The science of rheology remains a mystery to most people, even to some scientists. Some respectable dictionaries have been quite cavalier in their attitude to the science, the small Collins Gem dictionary, for example, being quite happy to inform us that a Rhea is an three-toed South American ostrich, whilst at the same time offering no definition of rheology. This maybe due to the fact that the science is interdisciplinary and does not fit well into any one of the historical disciplines.
This book contains an in-depth study of the history of rheology, beginning with the statements of Heraclitus, Confucius and the prophetess Deborah. It also emphasises the distinctive contributions of Newton, Hooke, Boltzmann, Maxwell, Kelvin and others, and culminates in the flourishing activity in the second half of this century.
Features of this book:
• Is the only book on the subject
• Prevents the rediscovery of results already made
• Will educate newcomers to the field to the rich heritage in even a relatively recent science like rheology.
The book will be invaluable for science and scientific history libraries and will also be of interest to rheologists, and scientists working in the polymer processing, food, lubrication, detergent and similar industries.
Rheology: An Historical Perspective, 1st Edition
Preface 1. Introduction: The Ground is Prepared.
In the beginning. Kinematics and conservation laws. The classical extremes of elasticity and viscosity. Non-classical behaviour. Appraisal. Robert Hooke. Isaac Newton. Augustin-Louis Cauchy. James Clerk Maxwell. Ludwig Boltzmann. 2. The Growing Years Before 1945
. The beginning of experimental fluid rheology. Linear viscoelasticity. The no-slip boundary condition. Theoretical non-linear developments 1880-1945. Karl Weissenberg. 3. Interlude: Rheology Becomes an Independent Science: Societies, Congresses and Journals
. Introduction. Developments in Europe. On rheological journals. More congresses. The international dimension. Eugene C. Bingham. G.W. Scott Blair. Marcus Reiner. Picture gallery. 4. Constitutive Equations
. Inelastic fluids. Elastic liquids. Personalities. Progress is made. Other relatively simple equations. Overview. Anisotropic fluids. Ronald S. Rivlin. James G. Oldroyd. Coleman and Noll. Clifford A. Truesdell. Arthur S. Lodge. David V. Boger. BKZ. Doi and Edwards. Giuseppe Marrucci. 5. From Continuum Theory to Microstructure (and Vice Versa)
. Developments. Macromolecular hypothesis. Dilute-solution theories. Concentrated solutions and melts - the network theory. Reptative rheology. Suspension rheology. Werner Kuhn. R. Byron Bird. Hanswalter Giesekus. 6. Rheometry Beyond Viscosity
. Early measurements of the normal-stress differences in steady simple shear flow. Early theoretical work on the normal stress differences. Further commercial developments on normal-stress measurement. The second normal-stress difference. Rheo-optical techniques in normal-stress measurement. Linear viscoelasticity. Extensional viscosity. H. Janeschitz-Kriegl. John D. Ferry. Joachim Meissner. G.V. Vinogradov. 7. Some Distinctive Rheological Concepts and Phenomena
. Non-dimensional groups in rheology. The Weissenberg effect. Extrudate swell.
The tubeless syphon. Thixotropy. Instability in flow. Introduction. Some early results. Cone-and-plate and torsional flows. Extrudate distortion and fracture. Instabilities in extensional flows. Drag reduction in turbulent flow. D.D. Joseph. Morton M. Denn. 8. Computational Rheology
. Background and overview. Developments in computer power and computational techniques. The distinctive challenges of computational rheology. Progress is made. Direct simulation of polymer flow. M.J. Crochet. Appendices.
Appendix 1. Rheometrical functions (notation). Appendix 2. Society of Rheology Bingham Medal Recipients. Appendix 3. British Society of Rheology Awards. References
. Author Index
. Subject Index