Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions, 1st Edition

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions, 1st Edition,Richard Albright,ISBN9780815515401


William Andrew



229 X 152

Essential guide for cleaning up military ordnance sites and chemical warfare materials

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USD 155.00

Key Features

* Author is an award winning and world-renowned expert in weapons of mass destruction.
* Meets the needs of explosive and ordnance demolition personnel, as well as environmental scientists, insurance agents, and building contractors.
* Includes the primary documents written (by the author) for the cleanup of one of the worst sites in the United States (Spring Valley, District of Columbia).
* Subject of the book is of worldwide concern with former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, as well as storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories.
* The only text available with clear and complete instructions on proper cleanup of military ordnance sites including a detailed list of explosives, chemical warfare material and breakdown products.


Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to World War I, are a worldwide concern, especially at closed military bases that will be redeveloped for housing or civilian use. In Europe and Asia, many munitions sites are former battlegrounds; in Russia and its former territories, sites are used for storage and waste disposal. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50 and 250 billion dollars to cleanup these sites, many of which are in high-population density, residential areas. You might live near one such site right now.

This book gives detailed instructions for cleaning up military ordnance sites, and lists of explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products that the soil and groundwater must be tested for. Also included are archival studies; remote sensing techniques; geophysical techniques; safety issues; a chemical weapons, explosives and ordnance primer; known and unknown range lists; and a case study of documents written for cleaning up one of the worst examples yet: Spring Valley in the District of Columbia. It disproves myths, common misconceptions and lies, and explains what, how, and where to look for munitions and their residual contamination.


This book is written for environmentalists, regulators, policy makers, contractors, and activist citizens who are unaware of munitions issues, as well as for military munitions experts and decision-makers needing to understand the critical environmental and health risks arising from munitions issues. It will also be essential reading for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other personnel responsible for cleaning up active and Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS).

Richard Albright

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of the Environment Defense Unit, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions, 1st Edition

Part 1 The Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
1 Cleaning Up Old Munitions Sites
1.1 A Primer on the Science and Concepts of Cleaning Up a Range Site
1.2 A Historical Background of Old Munitions Sites
1.3 New Requirements for Old Munitions
1.3.1 Final Military Munitions Rule
1.3.2 Management Principles for Implementing Response Actions at Closed, Transferring, and Transferred (CTT) Ranges
1.3.3 The Nonexistent Range Rule
1.3.4 Chemical Weapons Convention
1.3.5 Base Realignment and Closure Act
1.3.6 Defense Environmental Restoration Program
1.3.7 Primary Purpose of the New UXO Rules
2 Limitations and Expertise in Remediating Munitions Sites
2.1 State and Local Regulators Need to Develop Their Own Expertise in Remediating Munitions Sites
2.1.1 Examples of the Military's Lack of Experience in Environmental Cleanup
2.1.2 The EPA Also Lacks Experience in Some Regions with Military Issues
2.1.3 Barriers Unique to Military Site Remediation
3 Ordnance and Related Munitions Cleanup Issues
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Extent of the Munitions Problem Generally
3.1.2 Land Mines
3.1.3 Munitions Burials by the Civilian Conservation Corps
3.2 Extent of the Explosive Munitions Problem
3.2.1 Storage Depots
3.2.2 Manufacturing Facilities for Explosives Toluol Nitrates Nitrogen Fixation Other Explosive Precursors Powder Manufacture TNT Production Ammonium Nitrate Production Picric Acid Production Tetryl Production Tetranitroaniline Production Fulminate of Mercury Production Nitrostarch Production
3.2.3 Experimental Explosives Anilite Perchlorates Hydrazine Nitrate NDMA
4 Explosive Ordnance
4.1 Danger From Explosive Ordnance
4.1.1 Hypersensitivity in Old Deteriorated Explosives
4.1.2 How Explosives Work
4.1.3 Blow in Place
4.1.4 Toxicity of Explosives
4.1.5 UXO Masquerading as Inert Practice Rounds
4.1.6 UXO Claimed to be Inert
4.1.7 Expect the Unexpected with Ordnance
4.2 Explosive Contamination
4.2.1 Methods of Treating Explosive Contamination in Groundwater
4.2.2 Methods of Treating Explosive Contamination in Soil
4.2.3 Sampling for Explosives and Breakdown Products
4.3 Methods of Destroying Military Explosives
4.3.1 Open Air Burning
4.3.2 Underwater Detonation
4.3.3 Surface Detonation
4.3.4 Detonation Chambers
5 Chemical Warfare Material
5.1 Chemical Warfare Material Issues
5.1.1 History of Chemical Warfare
5.1.2 Extent of the Chemical Warfare Material Problem
5.1.3 University Research in World War I
5.1.4 Chemical Companies and Other World War I Facilities
5.1.5 Overlooked Sites
5.1.6 Toxic Smoke Candles
5.1.7 Quantities of Chemical Agents on Hand at the End of World War I
5.1.8 Research up to and during World War II
5.1.9 Unique Problems in CWM Site Remediation Mycotoxins
5.1.10 Chemical Agent Identification Sets
5.1.11 CWM Contamination
5.1.12 Arsenic Contamination
6 A History of Ordnance Disposal Practices
6.1 Prior Disposal Practices for Chemical and Explosive Ordnance
6.1.1 Determining Whether Buried Munitions and Explosives Are Likely
6.1.2 Burial of Chemical Weapons
6.1.3 Dumping Explosive and Chemical Ordnance Underwater
6.1.4 Charleston, South Carolina
6.1.5 Colts Neck Naval Pier, Earle, New Jersey
6.1.6 Chesapeake Bay
6.1.7 Other Sea Dumping Events
6.1.8 Lake Erie
7 Ordnance Detection Technology
7.1 Historical Perspective
7.1.1 General Types of Metal Detectors
7.1.2 Very Low Frequency Types
7.1.3 Pulse Induction Types
7.1.4 Radio Frequency Types
7.1.5 Cesium Vapor Magnetometers
7.1.6 Description of the Various UXO Location Technologies
7.1.7 Brands Commonly Used for Ordnance
7.1.8 Some Detectors can Detonate Fuses, Detonators, or Electric Blasting Caps
7.1.9 Choosing a Metal Detector or Magnetometer
7.1.10 Pulsed Neutron Identification
7.1.11 X-Ray of Shells
7.1.12 Other Geophysically Intrusive Techniques
7.1.13 Ground Penetrating Radar
7.1.14 Infrared Imaging
7.1.15 Sonar
7.1.16 Bioassay
7.1.17 Sampling Data May Help Locate Buried Ordnance
7.1.18 Arsenical CWM Biolocation using a Fern
7.1.19 How to Conduct a Correct Search for Buried or Range Impact Ordnance
7.1.20 Geophysical Search Plans
7.2 Historical and Archival Data Sources
7.2.1 Archival Searches
7.2.2 Library Materials
7.2.3 Aerial Photography for Munitions Sites
8 Excavation and Removal of Ordnance
8.1 Excavating the Ordnance Item after Proper Identification
8.1.1 Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing
8.1.2 Robotics
8.2 Potential Chemical Agents That May Be Encountered
8.2.1 Known Chemical Agents
8.2.2 Nerve Agents
8.2.3 Binary Components
8.2.4 CWM, Smoke and Incendiary Abbreviations (Old and New)
8.2.5 Identifi cation of Munitions with Paint Intact
8.2.6 CWM Breakdown Products Ions Anions Acids Mustard VX GA GB GD Lewisite Other Agent Breakdown Products Perchlorate Rocket Propellants and Explosives Known at AUES (1918)
8.2.7 Natural Poisons
8.2.8 Relative Toxicity of Natural Poisons
8.2.9 Experimental Toxic Substances
8.2.10 Less Toxic Chemical Fillers
8.2.11 Smoke and Incendiary Munitions
8.2.12 Sampling for Chemical Agents and Explosives
8.3 Radioactive Facilities
9 Recommendations
9.1 Basic Site Requirements
9.2 Time is Running Out
Photo Section

Part 2 Case Study: Spring Valley formerly Used Defense Site
10 A History of the Spring Valley Site
10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 The Author's Involvement with Spring Valley
10.2 The History of the Spring Valley Site
10.3 The District of Columbia's First Report on the World War I Poison Gas Production at the AUES
10.3.1 Why the First Two Cleanups Failed
10.3.2 Documentation of Original Research Work On-Site
10.3.3 Specifi c Structures
10.3.4 Dispersion Tests
10.3.5 Remaining Unexploded Chemical Ordnance
10.3.6 Burial Operation
10.3.7 Conclusion
11 Concerns over the Adequacy of Previous Remediation Efforts
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 Inadequate Sampling
11.1.2 Health Impact
11.1.3 Environmental Impact
11.1.4 Over-Reliance on Expertise of Personnel
11.2 Concerns about Remaining Unexploded Ordnance and Chemical Containers
11.2.1 Over-Reliance on Expertise
11.3 Little Available Knowledge on World War I Experimental Ordnance
11.4 Experience Limited Due to Uniqueness of Site
11.5 Anomaly Review Board Protocols Excluded Laboratory Equipment Signatures
11.6 Equipment Limitations
11.7 Areas Not Searched
11.8 Community Right to Know
12 The District of Columbia's Initial Success as a State Regulator on Spring Valley
12.1 Success Results from Hard Work and Providence
12.1.1 The House Next Door
12.1.2 The Partnering Effort
12.2 Myths and Falsehoods Regarding the AUES
12.2.1 1995 No Further Action Report Problems
12.2.2 Small Laboratory Quantities of Toxic Material
12.3 The Glass Stopper
12.4 The Child Development Center at American University
13 The Continuing Search for Burial Sites
13.1 The Continuing Search for Burial Sites
13.1.1 Subsequent Report on a 1921 Article in a Campus Newspaper
13.1.2 Report of the Burial of Shells by the Civilian Conservation Corps
13.1.3 Findings
13.1.4 Recommendations
13.1.5 Burial Pit Found by Civil War Relic Hunter
13.1.6 AOI 17: The Hopeless Hollows Burial Areas
13.1.7 Historical Photographs
13.1.8 Historical Maps
13.1.9 Historical Documents
13.1.10 Previous Sampling Results
13.1.11 Previous Geophysical Results
13.1.12 Review and Evaluation
13.1.13 Lot 18 on the American University Campus
13.1.14 Aerial Photographs
14 Expanding and Enlarging a Remediation Site
14.1 Finding the Range Impact Areas
14.1.1 Westmoreland Circle Impact Area
14.1.2 Livens Projector Battery Impact Area
14.1.3 Dalecarlia Impact Area
14.2 Expanding the Boundary
14.2.1 New Boundaries
14.3 New Points of Interest
14.3.1 Background
14.3.2 Ground Scar at the Junction of Trails
14.3.3 Additional Concrete Bunkers, Magazines, and Explosive Chambers
14.3.4 Livens Gun Pit
14.3.5 Rows of Spots
14.3.6 Burial Sites for Leaking Shells
14.3.7 Old Mustard Field and Linear Testing Troughs
14.3.8 Linear Testing Troughs Erroneously Labeled as an Airstrip
14.3.9 Circular Testing Fields
14.3.10 Toxic Smoke Candles
14.3.11 Munitions Plants
14.3.12 Persistency Test Area 100 ft + 100 ft
14.3.13 Courier Explosives Burial Site
14.3.14 Debris Field at a Third Glenbrook Road Property
14.3.15 Anomaly Areas within the Dalecarlia Reservoir
14.3.16 Rockwood Six
14.3.17 Sedgwick Vicinity Ground Scars
14.3.18 Pit and Trenches at 52nd Court
14.4 Aerial Photographic Interpretation
15 The Dangers of Lewisite and Arsenic
15.1 The History of Lewisite and a Speech by W. Lee Lewis
15.1.1 History of Lewisite
15.1.2 A Speech by W. Lee Lewis
15.2 Arsenic Contamination Cleanup
15.2.1 The Problem with Arsenic
16 Sampling Conducted by the Army Corps of Engineers
16.1 Secret Sampling for the AUES List Conducted by the Corps
16.1.1 Sequence of Events
16.1.2 Generic Comments
16.1.3 Specifi c Constituents
16.1.4 Comments on Risk
16.1.5 Comments on Implications for the Spring Valley Project
16.2 Effort to Deny the Existence of Additional Burial Sites
16.3 Requests Directed to the Corps
16.4 Requests Directed to the EPA
17 Conceptual Site Model for Spring Valley
17.1 Introduction
17.1.1 Writing a Conceptual Site Model
17.1.2 Historical Records, Drawings and Maps
17.1.3 Boundary
17.1.4 Explosive Burials
17.1.5 Impact Areas
17.1.6 Persistency Test Area
17.1.7 Major Tolman's Field
17.1.8 Tenleytown Station
17.1.9 Railroad Sidings
17.1.10 Aerial Photographs and Reports
17.1.11 Still Photographs
17.1.12 Toxicity and Exposure Data17.1.13 Site Cont Data
17.1.14 Constituents Actually Found
17.1.15 Perchlorate
17.1.16 Geophysical Data
17.1.17 Geologic Data
17.1.18 Hydrogeologic Information
17.1.19 Residents
17.1.20 Other Environmental Receptors
17.1.21 Site Development Infrastructure Information
17.1.22 Anecdotal Information
17.1.23 Range Issues
17.1.24 Professional Conjecture
17.1.25 Toxic Metals Can Be Transformed into More Toxic Substances
17.1.26 Other Burial Sites
17.1.27 Burial of Shells by the Civilian Conservation Corps
17.1.28 Slonecker Pit
17.1.29 Dirt from Glenbrook Road
17.1.30 Benzo(a)pyrene Hot Spots
17.1.31 Manganese Compounds
17.1.32 Selenium Compounds
17.1.33 Mercury Compounds
17.1.34 Antimony Compounds
17.1.35 Sulfur Compounds
17.1.36 Chemical and Experimental Ordnance
18 Summary
18.1 Future Necessary Work at the Spring Valley Site
18.2 Role of the States in Environmental Remediation of Military Sites
18.3 Summary
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