Extrusion, 2nd Edition

The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook

 
Extrusion, 2nd Edition,Harold F. Giles Jr,John R. Wagner, Jr.,Eldridge M. Mount,ISBN9781437734812
 
 
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9781437734812

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A practical handbook for a major area of plastics processing, the authors’ focus on fault analysis and troubleshooting is targeted at practicing engineers, and directly impacts the bottom line by improving production efficiency and product quality.

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Key Features

  • A practical guide to the selection, design and optimization of extrusion processes and equipment
  • Designed to improve production efficiency and product quality
  • Focuses on practical fault analysis and troubleshooting techniques

Description

The second edition of Extrusion is designed to aid operators, engineers, and managers in extrusion processing in quickly answering practical day-to-day questions. The first part of the book provides the fundamental principles, for operators and engineers, of polymeric materials extrusion processing in single and twin screw extruders. The next section covers advanced topics including troubleshooting, auxiliary equipment, and coextrusion for operators, engineers, and managers. The final part provides applications case studies in key areas for engineers such as compounding, blown film, extrusion blow molding, coating, foam, and reprocessing.

This practical guide to extrusion brings together both equipment and materials processing aspects. It covers basic and advanced topics, for reference and training, in thermoplastics processing in the extruder. Detailed reference data are provided on such important operating conditions as temperatures, start-up procedures, shear rates, pressure drops, and safety.

Readership

Engineers working in product and process design, production and manufacturing with plastics.

Plastics Engineers (mostly with an academic background in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering or Chemistry).

Information about this author is currently not available.

John R. Wagner, Jr.

John Wagner is a Director of Crescent Associates, Inc., which specializes in plastic films and flexible packaging. He holds numerous patents on flexible packaging films and coating technology, has contributed to and co-edited The SPE Guide on Extrusion Technology and Troubleshooting and The Plastics Technician’s Toolbox-Extrusion, and is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting. He is on the SPE Extrusion Division Board of Directors.

Affiliations and Expertise

Crescent Associates, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA

View additional works by John R. Wagner, Jr.
Information about this author is currently not available.

Extrusion, 2nd Edition

Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition

Obituary

Part I: Single Screw Extrusion

1. Extrusion Process

Abstract

1.1 Raw Material Supply

1.2 Raw Material Blending and Mixing

1.3 Drying

1.4 Feeding Polymer to the Extruder

1.5 Extrusion

1.6 Secondary Operations

1.7 Inspection, Packaging, and Shipping

2. Extruder Safety

Abstract

2.1 Hazards Associated with an Extruder

2.2 Proper Training

2.3 Inspection and Housekeeping

2.4 Material Safety

3. Single Screw Extruder: Equipment

Abstract

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Equipment

3.3 Drive

3.4 Feed

3.5 Screw, Barrel, and Heaters

3.6 Die and Adapter

3.7 Controls

3.8 Extruder Devolatilization

3.9 Vertical Extruders

References

4. Plastic Behavior in the Extruder

Abstract

4.1 Feed Zone

4.2 Polymer Melting or Plastication

4.3 Melt Conveying

4.4 Mixing

4.5 Extruder Throughput Calculations

4.6 Devolatilization

4.7 Die

References

5. Screw Design

Abstract

5.1 Barrier Screw

5.2 Mixing Screw

5.3 Screw Wear

5.4 Screw Compression Ratios

5.5 Screw Performance

5.6 Summary

References

6. Processing Conditions

Abstract

6.1 Extruder Temperature Profiles

6.2 Extruder or Production Run Setup

6.3 Start-Up

6.4 Steady-State Operation

6.5 Shutdown and Product Changes

References

7. Scale-Up

Abstract

References

8. Shear Rates, Pressure Drops, and Other Extruder Calculations

Abstract

8.1 Shear Rates

8.2 Extruder Screw Calculations

8.3 Different Extruder Section Output Calculations

References

Part II: Twin Screw Extrusion

9. Twin Screw Extrusion Process

Abstract

9.1 Raw Material Supply

9.2 Raw Material Blending and Mixing

9.3 Drying and Devolatilization

9.4 Feeding Polymer to the Extruder

9.5 Extrusion

9.6 Secondary Operations

9.7 Inspection, Packaging, and Shipping

References

10. Extruder Safety

Abstract

10.1 Hazards Associated with an Extruder

10.2 Personal Protective Equipment

10.3 Lock-Out, Tag, and Clear Procedure

10.4 Proper Training

10.5 Inspection and Housekeeping

10.6 Material Safety

11. Twin Screw Extruder Equipment

Abstract

11.1 Drive

11.2 Feed

11.3 Screw and Barrel Heating and Cooling

11.4 Die and Adapter

11.5 Controls

References

12. Plastic Behavior in Twin Screw Extruders

Abstract

12.1 Feed

12.2 Plasticating and Melting

12.3 Melt Conveying

12.4 Mixing

12.5 Downstream Feeding

12.6 Devolatilization

12.7 Pumping

12.8 Die

12.9 Melt Pressure Profile

12.10 Residence Time

References

13. Screw Design

Abstract

13.1 Conveying

13.2 Mixing Elements

13.3 Screw Design Applications

Reference

14. Processing Conditions

Abstract

14.1 Extruder Temperature Profile

14.2 Screw Speed

14.3 Process Variables

14.4 Extruder or Production Run Setup

14.5 Start-Up

14.6 Steady-State Operation

14.7 Shutdown and Product Changes

15. Applications

Abstract

15.1 Compounding

15.2 Reactive Extrusion and Devolatilization

15.3 Profile and Other Twin Screw Extrusion Applications

References

16. Scale-Up

Abstract

17. Shear Rate, Pressure Drop, and Other Extruder Calculations

Abstract

17.1 Shear Rates

17.2 Extruder Calculations

17.3 Other Calculations

References

Part III: Polymeric Materials

18. Polymer Overview and Definitions

Abstract

18.1 Overview

18.2 Thermoplastic versus Thermoset

18.3 Polymer Formation

18.4 Molecular Weight

18.5 Copolymers

18.6 Polymer Structures

19. Polymer Structure

Abstract

19.1 Amorphous Polymers

19.2 Semicrystalline Polymers

19.3 Comparison of Semicrystalline and Amorphous Polymers

19.4 Crystallinity Measurement

19.5 Polyethylene Crystallinity

19.6 Polypropylene Crystallinity

19.7 Polystyrene Crystallinity

20. Polymer Rheology

Abstract

20.1 Definitions

20.2 Measurement

20.3 Viscosity in Extrusion

References

21. Testing Properties

Abstract

21.1 Density and Specific Gravity

21.2 Melt Flow Index

21.3 Tensile

21.4 Flexural Test

21.5 Compressive Strength

21.6 Heat Deflection Temperature

21.7 Long-Term Heat Aging

21.8 Thermal Properties

21.9 Time–Temperature Relationship

21.10 Izod Impact

21.11 Charpy

21.12 Comparative Thermoplastic Properties

21.13 Polymer Additives

21.14 Drying

22. Processing Recommendations for Various Resin Systems

Abstract

22.1 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene

22.2 Polyamide

22.3 Polyethylene

22.4 Polymethyl Methacrylate (Acrylic)

22.5 Polypropylene

22.6 Polycarbonate

22.7 Polystyrene

22.8 Polyvinyl Chloride

22.9 Polyester

22.10 Fluoropolymers

References

Part IV: Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process

23. Problem Solving

Abstract

24. Five-Step Problem Solving Process

Abstract

24.1 Problem Definition

24.2 Fix the Problem

24.3 Identify the Root Cause

24.4 Take Corrective Action

24.5 Process Monitoring

Reference

25. Design of Experiments

Abstract

25.1 DOE Process

25.2 Experimental Design

25.3 Experiments

References

26. Quality

Abstract

26.1 Statistical Process Control

26.2 Process Capability

References

27. Troubleshooting Mechanical Extrusion Problems

Abstract

27.1 Problem 1—Extruder Screw Does Not Turn

27.2 Problem 2—DC Motor Will Not Start

27.3 Problem 3—Drive Train Problems

27.4 Problem 4—Rupture Disk Failure in the Barrel

27.5 Problem 5—Barrel/Screw Wear

27.6 Problem 6—Screw Turns and No Material Exits the Die

27.7 Problem 7—Extruder Shuts Itself Off

27.8 Problem 8—Melt Flows Out of the Barrel Vent

27.9 Problem 9—Leaking Polymer at the Breaker Plate or Die

27.10 Problem 10—Extruder Throughput Rate is Lower than Anticipated

27.11 Problem 11—Temperature Overrides Set Point

27.12 Problem 12—Extruder Surging Caused by the Equipment

27.13 Problem 13—Poor or Insufficient Polymer Mixing

27.14 Problem 14—Throughput Variation Over Time

References

28. Troubleshooting Extrusion Product Problems

Abstract

28.1 Problem 1—Product Surging

28.2 Problem 2—Variation in the Product Over Time

28.3 Problem 3—Random Product Variation

28.4 Problem 4—Streaks in the Product Caused by Poor Mixing

28.5 Problem 5—Variation in Product Strength

28.6 Problem 6—Product Degradation

28.7 Problem 7—Dull Streaks

28.8 Problem 8—Machine Direction Die Lines

28.9 Problem 9—Color Contamination

28.10 Problem 10—Holes in Extrudate

28.11 Problem 11—Gels

28.12 Problem 12—Gauge Variations

28.13 Problem 13—Weld Lines

28.14 Problem 14—Weak Film or Coating

28.15 Problem 15—Warpage

28.16 Problem 16—Sink

29. Troubleshooting Sheet Extrusion

Abstract

29.1 Mechanical Problems and Solutions

29.2 Product Problems and Solutions

30. Troubleshooting Cast Film

Abstract

30.1 Problem 1—Molten Web Tears Easily When Exiting the Die

30.2 Problem 2—Film Thickness Variation

30.3 Problem 3—Lines, Streaks, and Foreign Contamination

30.4 Problem 4—Extrudate Width is Too Narrow

30.5 Problem 5—Wrinkles are Formed in the Film

30.6 Problem 6—Roughness on Film Due to Melt Fracture

31. Troubleshooting Blown Film

Abstract

31.1 Problem 1—Bubble Instability

31.2 Problem 2—Gauge Variation Around the Circumference

31.3 Problem 3—Wrinkles

31.4 Problem 4—Lines, Streaks, or Film Contamination

31.5 Problem 5—Rough Film Due to Melt Fracture

References

32. Troubleshooting Profile and Pipe

Abstract

32.1 Problem 1—Excessive Wall Thickness or Thinness

32.2 Problem 2—Wavy Surface Inside the Pipe or Tubing

32.3 Problem 3—Weld or Knit Line Weakness

32.4 Problem 4—Nonuniform Resin Velocity from a Profile Die

Part V: Auxiliary Equipment

33. Feed Systems

Abstract

33.1 Feed System

33.2 Blending Systems for Single Screw Extrusion

33.3 Feeders

References

34. Drying

Abstract

34.1 Drying Definitions and Factors Affecting Drying

34.2 Types of Drying Equipment

34.3 Purchasing a Dryer

References

35. Screen Changers

Abstract

35.1 Breaker Plate with Screens

35.2 Manual Screen Changer

35.3 Hydraulic Screen Changer

35.4 Double Bolt Screen Changer

35.5 Ribbon-Type Screens

35.6 Rotary Disk Screen Changer

References

36. Gear Pumps

Abstract

36.1 Gear Pump System

36.2 Drive and Control System

36.3 Potential Gear Pump Problems

36.4 Applications

References

37. Granulators

Abstract

38. Chillers and Heaters

Abstract

38.1 Chillers

38.2 Heaters

Reference

Part VI: Coextrusion

39. Screw Cleaning and Purge Compounds

Abstract

39.1 Purge

39.2 Mechanical Cleaning

References

40. Coextrusion Applications

Abstract

40.1 Film

40.2 Sheet

40.3 Pipe, Tubing, and Profile

40.4 Wire Coating

40.5 Large-Part Blow Molding

References

41. Feedblocks and Dies

Abstract

41.1 Feedblocks

41.2 Multimanifold Dies

41.3 Feedblock Combined with a Manifold Die

41.4 Computer-Aided Design

References

42. Polymer Selection for Coextrusion

Abstract

42.1 Melt Viscosity Matching

42.2 Interfacial Instability

References

43. Troubleshooting Coextrusion

Abstract

43.1 Problem 1—Nonuniform Cross or Transverse Direction Layer Thickness

43.2 Problem 2—Nonuniform MD Layer Thickness

43.3 Problem 3—Interfacial Instability

43.4 Problem 4—Repetitive Layer Thickness Variations

43.5 Problem 5—Layer Rearrangement

43.6 Problem 6—Layers Are Not the Correct Thickness

43.7 Problem 7—Poor Adhesion between Layers in a Structure

43.8 Problem 8—Structural Integrity Problems from Recycle

43.9 Problem 9—Haze Level is Higher than Anticipated

43.10 Problem 10—Product Discoloration

43.11 Problem 11—Gel or Lump Formation

43.12 Problem 12—Warpage

43.13 Problem 13—Regrind Utilization

Part VII: Extrusion Applications

44. Compounding

Abstract

44.1 Pelletizing Process

44.2 Operation

References

45. Sheet and Cast Film

Abstract

45.1 Sheet

45.2 Cast Film

References

46. Blown Film

Abstract

46.1 Die

46.2 Cooling

46.3 Blown Film Tower

46.4 Winders

46.5 Gauging

46.6 Operation

References

47. Extrusion Coating and Lamination

Abstract

48. Wire and Cable Coating

Abstract

48.1 Pretreatment

48.2 Die

48.3 Downstream Equipment

48.4 Polymers

Reference

49. Profile Extrusion

Abstract

49.1 Die

49.2 Calibration and Cooling Tank

49.3 Puller

49.4 Cutters

49.5 Thermoplastic Materials

References

50. Pipe and Tubing Extrusion

Abstract

50.1 Die

50.2 Cooling and Sizing

50.3 Puller

50.4 Packaging

50.5 Scale-Up

References

51. Monofilaments

Abstract

51.1 Die

51.2 Quench Tank

51.3 Drawing Unit with Ovens

51.4 On-Line Gauging

51.5 Creel

51.6 Testing

Reference

52. Extrusion Blow Molding

Abstract

52.1 Parison Delivery System

52.2 Tooling

52.3 Materials

52.4 Equipment Selection

References

53. Foam Extrusion

Abstract

53.1 Blowing Agents

53.2 Downstream Equipment

53.3 Microcellular Foam

References

54. Solid Stock Shapes

Abstract

55. Reprocessing

Abstract

Reference

Index

 
 
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