Practical Planning, 1st Edition

Practical Planning, 1st Edition,David Wilkins,ISBN9780934613941


Morgan Kaufmann



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Planning, or reasoning about actions, is a fundamental element of intelligent behavior--and one that artificial intelligence has found very difficult to implement. The most well-understood approach to building planning systems has been under refinement since the late 1960s and has now reached a level of maturity where there are good prospects for building working planners.

Practical Planning is an in-depth examination of this classical planning paradigm through an intensive case study of SIPE, a significantly implemented planning system. The author, the developer of SIPE, defines the planning problem in general, explains why reasoning about actions is so complex, and describes all parts of the SIPE system and the algorithms needed to achieve efficiency. Details are discussed in the context of problems and important issues in building a practical planner; discussions of how other systems address these issues are also included.

Assuming only a basic background in AI, Practical Planning will be of great interest to professionals interested in incorporating planning capabilities into AI systems.

Information about this author is currently not available.

Practical Planning, 1st Edition

Practical Planning: Extending the Classical AI Planning Paradigm

David E. Wilkins

List of Figures

List of Tables

1 Reasoning about Actions and Planning
1.1 Philosophical and Practical Importance

1.2 The Classical AI Planning Problem

1.3 Reactive Planning

1.4 The Essence of Planning

1.5 Capabilities of a Planning System

1.6 How Hard is Planning?

1.7 Classical AI Planning Systems

1.8 SIPE

2 Basic Assumptions and Limitations
2.1 Important Features

2.2 Limitations

3 SIPE and Its Representations
3.1 Representation of Domain Objects and Relationship

3.2 Operator Description Language

3.3 Plan Rationale

3.4 Plans

4 Hierarchical Planning as Differing Abstraction Levels
4.1 The Many Guises of Hierarchical Planning

4.2 A Problem with Current Planners

4.3 Solutions

5 Constraints
5.1 SIPE's Constraint Language

5.2 Use of Constraints

5.3 Unification

6. The Truth Criterion
6.1 The Formula Truth Criterion

6.2 The PTC for Ground, Linear Plans

6.3 Introducing Variables

6.4 Introducing Existential Quantifiers

6.5 Introducing Universal Quantifiers

6.6 Introducing Nonlinearity

6.7 Summary

7 Deductive Causal Theories
7.1 A Motivating Example

7.2 Domain Rules

7.3 problems with Domain Rules

7.4 Heuritic Adequacy and Expressive Power

8 Plan Critics
8.1 Solving the Constraint Network

8.2 Parallel Interactions

8.3 Goal Phantomization

8.4 Solving Harmful Interactions

8.5 Adding Ordering Constraints

8.6 Examples

9 Resources: Reusable, Consumable, Temporal
9.1 Reusable Resources

9.2 Representation of Numerical Quantities

9.3 Consumable Resources

9.4 Temporal Reasoning

9.5 Manipulating Numerical Quantities

9.6 Summary

10 Search
10.1 Automatic Search

10.2 Intermingling Planning and Execution

10.3 Interactive Control

10.4 Domain-Dependent Search Control

10.5 Other Search Strategies

11 Replanning During Execution
11.1 Overview of SIPE's Execution-Monitoring System

11.2 Unknowns

11.3 Interpreting the Input

11.4 The Problem Recognizer

11.5 Replanning Actions

11.6 The General Replanner

11.7 Examples

11.8 Searching the Space of Modified Plans

11.9 Summary

12 Planning and Reactivity
12.1 Level of the Interface

12.2 Who is in Control?

13 Achieving Heuristic Adequacy
13.1 Summary of Heuristics

13.2 Subsumption of Pred Constraints

13.3 Encoding Domains in SIPE

14 Comparison with Other Systems
14.1 Nonclassical Planning Systems

14.2 Previous Classical Planners

14.3 Constraints

14.4 Critics

14.5 Replanning

14.6 Heuristic Adequacy

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