The book starts with a detailed description of ICP-MS, including quadruple-based, sector-based and time-of-flight instruments. Instrumentation from existing manufacturers is described and compared to show their similarities and differences. Also, a review of the ICP-MS literature is carried out to outline both the strengths and limitations of the technique, whatever its brand, as well as what it can currently accomplish in terms of applications. Then, the book demonstrates how these limitations can be reduced and/or eliminated by combining various techniques with ICP-MS. Great detail is provided on each technique so that the reader can get a good understanding of it before carrying on to the instrumental requirements for its hyphenation to ICP-MS, and the resulting impact on the operation of the hyphenated instrument. Since this book is concerned with the ICP side only, which is fairly similar in all the instruments from the different manufacturers, the information should be useful to all ICP-MS users. The features and limitations of each technique are thoroughly discussed and illustrated with a review of the ICP-MS literature. Approaches which could be used but have not yet been tried with ICP-MS are also suggested. This is particularly true of flow injection techniques which are extremely flexible and have been used extensively in atomic spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. Many of the features of the technique have not yet been combined to ICP-MS, and one purpose of the book will be to point out potentially beneficial combinations.
For users and potential users of ICP-MS equipment in research establishments.
Discrete Sample Introduction Techniques for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, 1st Edition
Series Editor´s Preface. Authors' Preface. Current status of ICP-MS
. Introduction. Description of the technique. Advantages. Limitations. Present capabilities. Extended capabilities with mixed-gas plasmas. Acknowledgement. References. Flow injection techniques
. Introduction. Principles. Limited dispersion systems (D = 1 - 3). Medium dispersion systems (D = 3-10). Large dispersion systems (D > 10). Reduced dispersion systems (D < 1). Other possibilities. Acknowledgement. References. Electrothermal vaporization sample introduction for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
. Introduction. Instrumentation. Analytical domain of ETV-ICP-MS. Principle of operation of ETV-ICP-MS. Background spectral features. Mechanism of vaporization of analyte. Chemical modification, physical carriers and mass transport efficiency. Non-spectroscopic interferences. Applications. Concluding remarks. References. Laser ablation for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
. Laser ablation. Different types of laser ablation-based analysis. Specific use of LA-ICP-MS. Laser principles. Laser ablation systems. Signal acquisition and data processing. Sample preparation. Calibration. Elemental fractionation. Figures of merit. Applications. Spark and arc ablation. The future. References. Direct sample insertion
. Introduction. Instrumentation for DSIs. Effect of operating conditions on analyte signal behaviour. Mixed-gas DSI-ICP-AES. Chemical modification. Further extension of the analytical capability of the ICP. using DSIs. Reductions of spectroscopic interference in ICP-MS. Analytical performance characteristics. Applications. Conclusions. Acknowledgements. References. Index