Environmental Hydraulics for Open Channel Flows

Environmental Hydraulics for Open Channel Flows, 1st Edition

Environmental Hydraulics for Open Channel Flows, 1st Edition,Hubert Chanson,ISBN9780750661652






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An advanced text for students and professionals studying river and estuarine systems.

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Key Features

·Complete text on river and estuarine systems in a single volume
·Step-by-step guide to practical applications
·Many worked examples and exercises


Environmental Hydraulics is a new text for students and professionals studying advanced topics in river and estuarine systems. The book contains the full range of subjects on open channel flows, including mixing and dispersion, Saint-Venant equations method of characteristics and interactions between flowing water and its surrondings (air entrainment, sediment transport).

Following the approach of Hubert Chanson's highly successful undergraduate textbook Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow, the reader is guided step-by-step from the basic principles to more advanced practical applications.

Each section of the book contains many revision exercises, problems and assignments to help the reader test their learning in practical situations.


Students (senior undergraduate, but mainly graduate and research) of civil engineering, environmental engineering, especially hydraulics and fluid mechanics.

Hubert Chanson

Hubert Chanson is a reader in fluid mechanics, hydraulics and waterengineering at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include hydraulic engneering, design of hydraulic structures, two-phase gas-liquid flows, mixing and dispersion in coastal and estuarine zones. He has had over 200 international refereed papers, written 7 books and has been an active consultant for both governmental agencies and private organizations.

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Queensland, Australia

View additional works by Hubert Chanson

Environmental Hydraulics for Open Channel Flows, 1st Edition



About the author



List of Symbols

Part 1: Introduction to Open Channel Flows

Introduction: Introduction to Open Channel Flows

Chapter 1: Introduction


1.1 Presentation

1.2 Fluid properties

1.3 Fluid statics

1.4 Open channel flows

1.5 Exercises

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of open channel flows


2.1 Presentation

2.2 Fundamental principles

2.3 Open channel hydraulics of short, frictionless transitions

2.4 The hydraulic jump

2.5 Open channel flow in long channels

2.6 Summary

2.7 Exercises

Part 2: Turbulent Mixing and Dispersion in Rivers and Estuaries: An Introduction

Introduction: Turbulent Mixing and Dispersion in Rivers and Estuaries: An Introduction

Chapter 3: Introduction to mixing and dispersion in natural waterways

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Laminar and turbulent flows

3.3 Basic definitions

3.4 Structure of the section

3.5 Appendix A – Application: buoyancy force exerted on a submerged air bubble6

3.6 Appendix B – Freshwater properties

3.7 Exercises

3.8 Exercise solutions

Chapter 4: Turbulent shear flows


4.1 Presentation

4.2 Jets and wakes

4.3 Boundary layer flows

4.4 Fully developed open channel flows

4.5 Mixing in turbulent shear flows

4.6 Exercises

4.7 Exercise solutions

Chapter 5: Diffusion: basic theory


5.1 Basic equations

5.2 Applications

5.4 Exercises

5.5 Exercise solutions

Chapter 6: Advective diffusion


6.1 Basic equations

6.2 Basic applications

6.3 Two- and three-dimensional applications

6.4 Exercises

6.5 Exercise solutions

Chapter 7: Turbulent dispersion and mixing: 1. Vertical and transverse mixing


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Flow resistance in open channel flows

7.3 Vertical and transverse (lateral) mixing in turbulent river flows

7.4 Turbulent mixing applications

7.5 Discussion

7.6 Appendix A – Friction factor calculations

7.7 Appendix B – Random walk model

7.8 Appendix C – Turbulent mixing in hydraulic jumps and bores

7.9 Exercises

7.10 Exercise solutions

Chapter 8: Turbulent dispersion and mixing: 2. Longitudinal dispersion


8.1 Introduction

8.2 One-dimensional turbulent dispersion

8.3 Longitudinal dispersion in natural streams

8.4 Approximate models for longitudinal dispersion

8.5 Design applications

8.6 Exercises

8.7 Exercise solutions

Chapter 9: Turbulent dispersion in natural systems


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Longitudinal dispersion in natural rivers with dead zones

9.3 Dispersion and transport of reactive contaminants

9.4 Transport with reaction

9.5 Appendix A – Air-water mass transfer in air–water flows

9.6 Appendix B – Solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water

9.7 Appendix C – Molecular diffusion coefficients in water (after Chanson 1997a)

9.8 Exercises

9.9 Exercise solutions

Chapter 10: Mixing in estuaries


10.1 Presentation

10.2 Basic mechanisms

10.3 Applications

10.4 Turbulent mixing and dispersion coefficients in estuaries

10.5 Applications

10.6 Appendix A – Observations of mixing and dispersion coefficients in estuarine zones

10.7 Exercises

10.8 Exercise solutions

Revision exercises

Part 3: Introduction to Unsteady Open Channel Flows

Introduction: Introduction to Unsteady Open Channel Flows

Chapter 11: Unsteady open channel flows: 1. Basic equations


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Basic equations

11.3 Method of characteristics

11.4. Discussion

11.5 Exercises

11.6 Exercise solutions

Chapter 12: Unsteady open channel flows: 2. Applications


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Propagation of waves

12.3 The simple wave problem

12.4 Positive and negative surges

12.5 The kinematic wave problem

12.6 The diffusion wave problem

12.7 Appendix A – Gaussian error functions

12.8 Exercises

12.9 Exercise solutions

Chapter 13: Unsteady open channel flows: 3. Application to dam break wave


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Dam break wave in a horizontal channel

13.3 Effects of flow resistance

13.4 Embankment dam failures

13.5 Related flow situations

13.6 Exercises

13.7 Exercise solutions

Chapter 14: Numerical modelling of unsteady open channel flows


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Explicit finite difference methods

14.3 Implicit finite difference methods

14.4 Exercises

Revision exercises


Part 4: Interactions between Flowing Water and its Surroundings

Introduction: Interactions between Flowing Water and its Surroundings

Chapter 15: Interactions between flowing water and its surroundings: introduction

15.1 Presentation

15.2 Terminology

15.3 Structure of this section

Chapter 16: Interaction between flowing water and solid boundaries: sediment processes


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Physical properties of sediments

16.3. Threshold of sediment bed motion

16.4 Sediment transport

16.5 Total sediment transport rate

16.6 Exercises

Chapter 17: Interaction between flowing water and free surfaces: self-aeration and air entrainment


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Free-surface aeration in turbulent flows: basic mechanisms

17.3 Dimensional analysis and similitude

17.4 Basic metrology in air–water flow studies

17.5 Applications

17.6 Appendix A – Air bubble diffusion in plunging jet flows (after Chanson 1997a)

17.7 Appendix B – Air bubble diffusion in self-aerated supercritical flows

17.8 Appendix C – Air bubble diffusion in high-velocity water jets

17.9 Exercises

Appendix A: Constants and fluid properties

Appendix B: Unit conversions


Abbreviations of journals and institutions

Common bibliographical abbreviations


Quotes and reviews

“…This book could provide a skeleton for a course in environmental hydraulics or transport processes… [it]…contains some useful material for different courses and may provide an elementary reference for certain topics . . .” – Environmental Fluid Mechanics

“ Overall, a well written, clear and concise book which will serve the intended audience satisfactorily.” –Intl. Journal River Basin Management

"Over recent decades many civil engineering departments and organizations have added environmental to their title, so it is not surprising to find this change emulated in a book...Throughout the book the author's enthusiasm for his subjects shows. The preface stresses the value of field work and points the reader to the author's substantial web sites, among others." - Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 557-2006
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