Mechatronics, 1st Edition

Principles and Applications

 
Mechatronics, 1st Edition,Godfrey Onwubolu,ISBN9780750663793
 
 
 

  

Butterworth-Heinemann

9780750663793

9780080492902

672

246 X 189

Broad coverage of all key mechatronics subjects - a complete introductory course text

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Key Features

* Integrated coverage of PIC microcontroller programming, MATLAB and Simulink modelling
* Fully developed student exercises, detailed practical examples
* Accompanying website with Instructor's Manual, downloadable code and image bank

Description

Mechatronics is a core subject for engineers, combining elements of mechanical and electronic engineering into the development of computer-controlled mechanical devices such as DVD players or anti-lock braking systems. This book is the most comprehensive text available for both mechanical and electrical engineering students and will enable them to engage fully with all stages of mechatronic system design. It offers broader and more integrated coverage than other books in the field with practical examples, case studies and exercises throughout and an Instructor's Manual. A further key feature of the book is its integrated coverage of programming the PIC microcontroller, and the use of MATLAB and Simulink programming and modelling, along with code files for downloading from the accompanying website.

Readership

Undergraduate and postgraduate students in mechanical and electrical engineering and on dedicated mechatronics courses; Also engineering design and technology; IT and computing; aeronautical engineering; control, systems and robotics; manufacturing and product design.

Godfrey Onwubolu

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair of Engineering, University of the South Pacific

Mechatronics, 1st Edition

Preface
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1: Introduction to Mechatronics
1.1 Historical perspective
1.2 Mechatronics system
1.3 Mechatronics key elements
1.3.1 Electronics
1.3.2 Digital control
1.3.3 Sensors and actuators
1.3.4 Information technology
1.4 Some examples of mechatronics systems
Summary
References

Chapter 2: Electrical Components and Circuits
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 External Energy Sources
2.1.2 Ground
2.2 Electrical Components
2.2.1 Resistor
2.2.2 Capacitor
2.2.3 Inductor
2.3 Resistive Elements
2.3.1 Node Voltage Method
2.3.1.1 Node Voltage Analysis Method
2.3.2 Mesh Current Method
2.3.2.1 Mesh Current Analysis Method
2.3.3 The Principle of Superposition
2.3.4 Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits
2.4 Sinusoidal Sources and Complex Impedance
2.4.1 Resistive Impedance
2.4.2 Capacitive Impedance
2.4.3 Inductive Impedance
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 3: Semiconductor Electronic Devices
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Covalent Bonds and Doping Materials
3.3 The PN Junction and the Diode Effect
3.4 The Zener Diode
3.5 Power Supplies
3.6 Transistor Circuits
3.6.1 Bipolar Junction Transistors
3.6.1.1 Transistor Operation
3.6.1.2 Basis Circuit Configurations
3.6.1.3 BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis
3.6.1.4 Practical BJT Self-bias DC Circuit Analysis
3.6.1.5 Small Signal Models of the BJT
3.6.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (MOS) Transistors
3.6.2.1 Enhanced Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
3.6.2.2 Depletion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors
3.6.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFETs)
3.6.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Small Signal Models
3.6.5 Transistors Gates and Switching Circuits
3.6.5.1 Diode Gates
3.6.5.2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Gates
3.6.5.3 Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) Gates
3.6.5.4 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Gates
3.6.6 Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect (CMOS) Transistor Gates
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 4: Digital Electronics
4.1 Number Systems
4.2 Combinational Logic Design using Truth Table
4.3 Karnaugh Maps and Logic Design
4.4 Combinational Logic Modules
4.4.1 Half Adders
4.4.2 Full Adders
4.4.3 Multiplexers
4.4.4 Decoders
4.4.5 Read and Write Memory
4.5 Timing Diagrams
4.6 Sequential Logic Modules
4.6.1 SR Flip-flops
4.6.2 SR Flip-flops
4.6.3 D Flip-flops
4.6.4 JK Flip-flop
4.6.5 Master/Slave or Pulse Trigger
4.6.6 Edge Triggering
4.7 Sequential Logic Design
4.8 Applications of Flip-flops
4.8.1 Data Registers
4.8.2 Counters
4.8.3 Schmitt Trigger
4.8.4 NE555 Timer
4.8.5 Astable Multivibrator
4.8.6 Mono-stable Multivibrator (One-Shot)
4.8.7 Serial and Parallel Interfaces
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 5: Analog Electronics
5.1 Amplifiers
5.2 The Ideal Operational Amplifier Model
5.3 Inverting Amplifier
5.4 Non-inverting Amplifier
5.5 Unity-Gain Buffer
5.6 Summer
5.7 Difference Amplifier
5.8 Instrumentation Amplifier
5.9 Integrator Amplifier
5.10 Differentiator Amplifier
5.11 Comparator
5.12 Sample and Hold Amplifier
5.13 Active Filters
5.13.1 Low-pass Active Filters
5.13.2 High-pass Active Filters
5.13.3 Active Band-pass Filters
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 6: Microcomputers and Micro-controllers
6.1 Microprocessors and Microcomputers
6.2 Micro-controllers
6.3 PIC16F84 Micro-controller Architecture
6.3.1 Features of PIC16F84/16F87
6.3.2 The PIC16F84 Architecture
6.3.3 Memory Organization of PIC16F84/16F87
6.3.4 Special Features of the PIC16F84/16F87
6.4 Programming a PIC using Assembly Language
6.5 Programming a PIC using C Language
6.5.1 Initializing Ports
6.5.2 Programming PIC using CC5X
6.5.3 Practical problems for CC5X programming
6.6 Interfacing Common PIC Peripherals: PIC Millennium Board
6.6.1 Numeric Keyboard
6.6.2 LCD Display
6.7 PIC 16F877 microcontroller
6.8 Interfacing to the PIC
6.8.1 Data Output from the PIC
6.8.2 Data Input to the PIC
6.9 Communicating with PIC during programming
6.9.1 Compiling with CCS: PIC compiler
6.9.2 Boot loader for communicating with PIC
6.9.3 Tera Term for serial communication
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 7: Data Acquisition
7.1 Data Acquisition Systems
7.2 Sampling and aliasing
7.2.1 Sampling
7.2.2 Aliasing
7.3 Quantization
7.4 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Hardware
7.4.1 Binary Weighted Ladder DAC
7.4.2 Resistor Ladder DAC
7.5 Analog -to-Digital Conversion Hardware
7.5.1 Parallel-Encoding (Flash) ADC
7.5.2 Successive-Approximation ADC
7.5.3 Dual Slope ADC
7.6 System Integration in Data Acquisition Systems
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 8: Sensors
8.1 Distance Sensors
8.1.1 Potentiometer
8.1.2 Linear Variable Differential Transformer
8.1.3 Digital Optical Encoder
8.1.3.1 Absolute Encoder
8.1.3.2 Incremental Encoder
8.2 Movement Sensors
8.2.1 Velocity Sensors
8.2.1.1 Doppler Effect
8.2.2 Acceleration Sensors
8.2.2.1 Spring Mass Accelerometers
8.2.2.2 Piezoelectric Accelerometers
8.2.2.3 Piezoresistive Accelerometers
8.2.2.4 Variable Resistance Accelerometers
8.3 Proximity Sensors
8.3.1 Inductive Proximity Sensors
8.3.2 Capacitive Proximity Sensors
8.3.3 Photoelectric Proximity Sensors
8.4 Stress and Strain Measurement
8.4.1 Resistance Strain Gauges
8.4.1.1 Wheatstone Bridge for Measuring Resistance Changes
8.4.2 Capacitance Strain Gauges
8.4.3 Photoelectric Strain Gauges
8.4.4 Semiconductor Strain Gauges
8.5 Force Measurement Transducers
8.5.1 Optoelectric Force Sensors
8.5.2 Time of Flight Sensors
8.5.3 Binary Force Sensors
8.6 Temperature Measurement Transducers
8.6.1 Liquid Expansion Thermometer
8.6.2 Bimetallic Strip Thermometer
8.6.3 Gas Thermometer
8.6.4 Resistance Temperature Detector
8.6.5 Thermocouple
8.6.6 Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuit Thermal Sensor
8.6.6.1 Diode Thermometer
8.6.6.2 Thermistors
8.7 Pressure Transducer
8.6.1 Pressure Gradient Flow Transducers
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 9: Electrical Actuator Systems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Moving-iron Transducers
9.3 Solenoids
9.4 Relays
9.5 Electric Motors
9.6 Direct-Current Motors
9.6.1 Fundamentals of DC motors
9.6.2 Separately excited motors
9.6.3 Shunt motors
9.6.4 Series motors
9.6.5 Control of DC motors
9.6.6 Speed control of shunt or separately excited motors
9.6.7 Controlling speed by adding resistance
9.6.8 Controlling speed by adjusting armature voltage
9.6.9 Controlling speed by adjusting field voltage
9.7 Dynamic model and control model of DC motors
9.7.1 Open-loop control of permanent magnet motors
9.7.2 Closed-loop control of permanent magnet motors
9.7.3 Motor speed control using PWM
9.8 Servo Motors
9.9 Stepper Motors
9.9.1 How stepper motor works
9.9.2 Stepper motor control
9.9.3 Hardware for stepper motor control
9.9.3.1 The power circuit
9.9.3.2 The L297 oscillator
9.9.3.3 The NE555 oscillator
9.9.3.4 Power supply
9.10 Motor selection

Chapter 10: Mechanical Actuator Systems
10.1 Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
10.1 Symbols for Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
10.2 Hydraulic Pumps
10.2.1 Gear Pumps
10.2.2 Vane Pumps
10.3 Pneumatic Compressors
10.3.1 Centrifugal Compressors
10.3.2 Axial Compressors
10.4 Valves
10.4.1 Relief Valves
10.4.2 Loading Valves
10.4.3 Differential Pressure Regulating Valves
10.4.4 Three-way Valves
10.4.5 Four-way Valves
10.2 Mechanical elements
10.2.1 Mechanisms
10.2.2 Machines
10.2.3 Types of motion
10.3 Kinematic Chains
10.3.1 The four-bar chain
10.3.2 The slider-crank mechanism
10.4 Cams
10.4.1 Classification of cam mechanisms
10.4.1.1 Modes of input/output motion
10.4.1.2 Follower configuration
10.4.1.3 Follower arrangement
10.4.1.4 Cam shape
10.4.2 Motion events
10.4.2.1 Constant velocity motion
10.4.2.2 Constant acceleration motion
10.4.2.3 Harmonic motion
10.5 Gears
10.5.1 Spur and helical gears
10.5.2 Bevel gears
10.5.3 Rack and pinion
10.5.4 Gear trains
10.5.5 Epicyclic gear trains
10.6 Ratchet Mechanisms
10.7 Flexible mechanical elements
10.7.1 Belt drives
10.8 Friction clutches
10.8.1 Dog clutch
10.8.2 Cone clutch
10.8.3 Plate clutch
10.8.4 Band clutch
10.8.5 Internal expanding clutch
10.8.6 Centrifugal clutch
10.8.7 Clutch selection
10.9 Design of clutches
10.9.1 Constant pressure
10.9.2 Constant wear
10.10 Brakes
10.10.1 Band brake
10.10.2 Drum brake
10.10.3 Disk brake
10.10.4 Brake selection
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 11: Interfacing Micro-controller with Actuators
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Interfacing with general-purpose 3-state transistors
11.3 Interfacing Relays
11.4 Interfacing Selenoids
11.5 Interfacing Stepper Motors
11.6 Interfacing Permanent Magnet Motors
11.7 Interfacing Sensors
11.8 Interfacing ADC
11.9 Interfacing DAC
11.10 Interfacing Power Supplies
11.11 Interfacing with RS 232, 485
11.12 Compatibility at interface
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 12: Control Theory: Modeling
12.1 Introduction to control systems
12.2 Modeling in the frequency domain
12.2.1 Block diagram representation
12.2.2 Laplace Transforms
12.2.3 The transfer function
12.2.4 Electrical network transfer functions
12.2.4.1 Passive networks
12.2.4.2 Operational amplifiers
12.2.5 Mechanical systems transfer functions
12.2.5.1 Translational mechanical systems transfer functions
12.2.5.2 Rotational mechanical systems transfer functions
12.2.6 Electromechanical systems transfer functions
12.2.7 Electromechanical analogies
12.3 Modeling in the time domain state equations
12.4 Block diagrams
12.4.1 Cascade form
12.4.2 Parallel form
12.4.3 Feedback form

Chapter 13: Control Theory: Analysis
13.1 Introduction
13.2 System response
13.2.1 Poles and zeros of a transient function
13.3 Dynamic Characteristics of Control Systems
13.4 Zero order system
13.5 First order system
13.6 Second order systems
13.7 General second order transfer function
13.7.1 under-damped second order systems
13.7.2 Operator D-Method
13.8 Systems Modeling and Interdisciplinary Analogies
13.9 Stability
13.10 Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria
13.11 Steady-state errors
13.11.1 Steady-state error for unity feed-back system
13.11.2 Static error constants and system type
13.11.3 Steady-state error through static error constants
13.11.4 Steady-state error specifications
13.11.5 Steady-state error for non-unity feed-back system

Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 14: Control Theory: graphical techniques
14.1 Root locus techniques
14.1.1 Vector representations of complex numbers
14.1.2 Properties of root locus
14.1.3 Root locus plots.
14.2 Frequency response techniques
14.2.1 Nyquist plots
14.2.2 Bode plots
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 15: Robotics Systems
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Types of robots
15.2.1 Autonomous/Mobile Robots
15.2.2 Robotic Arms
15.3 Basic Definitions in robotic arms
15.4 Robotic Arm Configuration
15.5 Robot Applications
15.6 Basic Robotic Systems
15.6.1 Robotic mechanical-arm
15.6.2 End of arm tooling (EOAT)
15.7 Robotic manipulator kinematics
15.7.1 Forward Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot
15.7.2 Inverse Transformation for 3-axis Planar 3R Articulated Robot
15.8 Robotic arm positioning concepts
15.9 Robotic arm path planning
15.10 Simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 16: Electronic Fabrication Process
16.1 Production of Electronic Grade Silicon
16.1.1 Single-Crystal Growing
16.1.2 Shaping of Silicon into Wafers
16.1.3 Film Deposition
16.1.4 Oxidation
16.1.5 Lithography
16.1.6 Photo-masking, Etching, & Ion Implantation in Silicon Gate Process
16.2 Fabrication Processes
16.2.1.1 IC Packaging
16.2.1.2 Number of External Terminals
16.2.2 Materials used in IC Packages
16.2.3 Configurations in IC Packaging
16.3 PCB Manufacturing
16.4 PCB Assembly
16.5 Surface Mount Technology
Summary
References

Chapter 17: Reliability
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Principles of Reliability
17.3 Reliability of Systems
17.3.1 Reliability of Series Systems
17.3.2 Reliability of Parallel Systems
17.3.3 Reliability of Generic Series-Parallel Systems
17.3.4 Reliability of Major Parallel Systems
17.3.5 Reliability of Standby Systems
17.4 Common Mode Failure
17.5 Availability of Systems with Repair
17.6 Response surface modeling
17.6.1 Planning the experimental investigation
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 18: Artificial Intelligence in Mechatronics Systems
18.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
18.1.1 Explosion control
18.1.2 PSO operators
18.1.2.1 Position minus position
18.1.2.2 Coefficient times velocity
18.1.2.3 Velocity minus velocity
18.1.2.4 Position minus velocity
18.1.3 PSO neighborhood
18.1.3.1 Social neighborhood
18.1.3.2 Physical neighborhood
18.1.3.3 Queens
18.1.4 PSO improvement strategies
18.1.4.1 No-hope tests
18.1.4.2 Re-hope process
18.1.4.2.1 Lazy descent method (LDM)
18.1.4.2.2 Energetic descent method (EDM)
18.1.4.2.3 Local iterative leveling (LI)L
18.1.4.2.4 Adaptive re-hope method (ARM)
18.1.4.2.5 Parallel and sequential versions
18.2 TRIBES
18.2.1 Particles
18.2.2 Initial population of particles
18.2.3 Informers
18.2.4 Tribes
18.2.5 Promising search areas using hyper-spheres
18.2.6 Adaptations
18.2.6.1 Good particle and bad particle
18.2.6.2 Best particle and worst particle
18.2.6.3 Classification of good tribe and bad tribe
18.2.6.4 Rules for adding a tribe
18.2.6.5 Rules for removing a tribe
18.2.6.6 Adaptation scheme
18.2.6.7 Position update
18.2.6.8 Stopping criteria
18.2.6.9 Tribes algorithm
18.2.6.10 Parameter setting
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 19: Mechatronics applications of some new optimization techniques
19.1 Example 1: Gear train design
19.2 Example 2: Pressure vessel design
19.3 Example 3: Coil compression spring design
19.4 Example 4: Assembly sequencing and magazine assignment for robotics assembly
19.4.1 Problem formulation
19.4.2 PSO for robotic assembly using DPP model
19.4.3 Experimental results
19.5 Example 5: Automated guided vehicle (AGV) unit load
19.5.1 Unit load sizes model description
19.5.1.1 Model description
19.5.1.2 Model assumption
19.5.1.3 Model for unit load sizes
19.4.1.4 A model for estimating capacity and number of AGvs
19.5.2 Results
19.6 Example 6: DC motor design
19.6.1 Classification and standardization
19.6.2 Volume and bore sizing
19.6.3 Armature design
19.6.4 Field pole design
19.6.5 Optimization design of DC motor
Summary
Problems
References

Chapter 20: Mechatronics Systems & Case Shows
20.1 Case Show 1: A PC-based CNC drilling machine
• Design of the CNC drilling machine
• Prediction and reduction of process times for the PC-based CNC drilling machine
• Response surface methodology-based approach to CNC drilling operations
20.2 Case Show 2: Mobile robots
• A Robotic gaming machine
• Multiple Robotic Gaming Machines
• An Autonomous
• An Automated Guided Vehicle
20.3 Case Show 3: Robotic arm
20.4 Suggestions for additional Case Shows
Summary
Problems
References

Appendices

Appendix A: The Engineering Design Process
Appendix B: Springs
B1 Stresses in helical springs
B2 Deflection and Stiffness in Helical Springs
B3 Materials for Helical Springs
B4 Design Methodology for Helical Springs
Appendix C Spur Gears
C1 Design Considerations
C2 Lewis Method for Bending Stress
C3 Modified Lewis Equation
C3 Design Guides
Appendix D Selection of Rolling Contact Bearings
D1 Types of Ball Bearings
D2 Types of Roller Bearings
D3 Life of a Bearing
D3.1 Rating Life of Bearing
D3.2 Reliability of Bearing
D4 Static Load Capacity
D5 Dynamic Load Capacity
D6 Equivalent Dynamic Load
Appendix E Design for Fatigue Strength
E1 Endurance Limit
E2 Fatigue Strength
Appendix F Shaft Design
F1 Design Based on Static Load
F2 Design Based on Fluctuating Load
F3 Soderberg Criterion for Failure
F4 Design based on Maximum Shear Stress Theory of Failure
& Soderberg Criterion for Failure
F5 Design based on Distortion Energy Theory of Failure & Soderberg Criterion
Appendix G Power Screws Design
G1 Mechanics of Power Screws
G2 Raising load
G3 Lowering load
G4 Collar effect
Appendix H Flexible Mechanical Elements Design
H1 Analysis of flat belts
H2 Length of open flat belt
H3 Length of crossed flat belt
H4 Tensions
Appendix I CircuitMaker Tutorial
Appendix J MATLAB Tutorial
Appendix K Mechatronics resources
Summary
Problems
References
 
 

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