Product Development, 2nd Edition

A Structured Approach to Consumer Product Development, Design, and Manufacture

Product Development, 2nd Edition,Anil Mital,Anoop Desai,Anand Subramanian,Aashi Mital,ISBN9780127999456

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An update of the first reference to cover product development from initial product concept and engineering design to design specs, manufacturability and product marketing.

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Key Features

  • Reviews the precepts of Product design in a step-by-step structured process and focuses on the concurrent nature of product design.
  • Helps the reader to understand the connection between initial design and interim and final design, including design review and materials selection.
  • Offers insight into roles played by product functionality, ease-of assembly, maintenance and durability, and their interaction with cost estimation and manufacturability through the application of design principles to actual products.


Product development teams are composed of an integrated group of professionals working from the nascent stage of new product planning through design creation and design review and then on to manufacturing planning and cost accounting. An increasingly large number of graduate and professional training programs are aimed at meeting that need by creating a better understanding of how to integrate and accelerate the entire product development process. This book is the perfect accompaniment and a comprehensive guide.

The second edition of this instructional reference work presents invaluable insight into the concurrent nature of the multidisciplinary product development process. It can be used in the traditional classroom, in professional continuing education courses or for self-study. This book has a ready audience among graduate students in mechanical and industrial engineering, as well as in many MBA programs focused on manufacturing management. This is a global need that will find a receptive readership in the industrialized world particularly in the rapidly developing industrial economies of South Asia and Southeast Asia.


Industrial engineers, Mechanical engineers; Manufacturing engineers; Product Designers; General Business managers charged with product development and manufacture; Graduate students in industrial and mechanical engineering; Graduate students in MBA programs concentrating on manufacturing management.

Anil Mital

Anil Mital is Professor of Manufacturing Design and Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. He is also the former Professor and Director of Industrial Engineering and a Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Mital is the founding Editor-in- Chief Emeritus of Elsevier’s International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics and is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering - Theory, Applications, and Practice. Dr. Mital has authored and coauthored nearly 500 publications, including 200 journal articles and 23 books. He has made over 200 technical presentations in various parts of the world. He frequently conducts seminars in different countries on a wide range of topics, such as work design, engineering economy, facilities planning, human-centered manufacturing, ergo- nomics, and product design. Dr. Mital is a Fellow of the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES). He also is a recipient of IIE’s David F. Baker Distinguished Research Award, HFES’s Paul M. Fitts Educational Award, and the Society of Automotive Engineers’ Ralph Teetor Educational Award. Dr. Mital has been recog- nized by the Engineering Economy Division of IIE through its Eugene Grant Award and by the Society of Work Sciences through its M. M. Ayoub Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Anoop Desai

Anoop Desai is Associate Professor in the College of Science and Technology at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro. He received his Ph.D. in industrial and manufacturing engineer- ing from the University of Cincinnati in 2006. Dr. Desai’s main research interests are product life-cycle management and design. His research deals extensively with Design for “X” principles, focusing primarily on green design, environment conscious manufacturing, and design and main- tainability. He also is actively involved in research and teaching related to different aspects of engineering economy and new product development. Dr. Desai has written over 25 articles, including 13 journal papers, and his research work has been widely cited.

Affiliations and Expertise

Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA.

Anand Subramanian

Anand Subramanian is a Senior Engineer at JFAssociates, Inc., based in the Washington, D.C., area. He received his doctoral and masters degrees in Industrial Engineering from the Uni- versity of Cincinnati, Ohio, and a bachelors degree in Production Engineering from the University of Bombay, India. Dr. Subramanian has been associated with JFAssociates, Inc., since 2003, where his responsibilities include experimental design, data collection, statistical data analysis, and data interpretation and documentation. His areas of expertise include ergonomic evaluations, economic analyses, facilities planning, warehouse design, and time and motion studies. He coauthored a number of journal publications and made presentations at a number of industrial engineering conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

JFAssociates, Washington DC, USA.

Aashi Mital

Aashi Mital currently is pursuing degrees in Finance and Political Science at the University of Cincinnati. Her areas of interest include finance and accounting as well as journalism. She also enjoys history and the performing arts, including the theater, the opera, and dance.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Product Development, 2nd Edition

Chapter 1. The Significance of Manufacturing
Globalization and the World Economy  
Importance of Manufacturing
  What Is Manufacturing?  
Some Basic Concepts  
  Capital Circulation or the Production Turn  
  Manufacturing Capability  
  Mass Production  
  Product Life Cycle  
  The S Curve of the Technology Growth Cycle  
  Simultaneous or Concurrent Engineering  
  Design for ‘X’  
  The Engineering Problem-Solving Process  Summary
Chapter 2. Developing Successful Products
Attributes of Successful Product Development
Key Factors to Developing Successful New Products
  Customer Focus and Market Orientation
  Doing the Homework
  Sharp and Early Product Definition
  Execution of Activities
  Organizational Structure and Climate
  Project Selection Decisions
  Telling the World You Have a Good Product
  Role of the Top Management
  Speed without Compromising Quality
  Availability of a Systematic New Product Process
  Market Attractiveness
  Experience and Core Competencies
  Miscellaneous Factors
  Strategy for New Product Development
  Determining the Company’s Growth Expectation from New Products
  Gathering Strategic Information
  Determining Existing Opportunities
  Developing a List of New Product Options
  Setting Criteria for Product Inclusion in the Portfolio
  Creating the Product Portfolio
  Managing the Portfolio
  Developing New Product Plans
Chapter 3. The Structure of the Product Design Process
What Is Design?
The Changing Design Process
Design Paradigms
  The Need for a Model
  The Need for Redundancy
  The Scale Effect
  Avoiding Starting Problem Analysis in the Middle
  Avoiding Confirming a False Hypothesis
  Avoiding Tunnel Vision
The Requirements for Design
The Design Process
  Problem Confronting the Designers
  Steps of the Engineering Design Process
  Defining the Problem and Setting Objectives
  Establishing Functions, Setting Requirements, and Developing Specifications
  Developing Provisional Designs
  Evaluation and Decision-Making
Chapter 4. Design Review: Designing to Ensure Quality
Why Quality Control?
 Reactive versus Proactive Quality Control
 Procedures for Incorporating High Quality in Design Stages
 Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)
 Mistake-Proofing (Poka-Yoke)
 Quality Function Deployment
 Design Review
Case Studies
 Design Review Case Study
 Six Sigma Case Study
 QFD Case Study 
Chapter 5. Consideration and Selection of Materials
Importance of Material Selection in Product Manufacture
Economics of Material Selection
 Cost of Materials
 Cost of Direct Labor
 Cost of Indirect Labor
 Cost of Tooling
 Capital Invested
Material Selection Procedures
 Grouping Materials in Families
 Grouping Materials Based on Process Compatibility
 Super Materials and Material Substitution
 Computer-Aided Material Selection
Design Recommendations
 Minimize Material Costs
 Ferrous Metals, Hot-Rolled Steel
 Ferrous Metals, Cold-Finished Steel
 Ferrous Metals, Stainless Steel
 Nonferrous Metals
Chapter 6. Selection of Manufacturing Processes and Design Considerations
Primary Processes
 Secondary Processes
 Tertiary Processes
Design Guidelines
 Metal Stamping
 Powdered Metal Processing
 Fine-Blanked Parts
 Machined Parts
 Screw-Machine Parts
 Planing and Shaping
 Screw Threads
 Injection Molding
Manufacturing Technology Decisions
A Typical Part Drawing and Routing Sheet
Chapter 7 Designing for Assembly and Disassembly
  Definition and the Importance of the Assembly Process
  Definition and the Importance of the Disassembly Process
Design for Assembly
  Different Methods of Assembly
Design Guidelines for Different Modes of Assembly
  Manual Assembly
  Automatic Assembly
  Robotic Assembly
Methods for Evaluating Design for Assembly
  The Hitachi Assemblability Evaluation Method
  Lucas DFA Evaluation Method
  The Boothroyd-Dewhurst DFA Evaluation Method
A Design for Assembly Method Based on MTM Standards
  A Design for Assembly Case Study
Design for Disassembly
  Disassembly Process Planning
Design for Disassembly Guidelines
Disassembly Algorithms
  Product Recovery Approach
  Optimal Disassembly Sequence Planning for Product Recovery 
   Disassembly Sequence Planning for a Product with Defective Parts
  Evaluation of Disassembly Planning Based on Economic Criteria
  Geometric Models and CAD Algorithms to Analyze Disassembly Planning
  Automation of Disassembly Technology and Predicting Future Trends 
A Proactive Design for Disassembly Method Based on MTM Standards
A Design for Disassembly Case Study
Concluding Remarks
Chapter 8. Designing for Maintenance
  Importance of Designing for Maintenance
  Factors Affecting Ease of Maintenance
Maintenance Elements and Concepts
  Maintenance Elements
  Maintenance Concepts
  Design Review for Maintainability: Planning for Maintenance and Its Management
Mathematical Models for Maintainability
  Simple Models
  An Integrated Approach to Maintenance
  Capital Replacement Modeling
  Inspection Maintenance
  Condition-Based Maintenance
  Maintenance Management Information Systems
Prediction Models for Maintenance
  The RCA Method
  The Federal Electric Method
  The Martin Method: TEAM
  The RCM Method: Maintenance Management
  Design Attributes for Enhancing Maintainability
  The SAE Maintainability Standard
  The Bretby Maintainability Index
A Comprehensive Design for a Maintenance Methodology Based on Methods Time Measurement
  A Numeric Index to Gauge the Ease of Maintenance
  Role of Work Standards and Standard Times
  Common Maintenance Procedures and the Parameters Affecting Them
  Provision for Additional Allowances for Posture, Motion, Energy, and Personnel Requirements
  Design Parameters Affecting Premaintenance Operations
  Structure of the Index
  Using the Index
  Priority Criteria for Design Evaluation
Developing and Evaluating an Index
  Numeric Index and Design Method for Disassembly and Reassembly
  Numeric Index and Design Method for Maintenance
  Priority Criteria for Maintenance
  A Holistic Method for Maintainability
  Design Modifications and Measures to Enhance Ease of Maintenance
Design for Maintenance Case Study
Concluding Remarks
Chapter 9. Designing Products for Functionality
  Definition and Importance of Functionality
  Factors Affecting Functionality
Concurrent Engineering in Product Design
  Functionality in Design
  Function and Functional Representations: Definitions
A Generic, Guideline-Based Method for Functionality
  Phase 1. Development of Generic Criteria for Functionality
  Phase 2. Validation and Testing of Developed Criteria and Processes
The Procedure for Guideline Development
Functionality Case Study: Can Opener
  Can Opener Architecture
  Can Opener Manufacturing Processes
  Guideline Development Process for the Can Opener
  Identification of Important Manufacturing Variables Affecting Functionality
  Functionality-Manufacturing Links
  Survey Development
  Statistical Analysis and Testing
  Hypothesis Test Results
  Discussion of the Results
Functionality Case Study: Automotive Braking System
  The Function of an Automotive Braking System
  The Components of an Automotive Braking System
  Wheel Cylinder Architecture
  Wheel Cylinder Manufacturing Processes
  Guideline Development Procedure for the Automotive Brake System
  Functionality-Manufacturing Links
  Survey Development
  Testing and Statistical Analysis
  Discussion of the Results
Chapter 10. Design for Usability
Criteria for Designing and Manufacturing Usable Consumer Products
  Ease of Operation
  Serviceability and Maintainability
  Environmental Friendliness
  Recyclability and Disposability
Design Support Tools and Methodologies
  Design for Producibility
  Design for Assembly
  Robust Design
  Group Technology
  Quality Function Deployment
Design Methodology for Usability
  Development of Generic Usability Evaluation Checklists
  Development of Generic Design and Manufacturing Checklists
  Reliability and Validity Testing
  Testing the Effectiveness of the Design/Manufacturing Guidelines
Generic Checklist Design: Methods and Case Studies
  Product Development for the Usability of a Can Opener
  Product Development for the Usability of a Toaster
  Checklists for Evaluating the Usability of a Consumer Product
Case Study for the Development of Customized Checklists
  Gauging User Requirements
  Technical Requirements
  Product and Process Characteristics
  Manufacturing Process Attributes
  Development of Usability and Design Checklists
Concluding Remarks
Chapter 11. Concurrent Consideration of Usability and Functionality
Design Methodology
Developing generic integrated design guidelines
Case Study: Can Opener
Case Study: Mountain Touring Bike
Case Study: Automatic Transmission
Chapter 12. Establishing the Product Selling Price
Why Estimate Costs?
  Cost and Price Structure
Information Needs and Sources
Estimating Direct and Indirect Costs
  Direct Labor Costs
  Direct Material Costs
  Indirect or Overhead Costs
  An Example
Product Pricing Methods
  Conference and Comparison Method
  Investment Method
  Full Cost Method
  Direct Costing or Contribution Method
Chapter 13. Assessing the Market Demand for the Product
Why Assess the Market Demand?
Methods for Assessing the Initial Demand
  Expert Evaluation Technique
  Jury of Executive Opinion
  Delphi Method
  Sales Force Composite
  Supply Chain Partner Forecasting
  Market Research
  Decision Tree Diagram
  Market Potential-Sales Requirement Method
Methods for Determining the Annual Growth
  Graphical Displays of Data
  Constant Mean Model
  Linear Model
  Quadratic Model
  Exponential Model
Adjusting for Seasonal Fluctuations
  Naive Model
  Moving Average Model
  Exponential Smoothing
Chapter 14. Planning the Product Manufacturing Facility Design
Determining the Location of the Manufacturing Facility
Developing the Preliminary Design for the Manufacturing Facility
  Determining Space Requirements
  Assembly Line Balancing
  Systematic Layout Planning

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