Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries

Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries, 3rd Edition

Application of HAZOP, PHA, What-IF and SVA Reviews

Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries, 3rd Edition,Dennis P. Nolan,ISBN9781437735185


William Andrew

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Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries: Application of HAZOP, PHA, What-IF and SVA Reviews, Third Edition, describes the responsibilities, methods, and documentation required for the performance of qualitative hazard analysis for industrial and commercial processes, specifically Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), What-If, and Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) reviews. It is a guideline and reference book that explains how the methodology and procedures used for these reviews can be adopted and applied for Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA) to avoid the major risks that have the potential to severely impact the industry. Organized into 13 chapters, the book relies mainly on practices commonly observed in the petroleum, chemical, and petrochemical industries. It begins with an overview of PHA, What-If, and HAZOP reviews, including their limitations and advantages. It then moves into a discussion of safety reviews that are increasingly used in the process industries: Bow-Tie Analysis (BTA), Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA), and Safety Integrity Level (SIL). The book looks at review team members, their qualifications and responsibilities, and senior management support and responsibilities for the safety and security of a facility. The reader is also introduced to review procedures and worksheets, review applications, preparation and distribution of the study report, and handling and resolution of recommendations. The book concludes by explaining the estimation of review scheduling and cost. This book will serve as a reminder to members of PHA, What-If, and HAZOP review teams about their duties and responsibilities.

Dennis P. Nolan

Dr. Dennis P. Nolan has had a long career devoted to risk engineering, fire protection engineering, loss prevention engineering and systems safety engineering. He holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Business Administration from Berne University, Master of Science degree in Systems Management from Florida Institute of Technology and a Bachelor of Science Degree in Fire Protection Engineering from the University of Maryland. He is a U.S. registered professional engineer in fire protection engineering in the state of California. He is currently on the Executive Management staff of Saudi Aramco, located in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, as a Loss Prevention Consultant/Chief Fire Prevention Engineer. He covers some of the largest oil and gas facilities in the world. The magnitude of the risks, worldwide sensitivity, and foreign location make this one the highly critical fire risk operations in the world. He has also been associated with Boeing, Lockheed, Marathon Oil Company, and Occidental Petroleum Corporation in various fire protection engineering, risk analysis, and safety roles in several locations in the United States and overseas. As part of his career, he has examined oil production, refining, and marketing facilities under severe conditions and in various unique worldwide locations, including Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Russia, and North and South America. His activity in the aerospace field has included engineering support for the NASA Space Shuttle launch facilities at Kennedy Space Center (and for those undertaken at Vandenburg Air Force Base, California) and “classified” national defense systems. Dr. Nolan has received numerous safety awards and is a member of the American Society of Safety Engineers, He is the author of many technical papers and professional articles in various international fire safety publications. He has written four other books, Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles for Oil, Gas, Chemical and Related Facilities (1st, 2nd, and 3rd Editions), Fire Fighting Pumping Systems at Industrial Facilities (1st & 2nd Editions), Encyclopedia of Fire Protection (1st & 2nd Editions), and Loss Prevention and Safety Control Terms and Definitions. Dr. Nolan has also been listed for many years in “Who’s Who in California”, Who’s Who in the West”, Who’s Who in the World” and Who’s Who in Science and Engineering” publications. He was also listed in “Outstanding Individuals of the 20th Century” (2001) and “Living Legends” (2004), published by the International Biographical Center, Cambridge, England. BS Fire Protection Eng, MS Systems Management, PhD Bus. Admin., Prof. Eng in Fire Protection Eng.; 40+ years of oil/gas fire/safety experience. Recent work supporting OE adoption for current employer. Author of 5 other related books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Loss Prevention Manager and Chief Fire Prevention Engineer, Saudi Aramco

View additional works by Dennis P. Nolan

Safety and Security Review for the Process Industries, 3rd Edition



About the Author

1. Purpose

2. Scope

3. Objective and Description of PHA, What-If, and HAZOP Reviews

    1. Definition

    2. Objectives

    3. Origins of Qualitative Safety Reviews

    4. Limitations or Disadvantages

         4.1 Limitations

         4.2 Advantages

4. Adaptation to Security Vulnerability Analysis

    1. Comparison to Process Hazard Analysis Reviews

    2. SVA Overall Procedure

    3. Major Differences between Security Vulnerability Analyses and Process Hazard Analyses

    4. Threat Analysis Necessity

5. Specialized Reviews-Bow-Tie Analysis, Layers of Protection Analysis, and Safety Integrity Levels

    1. Bow-Tie Analysis

    2. Layers of Protection Analysis

    3. SIL Analysis

6. Team Members, Qualifications, and Responsibilities

    1. Team Members

         1.1 Minimum team members

         1.2 Supplemental members

    2. Team Member Qualifications

         2.1 Team leader

         2.2 Scribe

         2.3 Project manager (project, process, manufacturing, or facility engineer)

         2.4 Operations representative

         2.5 Loss prevention or safety representative

         2.6 Security officer or representative (for SVAs)

         2.7 Supplemental team member

    3. Team Responsibilities

         3.1 Team leader

         3.2 Scribe

         3.3 Project manager (project, process, manufacturing, or facility engineer)

         3.4 Operations representative

         3.5 Loss prevention or safety representative

         3.6 Security officer or representative (for SVAs)

         3.7 Supplemental team member(s)

    4. Team Dynamics

         4.1 Leadership influences

         4.2 Lines of communication

         4.3 Efficiency factors

    5. Use of Consultants

         5.1 Qualifications

         5.2 Advantages

         5.3 Disadvantages

    6. Record of Employee Experience

7. Management Support and Responsibilities

8. Review Applications for Typical Facilities

    1. PHA Review Applications

    2. What-If Review Applications

    3. HAZOP Review Applications

    4. SVA Review Applications

    5. Application During Changes at a Facility

9. Review Procedures

    1. Review Preparation and Setup

         1.1 Location

         1.2 Administrative support

         1.3 Facility documentation

         1.4 PHA consequence and likelihood data resources

         1.5 SVA Threat Analysis data resources

         1.6 Computer hardware and software support

         1.7 Node identification

         1.8 SVA area identification

    2. Review Methodology

    3. Review Procedure

         3.1 Review steps

    4. Credible Scenarios and Causes

    5. Possible Causes

    6. Safeguards

    7. Likelihood (Probabilities)

    8. Consequences

    9. Notetaking

    10. Helpful Review Suggestions

    11. Helpful Technical Suggestions

         11.1 General

         11.2 HAZOP suggestions

         11.3 General PHA, What-If, HAZOP, and SVA review suggestions

    12. Assumptions for the Review Process

    13. Providing Recommendations

         13.1 Examples of inadequate versus adequate recommendations

         13.2 How to rank recommendations

    14. Quality Audit

10. Review Worksheets

    1. PHA Worksheet

    2. What-If Worksheet

    3. HAZOP Worksheet

    4. SVA Worksheets

    5. Worksheet Identification

11. Report Preparation and Distribution

    1. Report Stages and Purpose

    2. Report Preparation and Organization

    3. Report Distribution

         3.1 Preliminary reports

         3.2 Draft reports

         3.3 Final reports

         3.4 Addendum reports

12. Handling and Resolution of Recommendations

    1. Ranking and Classifying Recommendations

         1.1 Recommendation resolution summary

    2. Objectives of a Safe and Secure Facility Design

    3. Recommendation Action Plans

    4. Risk Assessment Studies

    5. Risk Acceptance Criteria

    6. Cost-Benefit Analysis

13. Schedule and Cost Estimates

    1. Schedule

         1.1 Formula to estimate review scheduling

         1.2 Time bar scheduling and integration with project schedule

    2. Cost Estimate

    3. Estimating Formula

         3.1 Cost of preparation

         3.2 Cost of review sessions

         3.3 Cost of report preparations and review

         3.4 Documentation costs

         3.5 Hardware, software, and incidental costs

    4. Example Calculation for Schedule and Cost

Appendix A Typical Company Policy Statement

Appendix B Quality Assurance Audit Checklist

Appendix C Probability, Severity, Risk, and Risk-Acceptance Tables

Appendix D PHA and What-If Checklist Questions

Appendix E HAZOP Parameters, Deviations, and Possible Causes

List of Acronyms





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