Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, 3rd Edition

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, 3rd Edition,Lawrence Fennelly,Timothy Crowe,ISBN9780124116351






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Design solutions for crime prevention created by the modern leader in CPTED and updated by one of today's most prolific authors on crime prevention!

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Key Features

  • Fully updated with substantial new material in each chapter
  • Useful illustrations describe the design and layout concepts in an easy to understand manner
  • Written by a well-qualified author in the field of crime prevention


Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, 3e is a vital book for anyone involved in architectural design, space management, and urban planning. The concepts presented in this book explain the link between design and human behavior. Understanding this link can enable a planner to use natural environmental factors to minimize loss and crime and to maximize productivity.

This practical guide addresses several environmental settings, including major event facilities, small retail establishments, downtown streets, residential areas, and playgrounds. A one-stop resource with explanations of criminal behavior and the historical aspects of design, it teaches both the novice and the expert in crime prevention how to use the environment to affect human behavior in a positive manner.


An ideal resource for security managers, urban planners, and general security and law enforcement professionals responsible for securing localized environments as well as loss and crime prevention

Lawrence Fennelly

Lawrence J. Fennelly is an internationally recognized authority on crime prevention, security planning and analysis, and on the study of how environmental factors (CPTED), physical hardware, alarms, lighting, site design, management practices, litigation consultants, security policies and procedures, and guard management contribute to criminal victimization. Mr. Fennelly was previously employed with Apollo Security, Computershare, Inc., as well as a sergeant at Harvard College, employed by the Harvard University Police Department in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was trained as a crime prevention specialist and served in this capacity for over 21 years at Harvard. He was also the department’s training officer and assistant court officer. As part of his role as an officer at Harvard, Larry also was a deputy sheriff in both Suffolk and Middlesex counties (Massachusetts). Mr. Fennelly is a frequent speaker and lecturer on CPTED, physical security, school crime, and other issues. He serves as an expert witness who works closely with attorneys in defense as well as plaintiff cases, assisting in case preparation, offering knowledgeable questions to ask the opposing side, etc. He has also done a considerable amount of consultant work throughout the United States. His experience ranges from identifying vulnerabilities to conducting security and lighting surveys, working with architects to design and implement security, and developing long range guard training programs and risk assessments of various facilities. He is also a prolific author. His titles include such well-known security books as "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design," "Effective Physical Security," and "Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention."

Affiliations and Expertise

Expert witness and consultant in security, Litigation Consultants Inc.

View additional works by Lawrence Fennelly

Timothy Crowe

M.S., Criminology - Florida State University

Affiliations and Expertise

Timothy Crowe is a criminologist specializing in consulting and training services in law enforcement, crime prevention, juvenile delinquency and control, and major event law enforcement services planning. He has served in state government and with several consulting firms and has provided security services for Republican and Democratic national conventions.He has served as the Director of the National Crime Prevention Institute at the University of Louisville and created NCPI's CPTED training program. Mr. Crowe received his M.S. in criminology from Florida State University.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, 3rd Edition


Timothy D. Crowe




Part 1

1. Introduction to CPTED


Asking the Right Questions

The Need for CPTED

Competing Crime Prevention Strategies

CPTED and Contemporary Planning Models

Scope and Content of this Book

2. Twenty Most Frequently Asked Questions

3. CPTED Concepts and Strategies


CPTED Concepts

CPTED Strategies

Some Benefits of CPTED Planning Activities

An Ounce of Prevention: A New Role for Law Enforcement Support of Community Development

“Clean and Well-Lighted Places”: A Natural Approach to Retail Security

CPTED in Low-Income, Public, and Three-Generation Housing

CPTED Planning and Design Review

Achieving the Right Perspective

4. Behavioral Precedents of CPTED: From Caves to Fast Food


Greek Temples

Medieval Cities

Baroque Mannerism

Louis XIV

Napoleon III

Contemporary Situations

5. Using the Environment to Affect Behavior

Human/Environment Relationships

Use of Light and Color

Feng Shui

6. Aesthetics, Environmental Cues, and Territorial Behavior: Implications for CPTED Planning

Form Versus Function: The Battle with Aesthetics

Environmental Cues

Territorial Behavior

Visual Bubbles, Landscape, and Art

7. Crime and Loss Prevention



Levels of Crime

Explanations of Crime

Implications for Public Action

Contemporary Crime Prevention and Interagency Concepts

Criminal Justice: A Misperceived Concept

Productivity Tools for the Crime- and Loss-Prevention Specialist

Crime Versus Loss Prevention

Two Types of Risk

Risk Management


8. Examples of CPTED Strategies and Applications

CPTED Strategies

CPTED Applications

9. CPTED Implementation Program Planning


Evaluation and Monitoring

10. CPTED Training Outline


Learning Objectives

11. Objectives for a School Environment


School Campus Control

High-School Parking Lots

Student Parking and Driver Education Relationships

Courtyards and Corridors

School Lunchtime Hallway Use

Safe Activities in Unsafe Locations

Convention Center and Stadium

Part 2

12. Tackling Crime and Fear of Crime Through Urban Planning and Architectural Design

Urbanization and Crime

Safety and Security as Serious Problems

From Old School to More Sophisticated Approaches

CPTED/DOC in Europe: Policies and Concepts

Theory: From Offender to Situation; From Reaction to Prevention

The Fear of Crime

Tackling Crime and the Fear of Crime by Urban Planning and Architectural Design: Examples and Instruments

European Standard on Designing Out Crime


About the Author


Important Websites:

13. Checklist for a Program of Successful Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Signs of a Successful CPTED Program

Broader Planning Strategies

14. CPTED in the Twenty-First Century

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

The Transition to the Future of CPTED

CPTED Definitions

CPTED in the New Millennium

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design



Appendix A. Broward County School CPTED Matrix

Appendix B. School CPTED Survey

School Security Survey/Assessment


Appendix C. CPTED Design Directives for Dormitory and Student Lounges

Appendix D. Convenience Stores and Gas Stops CPTED Assessment Form

Twenty-Six Risk Assessment Points

Appendix E. Malls and Shopping Centers CPTED Assessment Form

Appendix F. Apartments, Condos, and Public Housing CPTED Assessment Form


Quotes and reviews

"After 30 years of using various forms of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in planning and executing facilities security, I found this book to be one of the most beneficial tools to assist me in using these principles…This book is a valuable resource for anyone seeking a professional certification." -- SecurityManagement.com and in ASIS Dynamics, August 2014

"The third edition of this book is vital for anyone involved in architectural design, space management, and urban planning…A one-stop resource with explanations of criminal behavior and the historical aspects of design, it teaches both the novice and the expert in crime prevention how to use the environment to affect human behavior in a positive manner." --SecurityPark online, December 2013

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