The demand for high quality aquacultured products and an increasing concern for resource conservation has led individuals and large corporations to invest time and money in commercial scale recirculating production systems. However, there are relatively few reports of profitable recirculating production systems in operation. There is little doubt that most fish reared in ponds, floating net pens, or raceways can be produced in commercial scale recirculating systems.
The objective of this book is to provide basic information and analytical skills for the reader so that they may make the proper design or investment decisions concerning water reuse and recycle systems. The chapters of this book are sequenced to provide continuity to a basic approach that would be used in designing a water reuse or recycle system. The chapter authors contributing to this book have written extensively in the literature already on the particular subject being addressed in their chapter.
Considerable background information on the basic processes being presented is also given in each chapter to supplement the basic design information being provided. These chapters should provide the reader with essentially all the information required in order to design and manage a water reuse system.
The book is written for engineers and biologists working in the area of intensive fish culture. The text should also prove useful as a design manual for practising aquaculturists and as a resource of current "state-of-the-art" methodologies associated with water reuse systems.
Aquaculture Water Reuse Systems: Engineering Design and Management, 1st Edition
Acknowledgement. List of Contributors. An Introduction to Water Reuse Systems
(M.B. Timmons, T.M. Losordo). Introduction. Terminology and definitions. Current status. References. System Carrying Capacity and Flow Estimation
(T.M. Losordo, H. Westers). Introduction. The mass balance approach. Estimating flow rates. Estimating flows for dissolved oxygen maintenance. Estimating flows for ammonia-nitrogen control. Estimating flow rates for nitrate-nitrogen control. Estimating flow requirements for dissolved oxygen maintenance in a submerged biological filter. Estimating system carrying capacity. Design examples. Discussion. A biologist's approach to system carrying capacity. Rearing unit design and operation. Notation. References. Suspended Solids Control in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems
(R.F. Malone, S. Chen, D. Stechey). Introduction. Solids generation. Physical characteristics. Removal objectives. Removal mechanisms. Process description. Applications. References. Nitrification Filter Principles
(F.W. Wheaton et al.
). Introduction. Kinetics. Nitrification filter configurations. Factors affecting performance. Physical factors. Biological parameters. Discussion. Summary. References. Design of Biological Filters
(F.W. Wheaton et al.
). Nitrification filter design methods. Design procedure. Submerged Filter. Expandable granular biofilters. Trickling filters. Rotating biological contactor. References cited. Aeration and Oxygenation
(B.J. Watten). Introduction. Dissolved gas criteria. Gas transfer theory. Pure oxygen contact systems. Air contact systems. Sources of air. Monitoring and control. Design procedure. Nomenclature. References. Carbon Dioxide Control
(G.R. Grace, R. Piedrahita). Introduction. Importance. Carbonate equilibrium and carbon dioxide control by pH management. Carbon dioxide control by gas exchange. Gas exchange. Carbon dioxide transfer coefficient. Example 1. Example 2. Example 3. Gas flow characterization. Example 4. Carbonate equilibrium reaction kinetics. Dehydroxylation of bicarbonate to carbon dioxide. Combined gas exchange and reaction kinetics. Example 5. Practical application. Acknowledgements. References. Control of pH in Closed Cycle Aquaculture Systems
(J.J. Bisogni, M.B. Timmons). Background. Alkalinity and pH control. Nitrification. System management. Design examples. References. Use of Foam Fractionators in Aquaculture
(M.B. Timmons). Introduction. Solids control. Foam fractionation. Mathematical modeling. Sensitivity of certain operating variables. Application of models. Other comments on operation of fractionators. Acknowledgements. Literature cited. Operating and Management Water Reuse Systems
(S. Van Gorder). Introduction. Operation and management of system hardware components. System design components-management requirements. Control of organic solids - clarification systems. Aeration/oxygenation systems. Carbon dioxide. Management of pH. Management of fish production. Off-flavors. Stress and disease control. Emergency systems. Additional design/management requirements. Summary. References. Monitoring and Control
(J. Ebeling). Introduction. Monitoring. What to monitor. How to monitor. Water level. Temperature. Flow rates. Pressure. Water quality. Bringing it all together. Keeping it working. References. Appendix. Subject Index.