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Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1
 
 

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition

Fundamentals and Applied Aspects

 
Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition,Rajiv Kohli,Kashmiri L. Mittal,ISBN9780323299602
 
 
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Kohli   &   Mittal   

William Andrew

9780323299602

9780323312707

894

229 X 152

This book provides a state-of-the-art reference for all major areas in surface contamination and cleaning for industries ranging from semiconductor fabrication to space exploration, presenting an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation.

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Key Features

  • Provides best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or those who handle the consequences of surface contamination
  • Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries as spearheaded by the semiconductor industry
  • Presents state-of-the-art survey information on precision cleaning and characterization methods as written by a team of world-class experts in the field

Description

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects, Second Edition, provides an excellent source of information on alternative cleaning techniques and methods for characterization of surface contamination and validation.

Each volume in this series contains a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. This volume forms the heart of the series, covering the fundamentals and application aspects, characterization of surface contaminants, and methods for removal of surface contamination.

In addition, new cleaning techniques effective at smaller scales are considered and employed for removal where conventional cleaning techniques fail, along with new cleaning techniques for molecular contaminants.

The Volume is edited by the leading experts in small particle surface contamination and cleaning, providing an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control, and procurement specification in a multitude of industries such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography.

Readership

Researchers and Engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography.

Rajiv Kohli

NASA Johnson Space Center -Rajiv Kohli is a leading expert in contaminant particle behaviour, surface cleaning and contamination control. At the NASA Johnson Space Center he has primary responsibility for contamination control related to spaceflight hardware for the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and the new Constellation Program (designed to meet the United States Vision for Space Exploration). He helped to develop solvent-based cleaning applications for the nuclear industry and an innovative microabrasive system for a wide variety of applications in the commercial sector. He co-authored Commercial Utilization of Space: An International Comparison of Framework Conditions, and has published over 200 technical papers. His other specialisms include precision cleaning, solution and surface chemistry, advance materials and chemical thermodynamics. In 2005, Dr. Kohli received the Public Service Medal, one of NASA’s highest awards, for contributions to the Space Shuttle Return to Flight project.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX, USA

View additional works by Rajiv Kohli

Kashmiri L. Mittal

Editor: ‘Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives’ was associated with IBM from 1972 to 1994. Currently, he is teaching and consulting in the areas of adhesion science and technology and in surface contamination and cleaning. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology and is editor of 85 books, many of them dealing with surface contamination and cleaning. In 2002, the Kash Mittal Award was inaugurated for his extensive efforts and significant contributions to the field of colloid and interface chemistry. Among his numerous awards, Dr. Mittal was awarded the title honoris causa by the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lubin, Poland in 2003.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives

View additional works by Kashmiri L. Mittal

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition

  • Preface
  • About the Editors
  • Part I: Fundamentals
    • Chapter 1: The Physical Nature of Very, Very Small Particles and its Impact on their Behavior
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 The Spectrum of Aerosol Particle Sizes
      • 1.3 Atoms and Molecules—Concepts and Dimensions
      • 1.4 The Model of a Gas
      • 1.5 Particles and Gas Molecules
      • 1.6 Particle Interactions
      • 1.7 Nanoparticles as Molecular Clusters
      • 1.8 An Interaction Model for Nanometer-Sized Particles
      • 1.9 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 2: Transport and Deposition of Aerosol Particles
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Noncontinuum Considerations
      • 2.3 Lagrangian Particle Equation of Motion
      • 2.4 Inertial Effects
      • 2.5 Drift Velocity
      • 2.6 Eulerian Formulation
      • 2.7 Particle Transport and Deposition in a Parallel Plate Reactor
      • 2.8 Inertia-Enhanced Deposition
      • 2.9 Chapter Summary and Practical Guidelines
    • Chapter 3: Relevance of Particle Transport in Surface Deposition and Cleaning
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Particle–solid Surface Interactions
      • 3.3 Dry Deposition
      • 3.4 Thermophoresis and Its Relevance in Surface Cleaning
      • 3.5 Electrostatic Force and Its Relevance in Surface Cleaning
      • 3.6 Dielectrophoresis and Its Relevance in Surface Cleaning
      • 3.7 Abrasive Erosion and Its Relevance in Surface Cleaning
      • 3.8 Summary
    • Chapter 4: Aspects of Particle Adhesion and Removal
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Interactions Giving Rise to Particle Adhesion
      • 4.3 Mechanics of Particle Adhesion
      • 4.4 Factors Affecting Particle Adhesion
      • 4.5 Methods of Measuring the Adhesion of Particles to Substrates
      • 4.6 Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 5: Tribological Implication of Particles
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Micro-Site for Generation of Wear Particles
      • 5.3 Wear Modes and Particles
      • 5.4 Wear Rate and Number of Wear Particles
      • 5.5 Size and Number of Wear Particles by Sliding
      • 5.6 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 6: ESD Controls in Cleanroom Environments: Relevance to Particle Deposition
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Electrostatic Charge Problems in Cleanrooms
      • 6.3 Static Charge Generation
      • 6.4 Insulators Versus Conductors
      • 6.5 Cleanroom Electrostatic Management
      • 6.6 Air Ionization for Static Charge Control
      • 6.7 Air Ionizer Applications
      • 6.8 Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Airborne Molecular Contamination: Contamination on Substrates and the Environment in Semiconductors and Other Industries
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Definitions, Types, and Sources of AMCs
      • 7.3 Analysis Methods
      • 7.4 Nature of Airborne Molecular Contamination and Its Effects
      • 7.5 Examples of Application of Knowledge and Technology
      • 7.6 Future Directions
      • 7.7 Summary of the Chapter
  • Part II: Characterization
    • Chapter 8: Surface Analysis Methods for Contaminant Identification
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy
      • 8.3 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
      • 8.4 Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
      • 8.5 Low-Energy Ion Scattering
      • 8.6 Summary
    • Chapter 9: Electron Microscopy Techniques for Imaging and Analysis of Nanoparticles
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy
      • 9.2 High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
      • 9.3 Shapes of Nanocrystals
      • 9.4 Nanodiffraction
      • 9.5 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
      • 9.6 In-situ TEM and Nanomeasurements
      • 9.7 Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy of Nanoparticles
      • 9.8 Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDS)
      • 9.9 Summary
    • Chapter 10: Wettability Techniques to Monitor the Cleanliness of Surfaces
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Background and Introduction
      • 10.2 Fundamentals
      • 10.3 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations
      • 10.4 Instrumentation
      • 10.5 Examples of Applications
      • 10.6 Recent Developments
      • 10.7 Future Directions
      • 10.8 Summary
  • Part III: Techniques for Removal of Surface Contamination
    • Chapter 11: Cleaning with Solvents
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Environmental and Regulatory Issues
      • 11.3 Potential Health Consequences of Solvent Use in Cleaning
      • 11.4 Solvent Selection via Solubility Parameters
      • 11.5 Choosing Cleaning Solvents and Cleaning Processes
      • 11.6 Control of Quality in Solvent Cleaning
      • 11.7 Avoiding Common Mistakes
      • 11.8 The Future of Solvents and Cleaning
    • Chapter 12: Removal of Particles by Chemical Cleaning
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Particle/Surface Interactions
      • 12.3 Process Applications and Chemistries
      • 12.4 Summary
    • Chapter 13: The Use of Surfactants to Enhance Particle Removal from Surfaces
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Surfactant Behavior in Solution
      • 13.3 Interfacial Forces and Particle Removal
      • 13.4 Summary
    • Chapter 14: Microabrasive Technology for Precision Cleaning and Processing
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Surface Contamination and Surface Cleanliness Levels
      • 14.3 Fundamental Considerations
      • 14.4 Microabrasive Technology
      • 14.5 Cleaning and Processing Systems
      • 14.6 Cost Considerations
      • 14.7 Advantages and Disadvantages
      • 14.8 Applications
      • 14.9 Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Cleaning Using High-Speed Impinging Jet
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Fundamentals of Air Jet Removal
      • 15.3 New Removal Methods Using the Air Jet Method
      • 15.4 Remaining Problems
      • 15.5 Summary
    • Chapter 16: Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 CO2 Snow Cleaning—Background
      • 16.3 Equipment and Process Control
      • 16.4 Applications
      • 16.5 Cleaning Comparisons
      • 16.6 Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Cleaning Using Argon/Nitrogen Cryogenic Aerosols
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Aerosol Jet Cleaning Mechanisms
      • 17.3 Production of Argon/Nitrogen Cryogenic Aerosol Jets
      • 17.4 Cost
      • 17.5 Effectiveness and Applications
      • 17.6 Future Directions
    • Chapter 18: Coatings for Prevention or Deactivation of Biological Contaminants
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Biological Contaminations
      • 18.3 Means of Contamination
      • 18.4 General Requirements for Self-cleaning Coatings
      • 18.5 Laboratory Tests for Antimicrobial Activity of Coatings
      • 18.6 Agents Against Biological Contaminations
      • 18.7 Coating Methods
      • 18.8 Non-adhesive Coatings
      • 18.9 Microbe Killing or Growth Inhibiting Coatings
      • 18.10 Metal Coatings
      • 18.11 Antifouling Paints
      • 18.12 Antimicrobial Surfaces with Multiple Action
      • 18.13 Antiviral Coatings
      • 18.14 Surface Cleaning by Coating
      • 18.15 Application Examples
      • 18.16 Future Developments
    • Chapter 19: A Detailed Study of Semiconductor Wafer Drying
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Theoretical Background
      • 19.3 Experimental Details
      • 19.4 Results of Salt Tracer Tests
      • 19.5 Discussion of Experimental Data
      • 19.6 Summary and Conclusions
  • Index
 
 
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