.6 Thin Film Measurement
      • 16.7 Power Supplies and Control
      • 16.8 Coating Uniformity
      • 16.9 Coating Strategy
      • 16.10 Reactive Thermal Evaporation of Aluminum Oxide
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Radiant Heated, Induction Heated, and Other Sources
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Radiant-Heated Sources
      • 17.3 Radiation Shields
      • 17.4 Induction-Heated Sources
      • 17.5 Magnetic Levitation Aluminum Deposition Source
      • 17.6 Jet Vapor Sources
      • 17.7 Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Sources
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Chemical Vapor Deposition/Polymerization onto Webs
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Substrate Temperature
      • 18.3 Power
      • 18.4 Pressure
      • 18.5 Substrate Bias
      • 18.6 Fluorinated Plasma Polymerization
      • 18.7 Carbon–Fluorine Plasmas
      • 18.8 CVD of Barrier Coatings
      • 18.9 Atmospheric Plasma Deposition
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 The process
      • 19.3 Roll-to-Roll ALD
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Magnetron Sputtering Source Design and Operation
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 DC Planar Magnetron Sputtering Source
      • 20.3 Balanced and Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering
      • 20.4 Anodes
      • 20.5 Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering
      • 20.6 HiPIMS — High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
      • 20.7 Arcing and Control of Arcs
      • 20.8 Water Cooling
      • 20.9 End Effects
      • 20.10 Troubleshooting Magnetron Sputtering Sources
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Magnetron Sputtering Source Design Options
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Single or Dual Magnetron Sputtering Source
      • 21.3 Anode Included or Not?
      • 21.4 Balanced or Unbalanced Magnetic Fields
      • 21.5 Fixed or Variable Magnetic Performance
      • 21.6 Internal or External Fitting
      • 21.7 Direct or Indirect Cooling
      • 21.8 Single or Multiple Materials
      • 21.9 Linked or Isolated Cathodes
      • 21.10 Cost Implications
      • 21.11 Coating Uniformity
      • 21.12 Magnets
      • 21.13 Planar or Rotatable?
      • 21.14 Power Supply Choices
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Reactive Sputter Deposition — Setup and Control
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Target Preconditioning
      • 22.3 Control Options
      • 22.4 Hysteresis Loop
      • 22.5 Monitors
      • 22.6 Time Constants
      • 22.7 Pumping
      • 22.8 Gas Input
      • 22.9 Control of Arcs
      • 22.10 RF Sputtering
      • 22.11 Other Processes
      • References
  • Section 4
    • Chapter 23. Machine Specification and Build Issues — Risk Analysis — Process
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Risk Analysis — Process
      • 23.3 Mistake Proofing or Fool Proofing
      • 23.4 Project Management
      • 23.5 Safety
      • 23.6 Costs
      • 23.7 Machine Specification
      • 23.8 Maintenance and Spares
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Heat Load on the Webs/Foils
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Cooling Webs
      • 24.3 Heat Load Modeling
      • 24.4 Free Span Deposition
      • 24.5 Heated Substrates
      • 24.6 Potential Winding Problems
      • 24.7 Characteristic Winding Problems Associated with Too Much Heat
      • 24.8 Heating Webs
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Process Variables
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Drum Surface Roughness
      • 25.3 Polymer Surface Roughness
      • 25.4 Material Properties
      • 25.5 Deposition Rate and Winding Speed
      • 25.6 Water Content of Polymer
      • 25.7 Drum Temperature
      • 25.8 Single or Double Side Coating
      • 25.9 Source Type
      • 25.10 Heat Load Calculations
      • 25.11 Heat Transfer Coefficient
      • 25.12 Cooling Webs
      • 25.13 Electrostatic Pinning
      • References
    • Chapter 26. Mechanical Design
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Pumping
      • 26.3 Nonuniform Pumping
      • 26.4 Shields
      • References
    • Chapter 27. Winding Webs in Vacuum
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 System Design
      • 27.3 Tension Measurement — Load Cells
      • 27.4 Alignment and Spacing
      • 27.5 Materials
      • 27.6 Other Related Items and Materials
      • 27.7 Substrates — Thermally and Dimensionally Variable
      • 27.8 Safety
      • 27.9 Key Points on Winding
      • References
    • Chapter 28. Machine-Building Trends
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Metallizers
      • 28.3 Specialty Vacuum Coaters
      • References
    • Chapter 29. System Design
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 System Choices
      • 29.3 Batch versus Air-to-Air Processing
      • 29.4 Source Choices
      • 29.5 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 30. Hazards
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 Risk Assessment
      • 30.3 Mechanical
      • 30.4 Electrical
      • 30.5 Thermal
      • 30.6 Chemical
      • 30.7 Material Interactions
      • 30.8 Deposition Material and By-Products
      • 30.9 Hazardous Gases
      • 30.10 Cold Traps and Cryopumps
      • 30.11 Cleaning Hazards
      • 30.12 Ergonomic and Miscellaneous
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Troubleshooting
      • 31.1 Introduction
      • 31.2 Troubleshooting Vacuum
      • 31.3 Troubleshooting Process
      • 31.4 Troubleshooting Winding Problems
      • 31.5 Troubleshooting Adhesion
      • 31.6 Troubleshooting — Loss of Barrier
      • 31.7 Troubleshooting — Common Problems and Diagnostic Tools
      • 31.8 Thermal Evaporation by Resistance-Heated Boats
      • 31.9 Electron Beam Deposition
      • 31.10 Magnetron Sputtering
      • References
    • Chapter 32. Final Thoughts
  • Index
 
 
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