Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices, 1st Edition

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices, 1st Edition,Jaydeep Sarkar,ISBN9780815515937


William Andrew



235 X 191

The technology of physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) enables the deposition of thin films on suitable substrates, with major application areas including semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic. This is a first-of-its-kind book attempted to explain technologically important manufacturing processes taking into account physics of sputtering, characteristics of sputtering target, PVD chamber design and thin film properties in an integrated manner.

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Key Features

  • Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements
  • Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs
  • Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc.
  • Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting
  • Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry


An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues.

The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications.

In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful.



Researchers, engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of semiconductors, displays, thin films (nanotechnology and MEMS) and related industries.

Jaydeep Sarkar

Engineering Consultant at Praxair Inc., Orangeburg, New York, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineering Consultant at Praxair Inc., Orangeburg, New York, USA

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices, 1st Edition


Chapter 1. Sputtering Targets and Sputtered Films for the Microelectronic Industry

1.1 Materials for microelectronics

1.2 Scope of sputtering in microelectronics

1.3 Sputtering materials for integrated circuits

1.4 Sputtering materials for liquid crystal displays

1.5 Sputtering materials for magnetic storage systems

1.6 Sputtering materials for optical storage media

1.7 Sputtering materials for photovoltaic devices

1.8 Sputtering target industry


Chapter 2. Sputtering and Thin Film Deposition

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Physical vapor deposition

2.3 Plasma and glow discharge

2.4 Sputter deposition of thin films

2.5 Thin film characteristics


Chapter 3. Performance of Sputtering Targets and Productivity

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Target chemistry

3.3 Target metallurgy

3.4 Ferromagnetic targets

3.5 Target cleaning and packaging

3.6 Target burn-in

3.7 Target utilization


Chapter 4. Sputtering Target Manufacturing

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Designing sputtering targets

4.3 Target material fabrication

4.4 Machining of target and backing plate

4.5 Bonding methods and bond evaluation

4.6 Particle trap formation

4.7 Degreasing and packaging


Chapter 5. Sputtering Targets and Thin Films for Integrated Circuits

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Titanium

5.3 Tungsten

5.4 Tungsten–titanium (W-Ti) alloys

5.5 Aluminum and its alloys

5.6 Tantalum

5.7 Copper and its alloys

5.8 Nickel–vanadium (Ni-V) alloys

5.9 Silicides


Chapter 6. Sputtering Targets and Thin Films for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Aluminum and its alloys

6.3 Molybdenum and its alloys

6.4 Chromium

6.5 Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)

6.6 Absorbers for photovoltaics


Chapter 7. Ferromagnetic Sputtering Targets and Thin Films for Silicides and Data Storage

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Nickel and its alloys

7.3 Cobalt and its alloys

7.4 Silicide films

7.5 Media for data storage


Chapter 8. Troubleshooting in Sputter Deposition

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Long burn-in of sputtering target

8.3 In-film defect generation

8.4 Bonding-related problems

8.5 Long pump-down time and out-gassing



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