Handbook of Plasma Processing Technology, 1st Edition

Fundamental, Etching, Deposition and Surface Interactions

Handbook of Plasma Processing Technology, 1st Edition,Stephen M. Rossnagel,William D. Westwood,Jerome J. Cuomo,ISBN9780815512202

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William Andrew



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This is a comprehensive overview of the technology of plasma-based processing, written by an outstanding group of 29 contributors.

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This is a comprehensive overview of the technology of plasma-based processing, written by an outstanding group of 29 contributors.


Scientists, engineers, graduate students in the fields of semiconductors, thin films, energy, environment, automotive, medical and food packaging.

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Information about this author is currently not available.
Information about this author is currently not available.

Handbook of Plasma Processing Technology, 1st Edition

1. Techniques for IC Processing
David B. Fraser and William D. Westwood
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Plasma Processing in Microelectronics
1.3 Summary
2. Introduction to Plasma Concepts and Discharge Configurations
Joseph L. Cecci
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fundamental Plasma Discharge Concepts
2.3 Electron Heating and Energy Distribution
2.4 Breakdown
2.5 Glow Discharges
2.6 References
3. Fundamentals of Sputtering and Reflection
David N. Ruzic
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Modeling
3.3 Experimental Yields
3.4 Exceptions
3.5 References
4. Bombardment-Induced Compositional Changes with Alloys, Oxides, Oxysalts, and Halides
Roger Kelly
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Role of the Surface Binding Energy
4.3 The Role of Segregation
4.4 The Role of Bombardment Induced Decomposition
4.5 Overview
4.6 References
5. RF Diode Sputter Etching and Deposition
Joseph S. Logan
5.1 Introduction
5.2 RF Discharges
5.3 Equipment
5.4 RF Sputter-Deposition
5.5 Sputter Etching Applications
5.6 Practical Matters
5.7 References
6. Magnetron Plasma Deposition Processes
Stephen M. Rossnagel
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Experiments
6.3 Summary
6.4 References
7. Broad-Beam Ion Source
Harold R. Kaufman and Raymond S. Robinson
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Gridded Ion Sources
7.3 Gridless Ion Sources
7.4 Concluding Remarks
7.5 References
8. Reactive Ion Etching
Gottlieb S. Oehrlein
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Etch Directionality
8.3 Plasma Chemical Considerations
8.4 Etch Selectivity
8.5 Contamination and Damage Issues
8.6 Reactor, Equipment Considerations
8.7 End Point Detection and Plasma Diagnostics
8.8 Current Trends
8.9 References
9. Reactive Sputter Deposition
William D. Westwood
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Plasma Based Sputtering Techniques: Hysteresis Effects
9.3 Reaction Kinetics: Models
9.4 Sputtered Species
9.5 Plasma Based Sputtering Systems
9.6 Reactive Sputter Deposition with Ion Beams
9.7 Conclusions
9.8 References
10. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films for Microelectronics
Rafael Reif
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Nonequilibrium Glow Discharges
10.3 Potentials in RF Glow Discharges
10.4 Qualitative Model for PECVD
10.5 Commercial PECVD Systems
10.6 PECVD of Dielectric Films
10.7 PECVD of Polycrystalline Silicon Films
10.8 PECVD of Epitaxial Films
10.9 PECVD of Refractory Metals and their Silicides
10.10 PECVD of Diamond Films
10.11 Other Plasma Deposition Configurations
10.12 Summary
10.13 References
11. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Microwave Discharges for Etching and Thin Film Deposition
Jes Asmussen
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Energy Coupling and Power Balance in Steady State Microwave Discharges
11.3 Microwave Energy Coupling vs. Pressure in a Uniform Magnetic Field Gradient
11.4 Microwave Energy Coupling in a Nonuniform Static Magnetic Field
11.5 Microwave System Considerations
11.6 Fundamental ECR Applicator Configurations
11.7 Microwave Plasma Processing Reactors
11.8 Discharge Characteristics
11.9 Discussion
11.10 References
12. Hollow Cathode Etching and Deposition
Chris M. Horwitz
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Discharge Confinement Effects
12.3 Etched Sidewall Angle Control
12.4 Etching Performance
12.5 Si Deposition Performance
12.6 Conclusions
12.7 References
13. Ion Plating
Donald M. Mattox
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Processing Plasma Environment
13.3 Bombardment Effects on Surfaces and Film Growth
13.4 Vaporization Sources for Ion Plating
13.5 Bombardment Effects on Film Properties
13.6 Problem Areas
13.7 Applications
13.8 Summary
13.9 References
14. Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) Deposition Techniques
Isao Yamada
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Experimental Techniques
14.3 Film Deposition with ICB
14.4 Summary
14.5 References
15. The Activated Reactive Evaporation (ARE) Process
Chandra V. Deshpandey and Rointan F. Bunshah
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Evaporation Processes for the Deposition of Compound Films
15.3 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Factors in Reactive Evaporation Process
15.4 Role of Plasma in Evaporation Based Processes
15.5 Implementation of the Activated Reactive Evaporation Process
15.6 Recent Developments in the ARE Process
15.7 Structure and Properties of the Films
15.8 Materials Synthesized Using the ARE Process
15.9 Future Outlook and Perspectives
15.10 Conclusions
15.11 References
16. Formation of Thim Films by Remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (Remote PECVD)
Gerold Locovsky, David V. Tsu, and Robert J. Markunas
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Background û CVD Processes
16.3 The Remote CVD Deposition Process
16.4 Chemical Reaction Pathways in the Remote PECVD Process
16.5 Selected Bulk Properties of Deposited Thin Films
16.6 Remote PECVD Dielectric Films in Device Structures
16.7 Recent Developments in Remote PECVD
16.8 Summary
16.9 References
17. Selective Bias Sputter Deposition
Soren Berg and Claes Nender
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Substrate Dependent Bias Sputter Deposition
17.3 Deposition-Etching Balance in Bias Sputtering
17.4 Sputtering Yield Values at the Film-Substrate Interface
17.5 Selective Bias Sputter Deposition
17.6 Selective Bias Sputter Etching
17.7 The Self-Limiting Etch Depth Technique
17.8 Conclusions
17.9 References
18. Vacuum Arc-Based Processing
David Sanders
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Categories of Vacuum Arcs
18.3 Source Design Considerations
18.4 Coatings from Arcs (Structures and Properties)
18.5 Applications and Opportunities
18.6 Gaps in Understanding
18.7 Conclusion
18.8 References
19. Ion Source Interactions: General Understandings
Russell Messier, Joseph E. Yehoda, and Lawrence J. Pilione
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Preparation-Ion Bombardment Relations
19.3 Ion Bombardment-Property Relations
19.4 Ion Bombardment-Structure Relations
19.5 The Interaction of Ions with the Growing Film
19.6 Conclusions
19.7 References
20. Ion Assisted Deposition
James J. McNally
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Background
20.3 Experimental Apparatus
20.4 Properties of IAD Films
20.5 Properties of Dual IBS Films
20.6 Advantages and Limitations
20.7 Conclusion
20.8 References
21. Microstructural Control of Plasma-Sputtered Refractory Coatings
David W. Hoffman and Robert C. McCune
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Bias Sputtering
21.3 Coincidental Control of Coatings Deposited by Plasma Sputtering
21.4 Modelling of Matter-Energy Co-Deposition in Refractory Coatings
21.5 References

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"The text provides and excellent reference for plasma processing." - SAMPE Journal
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