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Process Risk and Reliability Management
 
 

Process Risk and Reliability Management, 1st Edition

Operational Integrity Management

 
Process Risk and Reliability Management, 1st Edition,Ian Sutton,ISBN9781437778052
 
 
 

  

William Andrew

9781437778052 New edition

9781437778069

856

A practical guide and routemap to making the shift from Process Safety Management programs to Operational Integrity regimes that focus on increasing performance not just in safety, but also in environmental compliance, quality control and overall profitability.

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Key Features

  • Learn how to develop process safety, operational integrity and operational excellence programs
  • Go beyond traditional hazards analysis and risk management programs to explore a company's entire range of procedures, processes and mangement issues
  • Understand how to develop a culture of process safety and operational excellence that goes beyond simple rule complience

Description

In the last twenty years considerable progress has been made in process safety, particularly in regard to regulatory compliance.  Many companies are now looking to go beyond mere compliance; they are expanding their process safety management (PSM) programs to improve performance not just in safety, but also in environmental compliance, quaility control and overall profitability.  Techniques and principles are illustrated with numerous examples from chemical plants, refineries, transportation, pipelines and offshore oil and gas. 

This book helps executives, managers and technical professionals achieve not only their current PSM goals, but also to make the transition to a broader operational integrity strategy.  The book focuses on the energy and process industries- from refineries, to pipelines, chemical plants, transportation, alternative energy and offshore facilities.  The techniques described in the book can also be applied to a wide range of non-process industries.

The book is both thorough and practical.  It discusses theoretical principles in a wide variety of areas such as management of change, risk analysis and incident investigation, and then goes on to show how these principles work in practice, either in the design office or in an opperating facility.

Readership

Managers and technical staff in the oil and gas industry: refineries, pipelines, transportation, offshore facilities.
Managers and engineers in the process industries.

Ian Sutton

Ian Sutton is a chemical engineer with over thirty years of experience in the process industries. He has worked on the design and operation of chemical plants, offshore platforms, refineries, pipelines and mineral processing facilities. He has extensive experience in the development and implementation of process safety management and operational excellence programs.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal, Sutton Technical Books

View additional works by Ian Sutton

Process Risk and Reliability Management, 1st Edition

Chapter 1 - Operational Integrity Management
Introduction
Operational Integrity / Excellence
Process Safety Management
Major Events
Examples
Example 1 - Facility Design
Example 2 - Process Flow
Example 3 - Heat Exchanger
Example 4 - Risk Management Workflow
External Standard
Guidance
Risk Analysis Plan and Implement
Audit / Deltas
Success / Continuous Improvement
Fundamentals of PSM
Safe Limits
Set Point Values
Operating, Safe and Emergency Limits
Non-Prescriptive
Performance / Risk Based
Process - Not Occupational - Safety
Measurement Strategies
Involvement and Thoroughness
Holistic
Definition of Process Safety Management
Trends
Health, Safety & Environmental Programs
Environmental / Sustainability
Health
Safety
Quality Management
Statistical Process Control
ISO 9000 / 14001
Six Sigma
Risk
Hazards
Consequence / Likelihood
Bow-Tie Method
Presence of Persons
Single Contingency Events
Economies of Scale
Subjective Nature of Risk
Degree of Control
Familiarity with the Hazard
Direct Benefit
Personal Impact
Natural vs. Man-Made Risks
Recency of Events
Perception of the Consequence Term
Comprehension Time
Quantification of Risk
Frequency
Predicted Frequency
Probability
Likelihood and Failure Rate
Error / Statistical Significance Confidence
Failure / Fault
Independence and Randomness
Acceptable Risk
As Low as Reasonably Practical - ALARP
De Minimis Risk
Citations / "Case Law"
RAGAGEP
Indexing Methods
Risk Matrices
Consequence Matrix
Worker Safety
Public Safety and Health
Environmental Impact
Economic Loss
Frequency Matrix
Risk Matrix

Chapter 2 - Culture and Employee Involvement
Introduction
Elements of Culture
On-Going and Consistent
Words and Actions
External Evaluation
Learning from Incidents
Attention to Basics
Historical Development
1. Safety as a Value
2. Codes and Standards
3. Workers Compensation
4. Occupational Safety
5. Systems Analysis
6. Regulations
7. Management Systems
8. Behavior-Based Safety
9. Safety Culture
Warning Flags over Your Organization
Flag One - Unrealistic Stretch Goals
Production Creep
Production Records
Initiative Overload
Flag Two - Excessive Cost Reduction
Reduction of "Non-Essentials"
Reductions in Work Force
The "Big Crew Change"
Flattened Organizations
Aging Infrastructure
Out-Sourcing
Not Enough Time for Detailed Work
Project Cutbacks
Flag Three - Belief That "It Cannot Happen Here"
Lack of Direct Experience
Good Occupational Safety Performance
Lack of Imaginative Thinking
Failure to Learn from Near-Misses
Failure to Draw on Experience Elsewhere
Flag Four - Excessive Belief in Rule Compliance
Flag Five - Ineffective Information Flow
Critical Safety Information Is Buried, Lost or Diluted
Team Player Culture
Fear of Litigation
Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestitures
Flag Six - Ineffective Audit Process
Softened News to Senior Managers
Failure to Identify Root Causes
Inadequate Follow Up
Developing a Strong Culture
Mission Statement
Guiding Tenets
Detailed Program
Workforce and Stakeholder Involvement
Workforce Involvement
Safety Committees
Involvement in OIM Elements
Difficulties with Workforce Involvement
Inefficiencies
Unwillingness to Accept Change
Labor / Management Relations
Stakeholder Outreach
Contractors
Types of Contractor
Selection of a Contract Company
Contractor Training
Safety Meetings
Post-Contract Evaluation

Chapter 3 - Hazards Identification
Introduction
Hazards Management Process
Step 1. Identify the Hazards
Creative / Imaginative Techniques
Experience-Based
Logical / Rational
Step 2. Risk Rank
Step 3. Eliminate or Substitute the Hazard
Step 4. Remove the People
Step 5. Reduce the Consequence
Step 6. Reduce the Likelihood
Step 7. Install Safeguards
Organization of a Hazards Analysis
Charge / Scope Letter
Abandoned Equipment
Preparations
Logistics
Meeting Protocol
Location of the Meeting
Projection of Notes
Documentation Requirements
Security of the Information
Time Required
Kick-Off and Close-Out Meetings
HAZID / Major Hazards Screening
The Team
Leader / Facilitator
Process Knowledge
Stimulate Thinking
Creative Thinking
Casual Remarks
"If We Had Unlimited Money"
Generalizations
Team Management
Knowledge of Actual Incidents
Lawyer-Like Behavior
Persona
Personal Preparation
Engineering Standards
The Scribe
Operations / Maintenance Expert
Process and Instrument Experts
Specialists
Use of Sophisticated Language
The One-Minute Engineering Department
Results of the Analysis
Findings
Recommendations
Action Items
Risk Register
Finding Number and Date
Hazard
Source
Consequence(s) / Likelihood / Risk
Follow-Up
The Hazards Analysis Report
Completeness of the Notes
Cross-Reference
Anonymity
Findings Terminology
Completeness
"Non-Findings"
Appearance
Pictures
Report Distribution
Communication with the Public
Table of Contents
1. Disclaimer
2. Executive Summary
3. Objectives of the Analysis
4. Summary of Findings
5. Method Used
6. Risk Ranking
7. The Team
8. Regulations
9. Attachments
10. Meeting Notes
Development of the Report
Step 1. Notes Clean-Up
Step 2. Team Review
Step 3. Draft Report
Step 4. Client Review
Step 5. Final Report
Step 6. Risk Register
Legal Issues
Need to Act on Findings
Informal Notes
Internal Communication
Special Types of Hazards Analysis
Temporary and Transient Operations
Non-Process Applications
Decommissioning / Demolition
Revalidation Hazards Analyses
Benefits and Limitations of Hazard Analyses
Strengths
Providing Time to Think
Challenging Conventional Thinking
Cross-Discipline Communication
Education
Development of Technical Information
Economic Payoff
Limitations and Concerns
Imprecision in Defining Terms
Multiple Contingencies
Complexities and Subtle Interactions
Dynamic Conditions
Common Cause Events
Knowledge of Safe Operating Limits
Lack of Quantification
Team Quality
Personal Experience
Boredom
Confusion with Design Reviews
False Confidence
Equipment Orientation
Interfaces
Human Error
The Hazard and Operability Method (HAZOP)
Step 1. Node Selection and Purpose
Selection of Nodes
Pressure Breaks
Step 2. Process Guideword / Safe Limits
Step 3. Identification of Hazards and their Causes
Step 4. "Announcement" of the Hazard
Step 5. Consequences
Step 6. Identification of Safeguards
Step 7. Predicted Frequency of the Hazard
Step 8. Risk Rank
Step 9. Findings
Step 10. Next Process Guideword / Node
Checklists
Checklist Categories
Guidewords
Structure of a Checklist
The What-If Method
Node / Functional Area Review
Equipment and Function Review
Utility Systems
Batch Processes
Operating Procedures
Layout Reviews
What-If / Checklist Method
Failure Modes & Effects Analysis
TRIZ
Indexing Methods
Interface Hazards Analysis
Hazards Analysis on Projects
Common Hazards
Process Hazards
High Flow
Low / No Flow
Reverse Flow
Misdirected Flow
High Pressure
High Temperature
Blocked-In Pump
Polymerization
External Fire
Low Pressure
Low Temperature
High Level
Wrong Composition
Corrosion
Chemical Embrittlement
Static Electricity
Hazards of Utilities
Common Cause Failure
Process Contamination
Electrical Power Failure
Nitrogen
Reverse Flow to a Utility Header
Use of Hoses
Survivability of Utilities
Hazards of Water
Water in Hydrocarbon Tanks
Water in Very Hot Liquid
Static Electricity
Water and Firefighting
Hazards of Steam
Steaming Vessels during Turnaround
Reboiler Leak
Wet Steam
Hazards of Ice
Line Freezing
Hydrates
Hazards of Compressed Gas
Gas Cylinders
Pigging Incident
Hazards of Air
Flammable Mixture
Blowing a Line Clear
Hazards of External Events
Flooding
Lightning
Earthquakes
Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
Furnace Firing
Fired Heater Burnout
Multiple Uses of Equipment
Distributed Control Systems
Hazards of Piping, Valves and Hoses
Piping
Pipe Class Transition
Hydraulic Hammer
Pig Launchers and Receivers
Pressure in Relief Headers
Overload of Overhead Vacuum Lines
Underground Piping
Vents and Bleeders
Hoses
Hoses and Truck Pull-Away
Hose Run Over
Hose Failure
Backflow Preventor
Valves
Blocked-In Pressure Relief Valve
Vents and Bleeders
Fail-Safe Control Valves
Critical Control Valves in Manual
Shared Relief Valve
Block Valves below Relief Valves
SDV Bypass
Human Error
Errors of Intent
Errors of Action
Mistakes
Slips
Fixation
Error in an Emergency

Chapter 4 - Consequence and Likelihood Analysis
Introduction
Consequence Analysis
Safety
Health
Environmental
Economic
Effect of a Release
Fires
Flammable Range
Ignition Temperature / Energy
Spontaneous Combustion
Ignition Sources
Vacuum Trucks
Radiant Heat
Static Electricity
Lightning
Pyrophorics / Iron Sulfide
Flammability Hazard Ranking
Passive Fire Protection / Fireproofing
Explosions
Physical Explosions
Vapor Cloud Explosions
Deflagrations and Detonations
Blast Effects
BLEVEs
Dust Explosions
Toxic Gas Releases
Gas Release Modeling
Effect of Toxic Gases
Probit Equations
Short-Term Exposure Limits
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs)
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
Levels of Concern (EPA)
Acutely Toxic Concentration / Levels (New Jersey/Delaware)
Substance Hazards Index
Hazardous Chemicals
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Nitrogen (N2)
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Chlorine (Cl2)
Frequency Analysis
The Pareto Principle
Importance Ranking
Fault Tree Analysis
Gates
OR Gate
AND Gate
VOTING Gate
Events
Top Event
Intermediate Events
Base Events
House Event
Top-Down Development of a Fault Tree
1. Define the Top Event
2. Build the Tree
3. Identify the Cut Sets
4. Eliminate Repeat Sets
5. Eliminate Repeat Events in a Set
6. Eliminate Redundant Events
7. Quantify the Risk
Mathematics of an OR Gate
Mathematics of an AND Gate
Mathematics of a Voting Gate
Cut Set Quantification
8. Risk Rank
Event Contribution
Important Few
Unimportant Many
Power of the AND Gate
Importance Equalization
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Importance Ranking Using Cut Sets
Birnbaum Factor Method
Fussel-Vesely Method
Perturbation Method
Common Cause Events
Utility Failure
Instruments on Manual
Instrument Pluggage
Vibration
External Events
Maintenance Availability
Human Error / Untrained Personnel
Generic Fault Trees
Generic Safety Fault Tree
Generic Reliability Fault Tree
Discussion of the Fault Tree Method
Qualitative Fault Tree Analysis
Event Tree Analysis
Quantification of an Event Tree
Scope of Event
Combining Event Trees and Fault Trees
Short Sequence of Events
Many Events
Partial Success
Discrete Event Analysis
Non-Linearities and Complexities
Conveying Statistical Uncertainty
Monte Carlo Simulation
Random Number Generators
Seed Numbers
Speeding the Simulation
Markov Models
Importance Ranking
Top-Down / Bottom-Up Approach
Top-Down
Bottom-Up
Qualitative Insights
Limitations to Quantification
Mathematical Understanding
Value-Laden Assumptions
Lack of Exhaustivity
Human Behavior
Data Quality
Safeguards
Safeguard Level 1: Normal Operations
Safeguard Level 2: Procedural Safeguards
Safeguard Level 3: Safety Instrumented Systems
Safeguard Level 4: Mechanical Safeguards
Safeguard Level 5: Passive Safeguards
Safeguard Level 6: Emergency Response
Layer of Protection Analysis
The LOPA Process
Single Scenarios
IPLs
Specific
Independent
Dependable
Auditable
Human Response
Implementing LOPA
Team Makeup
Timing
Tools
Procedures and Inspections
Risk Criteria
PFDs
Failure Rate Data

Chapter 5 - Technical Information and Industry Standards
Introduction
Technical Information: Table of Contents
Process Description
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
The Safety Diamond
Engineering Information
Block Flow Diagrams
Process Flow Diagrams
Piping & Instrument Diagrams
Materials of Construction Table
Industry Standards
Types of Standard
Regulations
Codes and Industry Standards
Development of a Standard
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
American Petroleum Institute
American Chemistry Council / Responsible Care(TM)
Center for Chemical Process Safety
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Company Standards
Industry Information
Open Literature
RAGAGEP

Chapter 6 - Asset Integrity
Introduction
Siting and Layout
Blocks and Roads
Equipment Layout and Spacing
Pumps
Utilities
Piping and Valves
Drainage
Buildings
Area Classification
Electrical Equipment
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
Fireproofing
Pressure Vessels
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
Effect of Temperature
Reflux Vessels
Small Pipe Connections and Isolation
Pressure Tests
Tightness Tests
Strength Tests
Test Media
Testing Procedures
Storage Tanks
Operation
Vapor Recovery Systems
Pumps
Protective Instrumentation
Pump Casing
Seals and Packing
Minimum Flow Bypass
Pump Isolation
Compressors
Liquid Knockout on the Compressor Suction
Relief Valves
Compressor Isolation
Shutdown and Alarm Systems
Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Air-Cooled Exchangers
Cooling Towers
Air Preheaters
Boilers
Piping and Valves
Materials
Insulation
Gaskets
Threaded Piping
Thermal Expansion
Identification and Labeling of Pipes
Valves
Trapped Liquids
Plugs
Valve Seat Material
Self-Closing Valves
Check Valves
Emergency Isolation Valves
Testing and Inspection
Pressure Relief Devices
Pressure Safety Relief Valves
Shared Relief Valves
Venting from Relief Valves
Block Valves below Relief Valves
Testing and Inspection
Thermal Relief Valves
Rupture Disks
Hatches / Doors
Flame Arrestors
Thermal Flame Arrestors
Water Seal-Type Flame Arrestors
Velocity-Type Flame Arrestors
Detonation Arrestors
Flares
Instrumentation and Control Systems
Alarms
Alarm Management
Interlocks and Trips
Safety Instrumented Systems
Design Issues
Fire Protection
Quantitative Analysis
Testing and Inspection
Internal Combustion Engines
Starter Systems
Intake, Exhaust and Fuel Systems
Buildings
Process Buildings
Temporary Buildings
Control Buildings
Control Building Laboratories
Warehouses
Inside Storage
Inspection Programs
Inspection Frequency
Inspection Records
Quality Control
Risk-Based Inspection
Analyze Risk
Determine Costs
Allocate Resources

Chapter 7 - Reliability, Availability and Maintainability
Introduction
Benefits of a RAM Program
Reliability and Safety
Definitions
Reliability
Availability
Effectiveness
Maintainability
Failure Modes
Equipment Description
Primary, Secondary and Command Failures
Catastrophic, Degraded and Incipient Failures
Real Failures / Necessary Replacements
Failure Rates
Constant / Exponential Distribution
Lognormal Distribution
Bathtub Curve
Early Failures
Constant Failure Rate
Wear-Out Failures
Reliability Block Diagrams
Active / Standby Redundancy
Quantification of Block Diagrams
Failure Rate Data
Conditional Probability / Bayes' Theorem
Evaluation of Tests
Sequential Observations
Combining Data Sources

Chapter 8 - Operations, Maintenance and Safety
Introduction
Safe Work Practices
Housekeeping
Minimizing Contact with Air
Tank Filling and Emptying
Catching Samples
Flame Propagation through Drains
Spills and Overflows
Hot Taps
Unplugging a Line
NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)
Machinery Safety
Machine Guards
Lifting
Stairways and Ladders
Stairways and Railings
Fixed Ladders
Behavior Based Safety
Observed Hazard Card
Five by Five Policy
Lone Worker Policy
Energy Control Procedures
Removal of the Hazard
Positive Isolation
Temporary Plugs
Isolation Techniques
Level 1 - Closed Valve
Level 2 - Closed Valve with Open Bleeder
Level 3 - Double Block and Bleed
Level 4 - Block and Bleed with Line Break
Level 5 - Block, Bleed and Spectacle Blind
Level 6 - Double Block and Bleed with Blind
Level 7 - Double Block and Bleed with Line Break
Electrical Isolation
First Break Policy
Lockout / Tagout
Group Lockout
Car Seals
Padlocks
Tags
Administrative Controls
Work Permits
General Work Permits
Issuance of Permits
Changes in Conditions
Multiple Work Permits
Hot Work Permits
Confined Space Entry
Preparation
Drain Liquids
Purge and Ventilate
Steam
Air
Test
The Entry Permit
Personnel
Entrant
Supervisor
Manway Attendant
Gas Tester
Maintenance
Repair
Condition-Based Maintenance
Scheduled Maintenance
Reliability Centered Maintenance
Tie-Ins
Maintenance Task Organization
Step 1 - Plan the Work
Step 2 - Conduct a Job Hazards Analysis
Step 3 - Issue a Work Permit
Step 4 - Shutdown and Isolate Equipment
Step 5 - Perform the Work
Step 6 - Close Out the Work
Signs
Prohibition
Mandatory Action
Warning
Safe Condition
Fire Safety
Color Coding For Exposed Piping
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Head Protection
Hand Protection
Clothing
Fire Resistant Clothing
Impervious Clothing
Foot Protection
Eye Protection
Respiratory Protection
Air-Purifying Respirators
Supplied Air Respirators
Chemical Canister Rebreathers
Portable Gas Detectors
Office Safety
Outside Operations
Outside Storage
Coal and Coke Storage
Drum Storage
Drainage
Fire Protection and Prevention
Cylinders
Loading Racks
Drum Storage
Emergency Showers and Eyewashes
Components of an Emergency Shower
Freeze Protection
Heat Protection
Visibility and Accessibility
Alarms
Inspection
Commissioning and Start-Up
Construction Complete
Commissioning
Operational Readiness Review
Types of Review
Review Not Required
Small Projects / Engineering Changes
Medium Size Projects
Large Projects
Restart Reviews
Organizational Responsibility
Time Required
Team Structure
Using the Elements of OIM
Knowledge Management
Operating Procedures
Asset Integrity / Reliability
Training / Performance

Chapter 9 - Operating Procedures
Introduction
Definition of Operating Procedures
Operations
Written Instructions
Design or Operating Intent
Definition of Maintenance Procedures
Terminology
Engineering the Solution
Quick Assessment of Operating Procedures
The Users
Experienced Technicians
Less Experienced Technicians
Engineering / Management
DCS / SCADA Programmers
Auditors, Regulators and Inspectors
Translators
Elements of OIM
Workforce Involvement
Knowledge Management
Hazard Identification and Risk Management
Management of Change
Operational Readiness
Emergency Management
Information Manual
Types of Operating Procedure
Steady-State Operating Procedures
Types of Steady-State Procedure
Shift Change
Start-Up Procedures
Shutdown Procedures
Levels of Shutdown
Stand-By
Unit Shutdown
Process Shutdown
Emergency Shutdown
Turnaround
Trouble Shooting Procedures
Elements of Troubleshooting Procedures
Guidance - Not Instructions
Structure of Troubleshooting Procedures
Temporary Operating Procedures
Batch Procedures
Standard Operating Procedures
Maintenance Procedures
Job Safe Practices
The Operating Manual
Software Analogy
Modular Design
Connecting the Modules
If / Then / Else Instructions
Modular Operating Manual
Data Base Structure
Top-Down Development
Prototyping
Limitations of Modularity
Design of an Operating Manual
Adding and Removing Modules
Numbering the Modules
Module Design
The Title Block
Procedure Name
Module Number
Purpose of the Procedure
Revision Number
Date of Revision
Covered Persons
Company / Facility
Safe Upper and Lower Limits
Special Safety Items
Equipment Information
Training
The Operating Task Instructions
Step Number Column
Person
Action
Discussion / Illustration
The Authorization Block
Written By
Approval - Superintendent
Approval - Manager
Authorization Sheet
Overall Module
Links to Other Procedures and Manuals
Links to Technical Information
Training
Two-Page Modules
Content Development
Level of Detail
Level 1 - Overview / Checklists
Level 2 - Equipment Description
Level 3 - Valve Detail
Sources of Information
Existing Procedures
Technician Interviews
Engineering Information
Vendor Manuals
Process Hazards Analyses
The Procedures-Writing Team
Writing and Publishing
Project Organization
1. Define the Scope of Work
Physical Area / Equipment Covered
Users
Types of Procedure
Job Task Analysis
Design of the Manual
Regulations / Standards
Writer's Guide
2. Create the Team
Steering Committee
Project Manager
Project Lead
Technicians
Technology Expert
Interviewer-Writers
Publisher / Webmaster
3. Develop a Detailed Plan
Schedule and Progress Metric
Budget
Prepare the SOPs
4. Collect Information
Operator Interviews
Existing Procedures / Vendor Manuals
Logbooks
5. Write the Procedures
Draft Releases
Plan to Throw One Away - You Will Anyway
6. Review and Sign
7. Publish
Potential Difficulties
Poorly Defined Goals
Too Many People
Extended Review Cycle
Lack of Signatures
Maintaining the Procedures
Procedures Modification Process
Organization
Writing Guidelines
Vigorous Writing
Minimalist Writing
Short, Pithy Instructions
Avoid Repetition of Instructions
Omit Needless Words
Omit Adverbs
Short and Old Words
Avoid Wordy Phrases and Padded Syllables
Writing Style
Imperative Tense
Active Voice
Reading Grade Level
List Instructions Singly
Implied Instructions
Bulleted Lists
Conditional Instructions
Positive / Negative Instructions
Vocabulary
Identification of Equipment
Consistency
Should / Would / Could
The Word "You"
The Word "This"
Tautologies
Arabic Numerals
Adverbs and Adjectives
Articles
Humor
Spelling
Latinate Abbreviations
Apostrophes
Ambiguous Words
Cobblestone Writing
Repetition of Messages
Danger, Warning, Caution, Note
Proofreader Marks
Illustrations
Photographs
P&IDs
Iconic Flow Diagrams
Maps / Plot Plans
Publishing
Color
White Space
Fonts
Paragraph Formatting
Emphasis Techniques
Heading
Page Numbering
Single-Sided versus Double-Sided Printing
Indexing
Glossary
The Binder
Multiple Languages

Chapter 10 - Training and Competence 
Introduction
Elements of a Training Program
Orientation
Initial / Basic Training
Site Training
Abnormal Situation Management
Refresher Training
Procedures and Training
Management of a Training Program
Training Matrix
Budget Allocation
Measuring Progress
Economics of Training
Process Simulators and Emulators
Testing and Certification

Chapter 11 - Emergency Management and Security
Introduction
Human Response
Human Error Rate
Fixation
Heroism and Buddy Loyalty
Trouble Shooting
Levels of Emergency
Cause of Emergency
Emergency Operations
Local Emergency Response
General Emergency Response
Recovery Operations
Investigation and Follow Up
Emergency Planning
Organization and Personnel
Emergency Response Manual
Emergency Procedures
Emergency Response Training
Communications
Fire and Gas Detection
Fire Detection
Fire Eyes / Flame Detectors
Smoke Detectors
Heat Detectors
Fusible Links
Low Oxygen Detectors
Combustible Gas Detectors
Manual Call Points
Toxic Gas Releases
Fire Fighting
Single Fire Concept
Deluge Systems
Fire Zones
Fire Water
Water Capacity and Rates
Sources of Fire Water
Testing
Fire Water Pumps and Drivers
Jockey Pumps
Main Fire Pumps
Fixed Water Spray Systems
Automatic Sprinkler Systems
Fire Water Monitors
Fire Water Distribution System
Materials of Construction
Layout
Valves
Hydrants
Other Fire Fighting Media
Halon
Steam
Foam Systems
Carbon Dioxide Systems
Heavy Equipment
Portable Fire Extinguishers
Location
Types
Water Extinguishers
Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
Dry Chemical Extinguishers
Personnel Protective Equipment
Bunker Gear / Turnout Clothing
Proximity Suits
Breathing Apparatus
Security
Members of the Public
Vandalism
Theft
Activists
Sabotage
Terrorism
Visible Security
Population Density
High Profile
Chemicals
Security Vulnerability Analyses
Rings of Protection
Improving Security
Culture
Inherent Safety
Access Security
Personnel Screening
Equipment Modifications
Response to a Threatening Call

Chapter 12 - Incident Investigation and Root Cause Analysis
Introduction
Management Level
Line Supervision
Facility Management
Executive Management
Industry Regulations and Standards
Incident Investigation and Analysis Philosophy
Trust and Candor
Listen to the Facts
Cause and Effect
Technical Expertise
Root Cause Analysis
Project Management
Blame and Fault-Finding
Management Trust
Early Reporting of Bad News
Management Pressure
No Good Deed Goes Unpunished
Communications
Definitions
Incident
Accident
Near Miss / Hit
Potential Incident
High Potential Incident
Six-Step Investigation and Analysis Process
Step 1 - Initial Investigation
Step 2 - Evaluation and Team Formation
Step 3 - Information Gathering
Step 4 - Timeline Development
Step 5 - Root Cause Analysis
Step 6 - Report and Recommendations
1. Initial Investigation
The "Go Team"
Drug and Alcohol Testing
Incident Report Form
First Management Report
2. Evaluation and Team Formation
Evaluation
Team Formation
Outside Investigators
Corporate Support
Team Members
Charter / Terms of Reference
Team Member Qualifications
3. Information Gathering
Interviews
Interview Guidelines
Regulatory / Legal Interviews
Witness Interviews
Interviewer Attributes
Documentation
Engineering Information
Operating Information
Vendor Data
Field Information
Damage Assessment
Photographs and DVDs
Closed Circuit Television
Instrument Records
Testing / Lab Analysis
4. Timeline Development
Timeline Steps
Timeline Construction
Conditions
Multiple Timelines
Timeline Table
Background Information
5. Root Cause Analysis
Levels of Root Cause
Types of Root Cause Analysis
Argument by Analogy: Story Telling
Safeguards
Categorization
System Analysis
Why Trees
Fault Tree Analysis
Linkage of Fault Trees to the Timeline
Common Cause Events
6. Report and Recommendations
Levels of Recommendation
Report Structure
Issuing the Report
Information Security and Chain of Custody
Record Retention
Removing Evidence
File Systems
Incident / Risk Register
Feedback
Incident Data Bases
National Response Center (NRC)
Accidental Release Information Program (ARIP) Database
CFOI (Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries)
Major Accident Reporting System (MARS)
Marsh & McLennan Reviews
Annual Loss Prevention Symposia
Process Safety Beacon
Government Agencies

Chapter 13 - Management of Change
Introduction
Benefits of Management of Change
Increased Production, Productivity and Quality
Maintenance Expense and Safety
Environmental Performance
Personal Reputation
Definition of MOC
Deviation beyond Limits
Impact on other Process Safety Elements
Critical Changes
In-Kind / Not-In-Kind Change
Same Specification
Same Service and Materials of Construction
Same Storage and Handling Process
Procedural Replacement
Process Chemistry
Instrumentation and Control Systems
Types of Change
Initiated Equipment Change
Large and Small Changes
Turnarounds
Field Change
Non-Initiated Equipment Change
Overt Change
Covert Change
Temporary Changes
Emergency Changes
Organizational Change
Reorganization
Management by Contractors
Informal Aspects of MOC
The Management of Change Process
Section A - Initiator Request
Initiator
Sponsor
Request Process
Management of Change Form - Section A
Section B - First Review
In-Kind / Not-In-Kind Change
Selecting the First Reviewers
Management of Change Form - Section B
Section C - Detailed Evaluation
Review Process
MOC Coordinator
Review Team
Builders
Project Team
Software
Reviewers
Qualifications
Recommendations
Management of Change Form - Section C
Section D - Formal Approval
Management of Change Committee
Process Hazards Analysis
Variance Procedures
Section E - New Limits / Process Safety Update
Section F - Notification
Section G - Implementation
Section H - Follow-Up

Chapter 14 - Audits and Assessments
Introduction
Formal Audits
Reasons for Audits
Accident Follow-Up
Regulatory / Standards Compliance
Voluntary Check
Insurance and Business Security
Audit Standards
Regulations
Industry Standards
Internal Standards
Audit Personnel
Outside Auditors
Internal Auditors
Team Composition
Auditor Attributes
Interview Skills
Technical Knowledge
Writing Skills
Demeanor
The Host Company
First Impressions
Employees
Planning the Audit
Goals
Determine the Audit Standard
Scope
Budget
Schedule
One-Point Contact
Pre-Audit Activities
Audit Forms
Conducting the Audit
Auditor Preparation
Kick Off Meeting
Plant Tour
Information Collection
Interviews
On-Site Inspection
Close-Out Meeting
Report
Letter of Certification
Audit Verification
Findings
Follow Up
Unannounced Audits
Lagging and Leading Indicators
Lagging Indicators
Leading Indicators
Limitations
Quality of Reporting
Management Elements
Reviews and Expert Assessments
Review Issues
Management Systems Effectiveness
Workforce Involvement
Real World Usefulness
"Learned to Live with It" Problems
Lessons Learned
Reviewer Attributes
Management Elements Assessment
Level 1 - Risk Management
Level 2 - Management Element Spreadsheet
Level 3 - Detailed Questions
Scoring Template
Guidance
Benefits of the Elements Assessment Approach
Independent of Events
Handling Abstraction
Smoothing of Results
Objectivity
Chapter 15 - Process Safety Management Compliance
Introduction
Regulations, Standards and Guidance
Rules and Regulations
Rule-Based Approach
Goal-Driven Approach
Codes and Standards
Guidance
Analysis
United States Federal Regulations
The Regulatory Process
Code of Federal Regulations
General Duty Clauses
The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
OSHA Inspections
Variances
Enforcement
The Entry Process
Reasons for Entry
Fatality / Catastrophe
Programmed Inspections
Complaints
Citations
Willful
Serious
Other-than-Serious
Repeat and Failure-to-Abate
OSHA Standards
Part 29
Subparts of Part 29
Sections of Subparts
Interpretations and Guidance
The EPA Risk Management Program - 40 CFR 68
Tiering / Program Levels
Covered Chemicals
Formal Management System
Worst Case Release
Emergency Plan
Five-Year Accident History
State Regulations
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act
Delaware/Nevada
Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board
Minerals Management Service (MMS)
The Safety Case Regime
Elements of a Safety Case
Duty-Holder Responsibility
Responsibility of the Auditor / Assessor
Risk Management System
Management Systems
Living Document
Structure of a Safety Case
1. Facility Description
2. Safety Management System
3. Formal Safety Assessment
Preparation and Implementation
Assessment
Performance Measurement
International Agencies
The OSHA PSM Standard
Covered Processes
Other Standards
Audit Guidelines
Elements of PSM
1. Employee Participation
Written Plan of Action
Consultation
Access to Information
2. Process Safety Information
3. Process Hazards Analysis
Initial Hazard Analysis
Methodology
Issues to Address
Team
Revalidation
4. Operating Procedures
Written Down
Initial Start-Up
Temporary and Emergency Operations
Certification
5. Training
6. Contractors
Application
Employer Responsibilities
7. Prestartup Safety Review (PSSR)
Process Safety Information
Construction and Equipment
Procedures
New / Modified Facilities
8. Mechanical Integrity
Application
Written Procedures
Training
Inspection and Testing
Deficiencies
Quality Assurance
9. Hot Work
10. Management of Change
Employer Responsibility
Written Down
Replacement In-Kind
Factors that Affect Change
Training and Participation / Accountability
Information Base
Operating Procedures
Making the Change
Training / PSI / Operating Procedures
11. Incident Investigation
Investigation
Timing
Team
Report
Follow Up
Participation
12. Emergency Planning and Response
13. Compliance Audits
Certification
Technical Qualifications
Report
Response
Retention of Reports
14. Trade Secrets
Chapter 16 - Managing a Risk and Reliability Program
Introduction
Clients / Customers
Senior Management
Facility Managers
Project Managers and Design Engineers
Regulators / Auditors
Program Organization
Step 1 - Determine the Objectives
Step 2 - Set Up an Organization
Management
Steering Committee
Coordinator
Sub-Committees
Operating Binders
Step 3 - Create the Metrics and Baseline
Step 4 - Develop a Plan
Goals
Resources Needed
Develop a Schedule
Reviews and Signatures
Step 5 - Implement the Plan
Step 6 - Audit / Improve
Risk Management on Projects
Phase I - Concept Selection
Phase II - Preliminary Engineering
Philosophies
Hazards Analysis
Phase III - Detailed Engineering
Phase IV - Fabrication and Construction
Phase V - Commissioning and Start-Up
The Risk Management Professional
Education and Certification
Technical Knowledge
Personal Attributes
Holistic
Eclectic
Numerate
Communication Skills
Experience
Knowledge of Past Events
"Who You Know"
The Resume / CV
Consultants
True Expertise
The Consultant as Outsider
Consultants - Not Doers
Quick Study
Role of the Client
Communication
Presentations
Meetings
Report Writing
Draft Report
Language of the Report
Completeness / Thoroughness
Personal Information
Anecdotes
Writing Style
Non-Emotional Language
Minimalist Writing - Make Every Word Tell
Omit Needless Words
Short, Simple Words
Minimize "Soft" Materials
Eschew Obfuscation
Develop a Theme
Modifiers
No Typos
Date Format
Active/Passive Voice
He / She
You / I
Choice of Words
Use of Humor
Copyright
Responsible Document Creation
Litigation Support
Types of Litigation
The Discovery Process
Depositions
Witnesses to Fact
The Expert Witness
Acceptance by the Court
Prior Testimony
Timeline / Story Line
The Report
Attributes of an Expert Witness
To Thine Own Self Be True
Be Prepared
Be a True Expert
Be a Teacher
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