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Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook
 
 

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edition

Processing, Materials, and Applications

 
Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edition,Myer Kutz,ISBN9780323390408
 
 
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M Kutz   

William Andrew

9780323390408

784

276 X 216

This practical reference for all plastics engineers teaches how to solve a problem, reduce a cost, improve a design, or venture into new markets

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Hardcover

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USD 225.25
USD 265.00
 
 

Key Features

  • Presents an authoritative source of practical advice for engineers, providing guidance from experts that will lead to cost savings and process improvements
  • Ideal introduction for both new engineers and experienced practitioners entering a new field or evaluating a new technology
  • Updated to include the latest technology, including 3D Printing, smart polymers, and thorough coverage of biopolymers and biodegradable plastics

Description

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook: Processing, Materials, and Applications, Second Edition, covers both the polymer basics that are helpful to bring readers quickly up-to-speed if they are not familiar with a particular area of plastics processing and the recent developments that enable practitioners to discover which options best fit their requirements.

New chapters added specifically cover polyamides, polyimides, and polyesters. Hot topics such as 3-D printing and smart plastics are also included, giving plastics engineers the information they need to take these embryonic technologies and deploy them in their own work.

With the increasing demands for lightness and fuel economy in the automotive industry (not least due to CAFÉ standards), plastics will soon be used even further in vehicles. A new chapter has been added to cover the technology trends in this area, and the book has been substantially updated to reflect advancements in technology, regulations, and the commercialization of plastics in various areas.

Recycling of plastics has been thoroughly revised to reflect ongoing developments in sustainability of plastics. Extrusion processing is constantly progressing, as have the elastomeric materials, fillers, and additives which are available.

Throughout the book, the focus is on the engineering aspects of producing and using plastics. The properties of plastics are explained, along with techniques for testing, measuring, enhancing, and analyzing them. Practical introductions to both core topics and new developments make this work equally valuable for newly qualified plastics engineers seeking the practical rules-of-thumb they don't teach you in school and experienced practitioners evaluating new technologies or getting up-to-speed in a new field.

Readership

Plastics engineers, polymer scientists, materials engineers, equipment manufacturers, product design engineers, mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, biomaterials engineers, consultants, research & development departments, academics

Myer Kutz

Myer Kutz has headed his own firm, Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., since 1990. For the past several years, he has focused on writing and on developing engineering handbooks on a wide range of technical topics, such as mechanical, materials, biomedical, transportation, and environmentally conscious engineering, for a number of publishers, including Wiley, McGraw-Hill, and Elsevier. Earlier, his firm supplied consulting services to a large client roster, including Fortune 500 companies, scientific societies, and large and small publishers. The firm published two major multi-client studies, “The Changing Landscape for College Publishing” and “The Developing Worlds of Personalized Information.” Before starting his independent consultancy, Kutz held a number of positions at Wiley, including acquisitions editor, director of electronic publishing, and vice president for scientific and technical publishing. He has been a trustee of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and chaired committees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of American Publishers. He holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI, served as an officer in the US Army Ordnance Corp, and worked in the aerospace industry on the Apollo project. In addition to his edited reference works, he is the author of nine books, including Temperature Control, published by Wiley, Rockefeller Power, published by Simon & Schuster, the novel, Midtown North, published under the name Mike Curtis, and most recently the independently published novel, In the Grip. He is the editor of the Bulletin of the Professional Scholarly Publishing Division of the Association of American Publishers and writes The Scholarly Publishing Scene column for the magazine Against the Grain. He lives in Delmar, NY, with his wife, Arlene.

Affiliations and Expertise

Myer Kutz Associates. Inc., Delmar, NY, USA

View additional works by Myer Kutz

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edition

  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • About the Editor
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Part I: Plastics, elastomeric and biobased materials
    • 1: Engineering Thermoplastics-Materials, Properties, Trends
      • Abstract
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Aliphatic Polyamides
      • 1.3. Aromatic Polyamides, Aramids
      • 1.4. SemiAromatic Polyamides
      • 1.5. Polyacetals
      • 1.6. Polycarbonates
      • 1.7. Poly (phenylene ether)
      • 1.8. Polysulfones
      • 1.9. High-Temperature Sulfone Polymers (HTS)
      • 1.10. Thermoplastic Polyesters
      • 1.11. Liquid Crystalline Polymers (Polyesters)
      • 1.12. Poly(phenylene sulfide)
      • 1.13. Polyetherimide
      • 1.14. Polyimides
      • 1.15. Polyamide Imides
      • 1.16. Aromatic Polyketones
      • 1.17. Polyarylates
      • 1.18. Aliphatic Polyketones
      • 1.19. Syndiotactic Polystyrene
      • 1.20. Self-Reinforcing Polyphenylene
      • 1.21. Poly(p-xylylene)
      • 1.22. Polybenzimidazole
      • 1.23. Comparison of Physical Properties
      • 1.24. Trends in Engineering Thermoplastics
      • 1.25. Processing
      • 1.26. Conclusions
    • 2: Polyolefins
      • Abstract
      • 2.1. Industrial Processes for Polyolefin Production
      • 2.2. Classes of Polyolefins
      • 2.3. Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization
      • 2.4. Industrial Reactors
      • 2.5. Polyolefine Properties
      • 2.6. Applications
      • 2.7. Polyolefin Composites
    • 3: Introduction to Fluoropolymers
      • Abstract
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Fluoropolymer Classification
      • 3.3. Fluoropolymer Products
      • 3.4. Monomer Synthesis
      • 3.5. Monomer Properties
      • 3.6. Polymerization and Finishing
      • 3.7. Structure-Property Relationship of PE to PTFE
      • 3.8. Polymer Properties of PTFE
      • 3.9. Fabrication Techniques
      • 3.10. Applications
      • 3.11. Safety
      • 3.12. Polymerization Surfactant
      • 3.13. Economics
      • 3.14. Summary
    • 4: Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
      • Abstract
      • 4.1. Introduction [1-3]
      • 4.2. Synthesis of Vinyl Chloride [3,5]
      • 4.3. PVC Resin Synthesis and Characterization [1-3]
      • 4.4. PVC Compounds: Processing and Applications [4,7]
      • 4.5. Recycling PVC [11]
      • 4.6. Vinyl: Sustainability and Energy Efficiency [12]
      • 4.7. Vinyl Chloride and Health
      • 4.8. Dioxin
    • 5: Thermoplastic Elastomers
      • Abstract
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Classification and Structure
      • 5.3. Production
      • 5.4. Structure-Property Relationships
      • 5.5. Applications
      • 5.6. Economic Aspects and Trade Names
    • 6: Thermoset Elastomers
      • Abstract
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Some Experimental Details
      • 6.3. Typical Stress-Strain Behavior
      • 6.4. Control of Network Structure
      • 6.5. Networks at Very High Deformations
      • 6.6. Multimodal Chain-Length Distributions
      • 6.7. Other Types of Deformation
      • 6.8. Filler-Reinforced Elastomers and Elastomer-Modified Ceramics
      • 6.9. Current Problems and Future Trends
    • 7: Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers
      • Abstract
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Naturally Occurring Biodegradable Polymers
      • 7.3. Biodegradable Polymers Derived From Renewable Resources
      • 7.4. Biodegradable Polymers Derived From Petroleum
      • 7.5. Biobased Polymers Derived From Plant Oil
      • 7.6. Concluding Remarks
    • 8: Polymeric Biomaterials
      • Abstract
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Polymeric Biomaterials in Ophthalmology
      • 8.3. Polymeric Biomaterials in Orthopedics
      • 8.4. Polymeric Biomaterials in Cardiovascular
      • 8.5. Polymeric Biomaterials for Wound Closure
      • 8.6. Polymeric Biomaterials in Extracorporeal Artificial Organs
      • 8.7. Polymeric Biomaterials for Nerve Regeneration
      • 8.8. Conclusions and Future Outlook
  • Part II: Plastics processing
    • 9: Recycling of Plastics
      • Abstract
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Technology to Recycle Plastics
      • 9.3. Challenges
      • 9.4. Industries and Industry Organizations
      • 9.5. Products
      • 9.6. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • 10: Injection Molding Technology
      • Abstract
      • 10.1. The Injection Molding Screw
    • 11: Microcellular Injection Molding
      • Abstract
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Background
      • 11.3. General Discussion of Foam Processing
      • 11.4. General Discussion of Microcellular Processing
      • 11.5. General Discussion of Microcellular Injection Molding
      • 11.6. Process Monitoring and Control Methods for Microcellular Injection Molding
      • 11.7. Equipment Requirements for Microcellular Foam Injection Molding
      • 11.8. Trexel’s MuCell Technology
      • 11.9. Other Physical Foaming Techniques
      • 11.10. Typical Objectives of Microcellular Injection Molding
      • 11.11. Limitations of Microcellular Injection Molding
      • 11.12. Best Target Applications
      • 11.13. More Challenging Situations
      • 11.14. Commercial Examples
      • 11.15. Future Trends
      • Appendix
    • 12: Extrusion Processes
      • Abstract
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Single-Screw Extruders
      • 12.3. Single-Screw Extruder Mechanisms
      • 12.4. Twin-Screw Extruder Equipment
      • 12.5. Planetary Roller Extruders: Principle Components and Operating Principles
      • 12.6. Shaping and Drawing and Extrusion Applications
      • 12.7. Extrusion Laminations and Coatings
      • 12.8. Solidification and Cooling
    • 13: Blow Molding
      • Abstract
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. The Process
      • 13.3. Formulas for Blow Molding
      • 13.4. Troubleshooting
      • Acknowledgments
    • 14: Compression Molding
      • Abstract
      • 14.1. Basics of Processing by Compression Molding
      • 14.2. Molding Force and Pressure
      • 14.3. Typical Presses
      • 14.4. Compression Molds and Associated Tooling
      • 14.5. Commonly Used Resins
      • 14.6. Resin Charge Characteristics
      • 14.7. Processing Parameters for Granules, Powders, and Preforms
      • 14.8. Resin Matrix Modifiers
      • 14.9. Engineered Fiber-Reinforced Molding Compounds
      • 14.10. Comparisons with Transfer Molding and Injection Molding
      • 14.11. Similar Processes
      • 14.12. Modeling the Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Mold Filling
      • 14.13. Ensuring Part Quality and Process Efficiency
      • Acknowledgments
    • 15: Rotational Molding
      • Abstract
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Rotational Molding Process
      • 15.3. Materials for Rotational Molding
      • 15.4. Molds for Rotational Molding
      • 15.5. Machinery for Rotational Molding
      • 15.6. Design for Rotational Molding
    • 16: Thermoforming
      • Abstract
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Thermoforming Characteristics
      • 16.3. Thermoformed Product Characteristics
      • 16.4. The Thermoforming Concept
      • 16.5. Thermoforming Machinery
      • 16.6. Thin-Gauge Thermoforming
      • 16.7. Thick-Gauge Thermoforming
      • 16.8. Other Thermoforming Technologies
      • 16.9. Heaters
      • 16.10. Thermoforming Mold Materials
      • 16.11. Plastic Materials
      • 16.12. Product Design
      • 16.13. Operational Aspects of Thermoforming [22]
    • 17: Process Monitoring and Process Control: An Overview
      • Abstract
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Historical Factors Affecting the Development of Process Monitoring and Controls
      • 17.3. Basic Concepts: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Controls
      • 17.4. Transducers Used in Plastics Processes
      • 17.5. Data Acquisition Systems
      • 17.6. General Control Strategies: Extrusion Versus Injection Molding
      • 17.7. Process Control Applications Overview: Extrusion
      • 17.8. Process Control Applications Overview: Injection Molding
      • 17.9. Process Development Tools
      • 17.10. Conclusions
    • 18: Polymer Stabilization
      • Abstract
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Degradation Chemistry
      • 18.3. Stabilizers
      • 18.4. Performance of Stabilizers
      • 18.5. Other Factors Determining the Choice of Stabilizers
      • Appendix 18.1. Chemical structure, CAS number, and several trade names of several stabilizers
    • 19: Chaotic Advection and Its Application to Extruding Micro- and Nanostructured Plastic Materials
      • Abstract
      • 19.1. Applicability and Fundamentals
      • 19.2. Machinery and Process Control
      • 19.3. Micro- and Nanolayered Plastics
      • 19.4. Polymer Blends
      • 19.5. Polymer-Solid Composites and Nanocomposites
      • 19.6. Mixtures and Nanodispersions
      • 19.7. Decoration
      • 19.8. Rheology Measurements with Concurrent In Situ Structuring
  • Part III: Additives, colorants and fillers
    • 20: Surface Modification of Plastics
      • Abstract
      • 20.1. Introduction: Surface Modification of Plastics: For What Reasons?
      • 20.2. Overview of Surface Modification Techniques
      • 20.3. Surface Modification (Activation) Techniques
      • 20.4. Surface-Coating Deposition Techniques
    • 21: Plastics Additives
      • Abstract
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. Overview
      • 21.3. Thermal Stabilizers
      • 21.4. Nucleating Agents
      • 21.5. Antioxidants
      • 21.6. Flame Retardants
      • 21.7. Color and Colorants
      • 21.8. Fillers
      • 21.9. Reinforcements
      • 21.10. Impact Modifiers and Impact Modification
      • 21.11. Miscellaneous
    • 22: Dispersants and Coupling Agents
      • Abstract
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. Dispersants
      • 22.3. Practical Use Considerations
      • 22.4. Types of Dispersants
      • 22.5. Property Effects
      • 22.6. Coupling Agents
      • 22.7. Conclusions
    • 23: Functional Fillers for Plastics
      • Abstract
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. The Basics
      • 23.3. Thermal and Electrical Properties
      • 23.4. Hardness, Friction, Scratch Resistance, and Wear
      • 23.5. Barrier Properties
      • 23.6. Optical Properties
      • 23.7. Processing
      • 23.8. Extra Phase Effects
      • 23.9. Popular Fillers
      • 23.10. Specialty Fillers
    • 24: Plasticizers
      • Abstract
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Mechanism of Plasticization
      • 24.3. Types of Plasticizers
      • 24.4. Phthalate Esters
      • 24.5. Terephthalate Esters
      • 24.6. Dibasic Acid Esters
      • 24.7. Epoxy Plasticizers
      • 24.8. Trimellitate Esters
      • 24.9. Benzoate Esters
      • 24.10. Cyclohexanoate Esters
      • 24.11. Polymeric Plasticizers
      • 24.12. Phosphate Esters
      • 24.13. Citrate Esters
      • 24.14. Other Plasticizers
      • 24.15. Plasticizer Characteristics and Performance of Flexible PVC
      • 24.16. Plasticizer Selections for Specific Applications
      • 24.17. Plasticizers for Other Polymers
      • 24.18. Human Health Aspects of Plasticizers
      • 24.19. Future of Plasticizers
    • 25: Adhesion Promoters: Silane Coupling Agents
      • Abstract
      • 25.1. General Concepts
      • 25.2. Silane Adhesion Promoters
      • 25.3. Adhesion Promoter Mechanism with Silanes
      • 25.4. Optimizing Coupling Agent Performance
      • 25.5. How to Choose a Silane Coupling Agent
      • 25.6. General Applications of Silane Coupling Agents
      • 25.7. Industry and Utility
      • 25.8. Non-Silane Adhesion Promoters
      • 25.9. Sources of Adhesion Promoters
  • Part IV: Design and applications
    • 26: Plastics Joining
      • Abstract
      • 26.1. Introduction
      • 26.2. Mechanical Joining
      • 26.3. Adhesive Bonding
      • 26.4. Welding
    • 27: Design of Plastic Parts
      • Abstract
      • 27.1. Introduction
      • 27.2. Material Selection
      • 27.3. Process Selection
      • 27.4. Structural Design
      • 27.5. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
      • 27.6. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • 28: Three-Dimensional Printing of Plastics
      • Abstract
      • 28.1. Introduction
      • 28.2. 3D Printing Processes
      • 28.3. Design with 3D Printing
      • 28.4. Manufacturing Strategy
      • 28.5. Future Outlook
      • 28.6. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • 29: Plastics in Buildings and Construction
      • Abstract
      • 29.1. Introduction
      • 29.2. Applications
      • 29.3. Plastic Applications in Green Building Design
      • 29.4. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • 30: Automotive Applications of Plastics: Past, Present, and Future
      • Abstract
      • 30.1. Introduction
      • 30.2. Exterior Components
      • 30.3. Interior Components
      • 30.4. Under-the-Hood Components
      • 30.5. Future Outlook
      • 30.6. Conclusions
    • 31: Infrastructure Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites
      • Abstract
      • 31.1. Introduction
      • 31.2. Products and Applications
      • 31.3. Durability of Polymer Composites
      • 31.4. Summary
    • 32: The Plastic Piping Industry in North America
      • Abstract
      • 32.1. Introduction
      • 32.2. Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings Materials
      • 32.3. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Materials
      • 32.4. Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX) Materials
      • 32.5. Polypropylene Materials
      • 32.6. Polybutylene Materials
      • 32.7. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Materials
      • 32.8. Nylon (PA) Materials
      • 32.9. Fluoropolymer Materials
      • 32.10. Engineering Plastic Materials
      • 32.11. Multilayer Piping Products
      • 32.12. Composite Piping Products
      • 32.13. Fiberglass-Reinforced Thermoset Piping
      • 32.14. Cured-in-Place Piping
      • 32.15. Pipeline and Piping Rehabilitation Technologies
      • 32.16. Plastic Pipe and Fittings Manufacturing Processes
      • 32.17. Long-Term Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Piping Materials
      • 32.18. Test Methods for Determining Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength
      • 32.19. Validation of Polyethylene Pipe Materials
      • 32.20. Popelar Shift Function Calculations for PE Pipe Materials
      • 32.21. Design of Plastic Piping Systems
      • 32.22. Specifications, Product Standards, Test Methods, and Codes
      • 32.23. Regulatory Matters
      • 32.24. Applications of Thermoplastic Plastic Piping
      • 32.25. Installation Using Thermoplastic Pipe for Pipeline Replacement
      • 32.26. Other Piping Applications
    • 33: PET Use in Blow Molded Rigid Packaging
      • Abstract
      • 33.1. Introduction
  • Index
 
 
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