Extrusion, 2nd Edition

The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook

 
Extrusion, 2nd Edition,Harold F. Giles Jr,John R. Wagner, Jr.,Eldridge M. Mount,ISBN9781437734812
 
 
 

  &      &      

William Andrew

9781437734812

9781437734829

640

276 X 216

A practical handbook for a major area of plastics processing, the authors’ focus on fault analysis and troubleshooting is targeted at practicing engineers, and directly impacts the bottom line by improving production efficiency and product quality.

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Key Features

  • A practical guide to the selection, design and optimization of extrusion processes and equipment
  • Designed to improve production efficiency and product quality
  • Focuses on practical fault analysis and troubleshooting techniques

Description

The second edition of Extrusion is designed to aid operators, engineers, and managers in extrusion processing in quickly answering practical day-to-day questions. The first part of the book provides the fundamental principles, for operators and engineers, of polymeric materials extrusion processing in single and twin screw extruders. The next section covers advanced topics including troubleshooting, auxiliary equipment, and coextrusion for operators, engineers, and managers. The final part provides applications case studies in key areas for engineers such as compounding, blown film, extrusion blow molding, coating, foam, and reprocessing.

This practical guide to extrusion brings together both equipment and materials processing aspects. It covers basic and advanced topics, for reference and training, in thermoplastics processing in the extruder. Detailed reference data are provided on such important operating conditions as temperatures, start-up procedures, shear rates, pressure drops, and safety.

Readership

Engineers working in product and process design, production and manufacturing with plastics.

Plastics Engineers (mostly with an academic background in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering or Chemistry).

Information about this author is currently not available.

John R. Wagner, Jr.

John Wagner is a Director of Crescent Associates, Inc., which specializes in plastic films and flexible packaging. He holds numerous patents on flexible packaging films and coating technology, has contributed to and co-edited The SPE Guide on Extrusion Technology and Troubleshooting and The Plastics Technician’s Toolbox-Extrusion, and is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting. He is on the SPE Extrusion Division Board of Directors.

Affiliations and Expertise

Crescent Associates, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA

View additional works by John R. Wagner, Jr.
Information about this author is currently not available.

Extrusion, 2nd Edition

Part 1 Single Screw Extrusion

1 Extrusion Process

    1. Raw Material Supply
    2. Raw Material Blending and Mixing
    3. Drying
    4. Feeding Polymer to the Extruder
    5. Extrusion
      1. Shaping and Drawing
      2. Solidification and Cooling
      3. Puller

    6. Secondary Operations
    7. Inspection, Packaging, and Shipping

  1. Extruder Safety
    1. Hazards Associated with an Extruder
      1. Hazards Associated with Takeoff Equipment
      2. Personal Protective Equipment
      3. Lock-Out, Tag, and Clear Procedure

    2. Proper Training
    3. Inspection and Housekeeping
    4. Material Safety

  2. Single Screw Extruder: Equipment
  3. Introduction

    1. Equipment
    2. Drive
    3. Feed
    4. Screw, Barrel and Heater
    5. Die and Adapter
    6. Controls
      1. Temperature Zone Control
      2. Melt Temperature
      3. Pressure Measurement
      4. On-line Measurements
      5. Control Summary

    7. Extruder Devolatilization
    8. Vertical Extruders
    9. Prevention of Corrosion and Erosion?

  4. Plastic Behavior in the Extruder
    1. Feed Zone
    2. Polymer Melting or Plastication
    3. Melt Conveying
    4. Mixing
    5. Extruder Throughput Calculations
    6. Devolatilization
    7. Die

  5. Screw Design
    1. Barrier Screw
    2. Mixing Screw
    3. Screw Wear
      1. Worn Screws

    4. Screw Compression Ratios
    5. Screw Performance
    6. Summary

  6. Processing Conditions
    1. Extruder Temperature Profiles
    2. Extruder or Production Run Setup
    3. Start-up
    4. Steady-state Operation
    5. Shutdown and Product Changes

  7. Scale UP
  8. Shear Rates, Pressure Drops, and Other Extruder Calculations
    1. Shear Rates
    2. Extruder Screw Calculations
    3. Calculations of Output in Different Sections of the Extruder

    Part 2 Twin Screw Extrusion.

  9. Twin Screw Extrusion Process
    1. Raw Material Supply
    2. Raw Material Blending and Mixing
    3. Drying and Devolatilization
    4. Feeding Polymer to the Extruder
    5. Extrusion
      1. Shaping and Drawing
      2. Solidification and Cooling
      3. Puller

    6. Secondary Operations
    7. Inspection, Packaging and Shipping

  10. Extruder Safety
    1. Hazards Associated with an Extruder
      1. Hazards Associated with Takeoff Equipment

    2. Personal Protective Equipment
    3. Lock-Out, Tag, and Clear Procedure
    4. Proper Training
    5. Inspection and Housekeeping
    6. Material Safety

  11. Twin Screw Extruder Equipment
    1. Drive
    2. Feed
    3. Screw and Barrel Heating and Cooling
    4. Die and Adapter
    5. Controls
      1. Temperature Zone Control
      2. Pressure Measurement
      3. In-Line Measurements
      4. Control Summary

  12. Plastic Behavior in Twin Screw Extruders
    1. Feed
    2. Plasticating and Melting
    3. Melt Conveying
    4. Mixing
    5. Downstream Feeding
    6. Devolatilization
    7. Pumping
    8. Die
    9. Melt Pressure Profile
    10. Residence Time

  13. Screw Design
    1. Screw element design, Feed, Kneeding, Conveying, Pumping, reverse,
    2. Consider covering segmented screws and barrels like Cooperion (W&P) machines.
    3. Consider covering how screw design can be altered using different types of screw elements for different materials and extrusion regimes.
    4. Consider covering vents to remove volatiles such as moisture from PA’s during extrusion.
    5. Mixing Elements
    6. Screw Design Applications
    7. Consider covering materials of construction of barrel and screws for different polymers

    Consider covering surface treatment of screws such nitrating and ion implantation etc.

  14. Processing Conditions
    1. Extruder Temperature Profile
    2. Screw Speed
    3. Process Variables
    4. Extruder or Production Run Setup
    5. Start-Up
    6. Steady-State Operation
    7. Shutdown and Product Changes
      1. Disassembling Screw Elements
      2. Scenario #1
      3. Scenario #2
      4. Scenario #3
      5. Scenario #4
      6. Scenario #5
      7. Scenario #6
      8. Scenario #7
      9. Scenario #8

  15. Applications
    1. Compounding
    2. Reactive Extrusion and Devolatilization
    3. Profile and Other Twin Screw Extrusion Applications

  16. Scale-Up
  17. Shear Rate, Pressure Drop, and Other Extruder Calculations
    1. Shear Rates
    2. Extruder Calculations
    3. Other Calculations

    Part 3 Polymeric Materials

  18. Polymer Overview and Definitions
    1. Overview
    2. Thermoplastic versus Thermoset
    3. Polymer Formation
    4. Molecular Weight
    5. Copolyers
    6. Polymer Structures

  19. Polymer Structure
    1. Amorphous Polymers
    2. Semicrystalline Polymers
    3. Comparison of Semicrystalline and Amorphous Polymers
    4. Crystallinity Measurement
    5. Polyethylene Crystallinity
    6. Polypropylene Crystallinity
    7. Polystyrene Crystallinity

  20. Polymer Rheology
    1. Definitions
    2. Measurement
    3. Viscosity in Extrusion

  21. Testing Properties
    1. Density and Specific Gravity
    2. Melt flow Index
    3. Tensile
    4. Flexural Test
    5. Compressive Strength
    6. Heat Deflection Temperature
    7. Long-Term Heat Aging
    8. Thermal Properties
    9. Time-Temperature Relationship
    10. Izod Impact
    11. Charpy
    12. Comparative Thermoplastic Properties
    13. Polymer Additives
    14. Drying
    15. Processing Recommendations for Various Resin Systems

    16. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Stryrene
      1. Extrusion Temperature Profile

    17. Polyamide
      1. Drying
      2. Extrusion Conditions
      3. Amorphous Polyamide

    18. Polyethylene
    19. 22.3.1 Extrusion Conditions

    20. Polymethyl Methacrylate (Acrylic)
      1. Extrusion Conditions

    21. Polypropylene
      1. Extrusion Conditions

    22. Polycarbonate
      1. Extrusion Conditions

    23. Polystyrene
      1. Extrusion Conditions

    24. Polyester
      1. Extrusion Conditions

    25. Polyvinyl Chloride

    Part 4 Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process

  22. Problem Solving
  23. Five Step Problem Solving Process
    1. Problem Definition
    2. Fix the Problem
    3. Identify the Root Cause
    4. Take Corrective Action
    5. Process Monitoring

  24. Design of Experiments
    1. DOE Process
      1. Defining the Problem
      2. Plan the Experiment
      3. Data Collection
      4. Data Analysis
      5. Report Conclusions

    2. Experimental Design
    3. Experiments
      1. Factorial Design
      2. Response Surface
      3. Mixture Experiments

    Reference and Software Providers

    Review Questions

  25. Quality
    1. Statistical Process Control
    2. Process Capability
    3. References
    4. Review Questions

  26. Troubleshooting Mechanical Extrusion Problems
    1. Problem 1- Extruder Screw Dosen’t Turn
    2. Problem 2- DC Motor Will Not Start
    3. Problem 3-Drive Train Problems
    4. Problem 4-Rupture Disk Failure in Barrel
    5. Probelm 5-Barrel/Screw Wear
    6. Problem 6- Screw Turns and No Material Exits the Die
    7. Problem 7-Extruder Shuts Itself Off
    8. Problem 8-Melt Flows Out the Barrel Vent
    9. Problem 9-Leaking Polymer at Breaker Plate or Die
    10. Problem 10-Extruder Throughput Rate Is Lower than Anticipated
    11. Problem 11-Temperature Overrides Setpoint
    12. Problem 12- Extruder Surging Caused by the Equipment
    13. Problem 13- Poor or Insufficient Polymer Mixing
    14. Problem 14-Throughput Variation Over Time

  27. Troubleshooting Extrusion Product Problems
    1. Problem 1-Product Surging
    2. Problem 2- Variation in the Product Over Time
    3. Problem 3-Random Product Variation
    4. Problem 4-Streaks in the Product Caused by Poor Mixing
    5. Problem 5- Variation in Product Strength
    6. Problem 6- Product Degradation
    7. Problem 7- Dull Streaks
    8. Problem 8- Machine Direction Die Lines
    9. Problem 9- Color Contamination
    10. Problem 10-Holes in Extrudate
    11. Problem 11-Gels
    12. Problem 12-Gauge Variations
    13. Problem 13-Weld Lines
    14. Problem 14- Weak Film or Coating
    15. Problem 15- Warpage
    16. Problem 16- Sink

  28. Troubleshooting Sheet Extrusion
    1. Mechanical Problems and Solutions
      1. Problem 1-Die Lip Damage Causing Defects in the Machine Direction
      2. Problem 2-Chill Roll Adjustment or Condition
      3. Problem 3-Product Variations Caused by the Puller Rolls or Winder
      4. Problem 4-Static Charge Build-up on Sheet
      5. Problem 5-Other Equipment Problems

    2. Product Problems and Solutions
      1. Problem 1-Sheet Product Contamination
      2. Problem 2-Poor and or Nonuniform Gloss
      3. Problem 3-Inferior Transparency
      4. Problem 4-Color Shift or Wrong
      5. Problem 5-Sheet is Brittle
      6. Problem 6-Surface Voids, Indentations, and Imperfections
      7. Problem 7-High or Inconsistent Molecular Orientation
      8. Problem 8-Warped Sheet
      9. Problem 9-Thickness Variations
      10. Problem 10-Lines and Roughness on Sheet

  29. Troubleshooting Cast Film
    1. Problem 1-Molten Web Tears Easily When Exiting the Die
    2. Problem 2-Film Thickness Variation
    3. Problem 3-Lines,Streaks, and Foreign Contamination
    4. Problem 4-Extrude Width Is Too Narrow
    5. Problem 5-Wrinkles Are Formed in The Film
    6. Problem 6-Roughness on Film Due to Melt Fracture

  30. Troubleshooting Blown Film
    1. Problem 1-Bubble Instability
    2. Problem 2- Gauge Variation Around the Circumference
    3. Problem 3- Wrinkles
    4. Problem 4-Lines, streaks, or Film Contamination
    5. Problem 5-Rough Film Due to Melt Fracture

  31. Troubleshooting Profile and Pipe
    1. Problem 1-Excessive Wall Thickness or Thinness
    2. Problem 2-Wavy Surface Inside Pipe or Tubing
    3. Problem 3-Weld or Knit Line Weakness
    4. Problem 4-Nonuniform Resin Velocity from Profile Die

    Part 5 Auxiliary Equipment

  32. Feed Systems
    1. Feed System
    2. Blending Systems for Single Screw Extrusion
    3. Feeders
      1. Volumetric Feeder
      2. Gravimetric Feeders
      3. Liquid Feeders
      4. References and Photo Credits

  33. Drying
    1. Drying Definitions and Factors Affecting Drying
    2. Types of Drying Equipment
      1. Oven Drying System
      2. Hopper Dryers and Central Drying Systems

    3. Purchasing a Dryer

  34. Screen Changers
    1. Breaker Plate with Screens
    2. Manual Screen Changer
    3. Hydraulic Screen Changer
    4. Double Bolt Screen Changer
    5. Ribbon-Type Screens
    6. Rotary Disk Screen Changer

  35. Gear Pumps
    1. Gear Pump System
    2. Drive and Control System
    3. Potential Gear Pump Problems
    4. Applications

  36. Granulators
  37. Chillers and Heaters
  38. Screw Cleaning and Purge Compounds
    1. Purge
    2. Mechanical Cleaning

Part 6 Coextrusion

40 Coextrusion Applications

40.1 Film

40.2 Sheet

40.3 Pipe, Tubing, and Profile

40.4 Wire Coating

40.5 Large-Part Blow Molding

41 Feedblocks and Dies

41.1 Feedblocks

41.2 Multimanifold Dies

41.3 Feedblock Combined with a Manifold Die

41.4 Computer-Aided Design

42 Polymer Selection for Coextrusion

42.1 Melt Viscosity Matching

42.2 Interfacial Instability

43 Troubleshooting Coextrusion

43.1 Problem 1-Nonuniform Cross or Trasverse Direction (CD or TD) Layer Thickness

43.2 Problem 2-Nonuniform Machine Direction (MD) Layer Thickness

43.3 Problem 3-Interfacial Instability

43.4 Problem 4-Repetitive Layer Thickness Variations

43.5 Problem 5-Layer Rearrangement

43.6 Problem 6-Layers Aren’t the Correct Thickness

43.7 Problem 7-Poor Adhesion Between Layers in Structure

43.8 Problem 8-Structural Integrity Problems from Recycle

43.9 Problem 9-Haze Level Is Higher than Anticipated

43.10 Problem 10-Product Discoloration

43.11 Problem 11-Gel or Lump Formation

43.12 Problem 12-Warpage

43.13 Problem 13-Regrind Utilization

Part 7 Extrusion Applications

44 Compounding

44.1 Pelletizing Process

44.2 Operation

45 Sheet and Cast Film

45.1 Sheet

45.1.1 Die

45.1.2 Three-Roll Stack

45.1.3 Puller Rolls

45.1.4 Windup or Stacker

45.1.5 Thickness Measurement

45.1.6 Operation

45.2 Cast Film

45.2.1 Die

45.2.2 Rolls

45.2.3 Film Treatment

45.2.4 Slitter

45.2.5 Gauging

45.2.6 Winders

45.2.7 Operation

46 Blown Film

46.1 Die

46.2 Cooling

46.3 Blown Film Tower

46.4 Winders

46.5 Gauging

46.7 Operation

47 Extrusion Coating and Lamination

48 Wire and Cable Coating

48.1 Pretreatment

48.2 Die

48.3 Downstream Equipment

48.4 Polymers

49 Profile Extrusion

49.1 Die

49.2 Calibration and Cooling Tank

49.3 Puller

49.4 Cutters

49.5 Thermoplastic Materials

50 Pipe and Tubing Extrusion

50.1 Die

50.2 Cooling Sizing

50.3 Puller

50.4 Packaging

50.5 Scale-Up

51 Monofilament

51.1 Die

51.2 Quench Tank

51.3 Drawing Unit with Ovens

51.4 On-Line Gauging

51.5 Creel

51.6 Testing

52 Extrusion Blow Molding

52.1 Parison Delivery System

52.2 Tooling

52.3 Materials

52.4 Equipment Selection

53 Foam Extrusion

53.1 Blowing Agents

53.2 Downstream Equipment

53.3 Microcellular Foam

54 Solid Stock Shapes

55 Reprocessing

 
 
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