Analog Circuits, 1st Edition

CHAPTER 1 Review of Feedback Systems

*Introduction and Some Early History of Feedback Control

*Invention of the Negative Feedback Amplifier

*Control System Basics

*Loop Transmission and Disturbance Rejection

*Stability

*Routh Stability Criterion

*The Phase Margin and Gain Margin Tests

*Relationship Between Damping Ratio and Phase Margin

*Loop Compensation Techniques¡XLead and Lag Networks

*Parenthetical Comment on Some Interesting Feedback Loops

*Example 1.1: Gain of +1 amplifier

*Example 1.2: Gain of +10 amplifier

*Example 1.3: Integral control of reactive load

*Example 1.4: Photodiode amplifier

*Example 1.5: MOSFET current source

*Example 1.6: Maglev example

*Appendix: MATLAB Scripts MATLAB script for gain of +1 and +10 amplifiers

*References

Chapter 2 My Approach to Feedback Loop Design

*My Approach to Design

*What Is a V/I Source?

*An Ideal V/I Source

*Designing a V/I Source

*Capacitive Load Compensation

*Model to Investigate Overshoot

*Back To The Frequency Domain

*Range of Compensation Required

*Phase Margin Approach to Loop Compensation

*LTX Device Power Source (DPS) Performance

*Summary of My Method

CHAPTER 3 Basic Operational Amplifier Topologies and a Case Study

*Basic Device Operation

*Example 3.1: Case study: Design, analysis and simulation of a discrete operational amplifier

*Brief Review of LM741 Op-Amp Schematic

*Some Real-World Limitations of Operational Amplifiers Voltage offset

*Example 3.2: Op-amp driving capacitive load

*References

CHAPTER 4 Finding the Perfect Op Amp for Your Perfect Circuit

*Choose the Technology Wisely

*Using these Fundamentals

*Ampliﬁer Design Pitfalls

*References

CHAPTER 5 Review of Passive Components and a Case Study in PC Board Layout

*Resistors

*Comments on Surface-Mount Resistors

*Comments on Resistor Types

*Capacitors

*Inductors

*Discussion of Printed-Circuit Board Layout Issues

*Approximate Inductance of a PC Board Trace Above a Ground Plane

*Example 5.1: Design case study¡Xhigh-speed semiconductor laser diode driver

*References

CHAPTER 6 ANALOG LOWPASS FILTERS

*A Quick Introduction to Analog Filters

*Passive Filters

*"Normalization" and "De-normalization"

*Poles and Zero's

*Active Lowpass Filters

*First-Order Filter Section

*Sallen-Key Lowpass Filter

*Sallen-Key Roll-Off Deficiencies

*Denormalizing Sallen-Key Filter Designs

*State Variable Lowpass Filters

*Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters

*Denormalizing State Variable or Biquad Designs

*Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance (FDNR) Filters

*Denormalization of FDNR Filters References

*References

CHAPTER 7 HIGHPASS FILTERS

*Active Highpass Filters

*First-Order Filter Section

*Sample-and-Difference Circuit

*Sallen-Key Highpass Filter

*Using Lowpass Pole to Find Component Values

*Using Highpass Poles to Find Component Values

*Operational Ampliﬁer Requirements

*Denormalizing Sallen-Key or First-Order Designs

*State Variable Highpass Filters

*Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters

*Denormalizing State Variable or Biquad Designs

*Gyrator Filters

*References

CHAPTER 8 Noise ¡V The Three Categories: Device, Conducted and Emitted

*Deﬁnitions of Noise Speciﬁcations and Terms

*References

Chapter 9 How to Design Analog Circuits without a Computer or a Lot of Paper

*My Background

*Breaking Down a Circuit

*Equivalent Circuits

*Stock Parts Values

*RC Networks

*Stabilizing a Feedback Loop

*Circuit Impedance

*New Parts

*Breadboarding

*Testing

*How Much To Learn

*Settling Time Tester

CHAPTER 10 BANDPASS FILTERS

*Lowpass to Bandpass Transformation

*Passive Filters

*Formula for Passive Bandpass Filter Denormalization

*Active Bandpass Filters

*Bandpass Poles and Zeroes

*Bandpass Filter Midband Gain

*Multiple Feedback Bandpass Filter

*Dual Ampliﬁer Bandpass (DABP) Filter

*Denormalizing DABP Active Filter Designs

*State Variable Bandpass Filters

*Denormalization of State Variable Design

*Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters

*Denormalizing Biquad Designs

*References

CHAPTER 11 Bandstop (Notch) Filters

*Passive Filters

*Formula for Passive Bandstop Filter Denormalization

*Active Bandstop Filters

*Bandstop Poles and Zeroes

*The Twin Tee Bandstop Filter

*Denormalization of Twin Tee Notch Filter

*Bandstop Using Multiple Feedback Bandpass Section

*Denormalization of Bandstop Design Using MFBP Section

*Bandstop Using Dual Ampliﬁer Bandpass (DABP) Section

*Denormalization of Bandstop Design Using DABP Section

*State Variable Bandstop Filters

*Denormalization of Bandstop State Variable Filter Section

*Cauer and Inverse Chebyshev Active Filters

*Denormalization of Bandstop Biquad Filter Section

*References

Chapter 12 Current¡VFeedback Amplifiersƒn

*The Conventional Op Amp

*Gain¡VBandwidth Trade-off

*Slew-Rate Limiting

*The Current¡VFeedback Amplifier

*No Gain¡VBandwidth Trade-off

*Absence of Slew-Rate Limiting

*Second-Order Effects

*CF Application Considerations

*CF Amp Integrators

*Stray Input¡VCapacitance Compensation

*Noise in CF Amp Circuits

*Low Distortion for Fast Sine Waves Using CF Amps

*Drawbacks of Current Feedback Amplifiers, versus Conventional Op-amps.

*References

CHAPTER 13 The Basics Behind Analog-to-Digital Converters

*The Key Speciﬁcations of Your ADC

*Delta-sigma (∆−£U) Converters

*Decimation Filter

*Conclusion

*References

CHAPTER 14 The Right ADC for the Right Application

*Classes of Input Signals

*Temperature Sensor Signal Chains

*Using an RTD for Temperature Sensing: SAR Converter or Delta-Sigma Solution?

*The RTD Current Excitation Circuit for the SAR Circuit

*RTD Signal Conditioning Path Using the SAR ADC

*Is the SAR ADC Right for this Temperature Sensing Application?

*RTD Signal Conditioning Path Using the Delta-sigma ADC

*Is the Delta-sigma ADC Right for this Temperature Sensing Application?

*Measuring Pressure: SAR Converter or Delta-sigma Solution?

*The Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

*The Pressure Sensor Signal Conditioning Path Using a SAR ADC

*Pressure Sensor Signal Conditioning Path Using a Delta-sigma ADC

*Photodiode Applications

*Photosensing Signal Conditioning Path Using a SAR ADC

*Photosensing Signal Conditioning Path Using a Delta-sigma ADC

*Motor Control Solutions

*Conclusion

*References

CHAPTER 15 Working the Analog Problem From the Digital Domain

*Pulse Width Modulators (PWM) Used as a Digital-to-Analog Converter

*Looking At This Reference in the Time Domain

*Changing This Digital Signal to Analog

*Deﬁning Your Analog Low-Pass Filter for your PWM-DAC

*Pulling the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Together

*Using the Comparator for Analog Conversions

*Input Range of a Comparator (VIN+ and VIN¡V)

*Input Hysteresis

*Window Comparator

*Combining the Comparator with a Timer

*Using the Timer and Comparator to Build a Delta-Sigma A/D Converter

*Delta-Sigma Theory

*The Controller Implementation

*Error Analysis of this Delta-sigma A/D Converter Implemented with a Controller

*RDS ON Error

*RA0 Port Leakage Current

*Nonsymmetrical Output Port (RA3)

*Voltage Reference

*Other Input Ranges

*Input Range of 2 V to 3 V

*Input Range of 10 V to 15 V

*Input Range of ¡Ó500 mV

*Conclusion

*References

Chapter 16 What¡¦s All This Error Budget Stuff, Anyhow?

Chapter 17 What's All This VBE Stuff, Anyhow?

Chapter 18 The Zoo Circuit

APPENDIX A Analog-to-Digital Converter Speciﬁcation Deﬁnitions and Formulas

Appendix B Capacitor Coefficients for Lowpass Sallen-Key Filters