Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers

Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers, 2nd Edition

Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers, 2nd Edition,Andrei Grebennikov,Nathan Sokal,Marc Franco,ISBN9780124159075

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Academic Press




Improve your designs of switchmode RF and microwave power amplifiers and consume much less power.

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Key Features

    *Unique focus on switchmode RF and microwave power amplifiers that are widely used in cellular/wireless, satellite and radar communication systems and which offer major power consumption savings<BR>

    *Complete coverage of the new Doherty architecture which offers major efficiencies and savings on power consumption<BR>

    *Balances theory with practical implementatation, avoiding a cookbook approach, enabling engineers to develop better designs<BR>

    *Trusted content from leading figures in the field with a Foreword of endorsement by Zoya Popovic<BR>



    Power amplifiers guzzle power. At a time when there is considerable pressure to be more green and to reduce the costs of a system by developing technologies that are energy efficient, this book is particularly relevant because it focuses on energy efficient amplifiers, namely, switch mode amplifiers. These amplifiers are at the heart of cellular/wireless communications systems, being used for the transmitter but are also widely used for satellite and radar communications. This book gives engineers all they need to know to use RF and microwave power amplifiers, balancing theory with practical examples of implementation, enabling them to understand design issues and trade-offs and improve their future designs.


    RF/wireless and microwave engineers and designers; university researchers, graduate students

    Andrei Grebennikov

    Dr. Andrei Grebennikov is a Senior Member of the IEEE and a Member of Editorial Board of the International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering. He received his Dipl. Ing. degree in radio electronics from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Ph.D. degree in radio engineering from the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics in 1980 and 1991, respectively. He has obtained a long-term academic and industrial experience working with the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Russia, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, M/A-COM, Ireland, Infineon Technologies, Germany/Austria, and Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland, as an engineer, researcher, lecturer, and educator. He lectured as a Guest Professor in the University of Linz, Austria, and presented short courses and tutorials as an Invited Speaker at the International Microwave Symposium, European and Asia-Pacific Microwave Conferences, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, and Motorola Design Centre, Malaysia. He is an author or co-author of more than 80 technical papers, 5 books, and 15 European and US patents.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland

    Nathan Sokal

    In 1989, Mr. Sokal was elected a Fellow of the IEEE, for his contributions to the technology of high-efficiency switching-mode power conversion and switching-mode RF power amplification. In 2007, he received the Microwave Pioneer award from the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, in recognition of a major, lasting, contribution ? development of the Class-E RF power amplifier. In 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, for developing the high-efficiency switching-mode Class-E RF power amplifier In 1965, he founded Design Automation, Inc., a consulting company doing electronics design review, product design, and solving ‘‘unsolvable’’ problems for equipment-manufacturing clients. Much of that work has been on high-efficiency switching-mode RF power amplifiers at frequencies up to 2.5 GHz, and switching-mode dc-dc power converters. He holds eight patents in power electronics, and is the author or co-author of two books and approximately 130 technical papers, mostly on high-efficiency generation of RF power and dc power. During 1950-1965, he held engineering and supervisory positions for design, manufacture, and applications of analog and digital equipment. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1950. He is a Technical Adviser to the American Radio Relay League, on RF power amplifiers and dc power supplies, and a member of the Electromagnetics Society, Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi honorary professional societies.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Design Automation, Auburndale, MA, USA

    Marc Franco

    Marc J. Franco holds a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Drexel University, Philadelphia. He is currently with RFMD, Technology Platforms, Component Advanced Development, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, where he is involved with the design of advanced RF integrated circuits and integrated front-end modules. He was previously with Linearizer Technology, Inc. Hamilton, New Jersey, where he led the development of advanced RF products for commercial, military and space applications. Dr. Franco is a regular reviewer for the Radio & Wireless Symposium, the European Microwave Conference and the MTT International Microwave Symposium. He is a member of the MTT-17 HF-VHF-UHF Technology Technical Coordination Committee and has co-chaired the IEEE Topical Conference on Power Amplifiers for Radio and Wireless Applications. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE. His current research interests include high-efficiency RF power amplifiers, nonlinear distortion correction, and electromagnetic analysis of structures.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    RFMD, Greensboro, NC, USA

    Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers, 2nd Edition

    About the authors
    1. Power amplifier design principles
    1.1. Spectral-domain analysis
    1.2. Basic classes of operation: A, AB, B, C
    1.3. Load line and output impedance
    1.4. Classes of operation based upon finite number of harmonics
    1.5. Active device models
    1.5.1. LDMOSFETs
    1.5.2. GaAs MESFETs and GaN HEMTs
    1.5.3. Low- and high-voltage HBTs
    1.6. High-frequency conduction angle
    1.7. Nonlinear effect of collector capacitance
    1.8. Push-pull power amplifiers
    1.9. Power gain and impedance matching
    1.10. Load-pull characterization
    1.11. Amplifier stability
    1.12. Parametric oscillations
    1.13. Bias circuits
    1.14. Distortion fundamentals
    1.14.1. Linearity
    1.14.2. Time variance
    1.14.3. Memory
    1.14.4. Distortion of electrical signals
    1.14.5. Types of distortion
    1.14.6. Nonlinearity distortion analysis for sinusoidal signals- measures of nonlinearity distortion
    2. Class-D power amplifiers
    2.1. Switchmode power amplifiers with resistive load
    2.2. Complementary voltage-switching configuration
    2.3. Transformer-coupled voltage-switching configuration
    2.4. Transformer-coupled current-switching configuration
    2.5. Symmetrical current-switching configuration
    2.6. Voltage-switching configuration with reactive load
    2.7. Drive and transition time
    2.8. Practical Class-D power amplifier implementation
    2.9. Class-D for digital pulse-modulation transmitters
    3. Class-F power amplifiers
    3.1. Biharmonic and polyharmonic operation modes
    3.2. Idealized Class-F mode
    3.3. Class-F with maximally flat waveforms
    3.4. Class-F with quarterwave transmission line
    3.5. Effect of saturation resistance and shunt capacitance
    3.6. Load networks with lumped elements
    3.7. Load networks with transmission lines
    3.8. LDMOSFET power amplifier design examples
    3.9. Broadband capability of Class-F power amplifiers
    3.10. Practical Class-F power amplifiers and applications
    4. Inverse Class F
    4.1. Biharmonic and polyharmonic operation modes
    4.2. Idealized inverse Class-F mode
    4.3. Inverse Class-F with quarterwave transmission line
    4.4. Load networks with lumped elements
    4.5. Load networks with transmission lines
    4.6. LDMOSFET power amplifier design example
    4.7. Examples of practical implementation
    4.8. Inverse Class-F GaN HEMT power amplifiers for WCDMA systems
    5. Class E with shunt capacitance
    5.1. Effect of detuned resonant circuit
    5.2. Load network with shunt capacitor and series filter
    5.3. Matching with standard load
    5.4. Effect of saturation resistance
    5.5. Driving signal and finite switching time
    5.6. Effect of nonlinear shunt capacitance
    5.7. Optimum, nominal, and off-nominal Class-E operation
    5.8. Push-pull operation mode
    5.9. Load networks with transmission lines
    5.10. Practical Class-E power amplifiers and applications
    6. Class E with finite dc-feed inductance
    6.1. Class-E with one capacitor and one inductor
    6.2. Generalized Class-E load network with finite dc-feed inductance
    6.3. Sub-harmonic Class E
    6.4. Parallel-circuit Class E
    6.5. Even-harmonic Class E
    6.6. Effect of bondwire inductance
    6.7. Load network with transmission lines
    6.8. Operation beyond maximum Class-E frequency
    6.9. Power gain
    6.10. CMOS Class-E power amplifiers
    7. Class E with quarterwave transmission line
    7.1. Load network with parallel quarterwave line
    7.2. Optimum load-network parameters
    7.3. Load network with zero series reactance
    7.4. Matching circuit with lumped elements
    7.5. Matching circuit with transmission lines
    7.6. Load network with series quarterwave line and shunt filter
    7.7. Design example: 10-W 2.14-GHz Class-E GaN HEMT power amplifier with parallel quarterwave transmission line
    8. Broadband Class E
    8.1. Reactance compensation technique
    8.1.1. Load networks with lumped elements
    8.1.2. Load networks with transmission lines
    8.2. Broadband Class E with shunt capacitance
    8.3. Broadband parallel-circuit Class E
    8.4. High-power RF Class-E power amplifiers
    8.5. Microwave monolithic Class-E power amplifiers
    8.6. CMOS Class-E power amplifiers
    9. Alternative and mixed-mode high-efficiency power amplifiers
    9.1. Class-DE power amplifier
    9.2. Class-FE power amplifiers
    9.3. Class-E/F power amplifiers
    9.3.1 Symmetrical push-pull configurations
    9.3.2 Single-ended Class-E/F3 mode
    9.4. Biharmonic Class-EM power amplifier
    9.5. Inverse Class-E power amplifiers
    9.6. Harmonic tuning using load-pull techniques
    9.7. Chireix outphasing power amplifiers
    10. High-efficiency Doherty power amplifiers
    10.1. Historical aspect and conventional Doherty architecture
    10.2. Carrier and peaking amplifiers with harmonic control
    10.3. Balanced, push-pull, and dual Doherty amplifiers
    10.4. Asymmetric Doherty amplifiers
    10.5. Multistage Doherty amplifiers
    10.6. Inverted Doherty amplifiers
    10.7. Integration
    10.8. Digitally driven Doherty amplifier
    10.9. Multiband and broadband capability
    11. Predistortion linearization techniques
    11.1. Modeling of RF power amplifiers with memory
    11.2. Predistortion linearization fundamentals
    11.2.1. Introduction
    11.2.2. Memoryless predistorter for octave-bandwidth amplifiers
    11.2.3. Predistorter with memory for octave-bandwidth amplifiers
    11.2.4. Postdistortion
    11.3. Analog predistortion implementation
    11.3.1. Introduction
    11.3.2. Reflective predistorters
    11.3.3. Transmissive predistorters
    11.4. Digital predistortion implementation
    11.4.1. Introduction
    11.4.2. Principles of memoryless digital predistortion
    11.4.3. Digital predistortion adaptation
    11.4.4. Digital predistorter performance
    12. Computer-aided design of switchmode power amplifiers
    12.1. HB-PLUS program for half-bridge and full-bridge direct-coupled voltage-switching Class-D and Class-DE circuits
    12.2. HEPA-PLUS CAD program for Class E
    12.3. Effect of Class-E load-network parameter variations
    12.4. HB-PLUS CAD examples for Class D and Class DE
    12.5. HEPA-PLUS CAD example for Class E
    12.6. Class-E power amplifier design using SPICE
    12.7. ADS circuit simulator and its applicability to switchmode Class E
    12.8. ADS CAD design example: high-efficiency two-stage 1.75-GHz MMIC HBT power amplifier


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