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The Geologic Time Scale 2012 2-Volume Set
 
 

The Geologic Time Scale 2012 2-Volume Set, 1st Edition

 
The Geologic Time Scale 2012 2-Volume Set, 1st Edition,F M Gradstein,J G Ogg,Mark Schmitz,Gabi Ogg,ISBN9780444594259
 
 
 

Gradstein   &   Ogg   &   Schmitz   &   Ogg   

Elsevier

9780444594259

9780444594488

1176

276 X 216

Serves as the standard international framework for deciphering the history of our planet, providing a complete stratigraphy of all periods and stages with regional applications.

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Key Features

    • The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access.
    • Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility.
    • Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events.
    • Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content).

    Description

    The Geologic Time Scale 2012, winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy.

    This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field.

    Readership

    Primary audience: professionals in industry (oil/gas/petrochemical industry), academic libraries, faculty chairs, graduate students/researchers. All geoscientists, more specifically biochronologists, evolutionary biologists, geo-engineers, space geo engineers, astronomers.

    Secondary audience: geoscience students, university teachers; all stratigraphic and paleontologic, quaternary geoscientists; individuals.

    F M Gradstein

    Felix M. Gradstein has a distinguished career of more than 35 years in the fields of stratigraphy, micropalaeontology and geochronology. He is renowned for coordinating the development of the international geological time scale: over the last 25 years Gradstein et al.'s Time Scales, most recently the 2012 “Geologic Time Scale” (GTS2012), have become a ubiquitous “gold standard” for all Earth Scientists. Gradstein has authored over 140 scientific publications in the fields of geological time scales, quantitative stratigraphic methods, stratigraphy and sedimentology of petroleum basins, plate tectonics, palaeoceanography, and deep-water micropalaeontology. He has a career that spans the divides between industry, government and academia, with periods working for Esso and Saga Petroleum, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Dalhousie University. He is currently Professor in the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo. Gradstein recently won the 2012 PROSE Honorable Mention Award for a multi-volume scientific reference.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    University of Oslo, Norway

    J G Ogg

    James Ogg has over 35 years’ experience in the fields of Marine Stratigraphy, Paleoceanography, Paleomagnetism, Sedimentology. Currently a professor at the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, Ogg is renowned for coordinating the development of the international geological time scale: over the last 25 years Gradstein et al.'s Time Scales, most recently the 2012 “Geologic Time Scale” (GTS2012), have become a ubiquitous “gold standard” for all Earth Scientists. Ogg has published over 100 articles and coordinated 2 books as first or co- author on aspects of stratigraphy in refereed journals since 1986, and has contributed to over 70 chapters in Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program volumes. He has also won numerous awards, including the Geological Society of America: Mary B. Ansari Best Reference Work Award for The Geologic Time Scale 2004 and most recently the 2012 PROSE Honorable Mention Award for a multi-volume scientific reference.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

    Mark Schmitz

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Boise State University, Idaho, USA

    Gabi Ogg

    Affiliations and Expertise

    West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

    The Geologic Time Scale 2012 2-Volume Set, 1st Edition

    Dedication

    Quote

    Dedication

    Contributors

    Editors’ Biographies

    Preface

    Abbreviations and acronyms

    Organizations

    Time Scale Publications (see References for Details)

    Geoscientific Concepts

    Symbols

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 A Geologic Time Scale

    1.2 A Geologic Time Scale GTS2012

    1.3 How this Book is Arranged

    1.4 Conventions and Standards

    1.5 Historical Overview of Geologic Time Scales

    1.6 Stratigraphic Charts and Tables

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 2. The Chronostratigraphic Scale

    2.1 History of Geologic Stratigraphic Standardization

    2.2 Stage Unit Stratotypes

    2.3 Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)

    2.3 Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA)

    2.4 Other Considerations for Choosing a GSSP

    2.5 Subdividing Long Stages

    2.6 Do GSSP Boundary Stratotypes Simplify Stratigraphic Classification?

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 3. Biochronology

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Paleontologic Events

    3.3 Quantitative Stratigraphy and Biochronology

    3.4 Qualitative Biostratigraphy and Biochronology

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 4. Cyclostratigraphy and Astrochronology

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Earth’s Astronomical Parameters

    4.3 The 405-kyr Metronome

    4.4 Astronomically Forced Insolation

    4.5 Cyclostratigraphy through Geologic Time

    4.6 Constructing Astrochronologies and the ATS

    4.7 Precision and Accuracy of the ATS

    4.8 Astrochronology-Geochronology Intercalibration

    4.9 A New Astronomical Solution

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 5. Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

    5.1 Principles

    5.2 Late Cretaceous through Cenozoic Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

    5.3 Middle Jurassic through Early Cretaceous Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale

    5.4 Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale for Early Jurassic and Older Rocks

    5.5 Summary

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 6. Radiogenic Isotope Geochronology

    6.1 Changes in Geochronological Practice Since a Geological Time Scale 2004

    6.2 Changes in Geochronological Standards Applied to the Geological Time Scale 2012

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 7. Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Materials for Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy

    7.3 The Databases Used for this Volume

    7.4 Numerical Ages

    7.5 Fitting the Lowess Database

    7.6 The Quality of the Fit

    7.7 Rubidium Contamination

    7.8 Comments on the Lowess Fit

    7.9 Sr-Isotope Stratigraphy for Pre-Ordovician Time

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 8. Osmium Isotope Stratigraphy

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Historical Overview

    8.3 Pleistocene

    8.4 Miocene

    8.5 Oligocene

    8.6 Late Eocene Impacts

    8.7 Early Eocene

    8.8 Paleocene

    8.9 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary

    8.10 Pre-Cenozoic Records

    8.11 Mesozoic

    8.12 Paleozoic and Precambrian

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 9. Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Mechanisms Driving the Variation in the S Isotope Record

    9.3 Isotopic Fractionation of Sulfur

    9.4 Measurement and Materials for Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy

    9.5 A Geological Time Scale Database

    9.6 A Database of S Isotope Values and Their Ages for the Past 130 Million Years Using Lowess Regression

    9.7 Use of S Isotopes for Correlation

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 10. Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Terminology and Standardization

    10.3 Fractionation Relations and Paleotemperature Scales

    10.4 Application Principles and Considerations

    10.5 Sample Materials

    10.6 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    10.7 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 11. Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy

    11.1 Principles of Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy

    11.2 Spatial Heterogeneity of δ13C of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    11.3 Materials and Methods

    11.4 Correlation Potential and Excursions

    11.5 Causes of Carbon Isotope Excursions

    11.6 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 12. A Brief History of Plants on Earth

    1 Introduction

    2 Paleozoic

    3 Mesozoic

    4 Cenozoic

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 13. Sequence Stratigraphy and Sea-Level Change

    13.1 Historical Links between Sea-Level Change, Sequence Stratigraphy and the Geological Time scale

    13.2 The Development of Eustatic and Sequence Stratigraphic Concepts

    13.3 Issues of Terminology

    13.4 Uses of Sequence Stratigraphy

    13.5 The Synchronicity of Global Sea-Level Changes

    13.6 Causality

    13.7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 14. Statistical Procedures

    14.1 History

    14.2 Spline Fitting in GTS2004

    14.3 Modifications in GTS2012

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 15. The Planetary Time Scale

    15.1 Introduction and Methodologies

    15.2 Time Scales

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 16. A Chronostratigraphic Division of the Precambrian: Possibilities and Challenges

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Historical Review

    16.3 Precambrian Earth History – A Progress Report

    16.4 A Linked, Causative Series of Events in Precambrian Earth Evolution

    16.5 A Revised Precambrian Time scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 17. The Cryogenian Period

    17.1 Historical Background

    17.2 Geochronological Constraints on the Cryogenian Climate Record

    17.3 The Biostratigraphic Basis for a Cryogenian Period

    17.4 An Integrated Approach to Global Stratigraphic Correlation

    17.5 Potential Subdivision of the Cryogenian Period

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 18. The Ediacaran Period

    18.1 Historical Background

    18.2 Cap Carbonates and the Base of the Ediacaran System

    18.3 The Biostratigraphic Basis for the Ediacaran Period

    18.4 Towards an Ediacaran Chronostratigraphy

    18.5 Ediacaran – Last Period of the Proterozoic or First Period of the Phanerozoic?

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 19. The Cambrian Period

    19.1 History and Subdivisions

    19.2 Cambrian Stratigraphy

    19.3 Cambrian Time Scale

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 20. The Ordovician Period

    20.1 History and Subdivisions

    20.2 Previous Standard Divisions

    20.3 Ordovician Stratigraphy

    20.4 Ordovician Time Scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 21. The Silurian Period

    21.1 History and Subdivisions

    21.2 Silurian Series and Stages

    21.3 Silurian Stratigraphy

    21.4 Silurian Time Scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 22. The Devonian Period

    22.1 History and Subdivisions

    22.2 Devonian Stratigraphy

    22.3 Devonian Time Scale

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 23. The Carboniferous Period

    23.1 History and Subdivisions

    23.2 Carboniferous Stratigraphy

    23.3 Carboniferous Time scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 24. The Permian Period

    24.1 History and Subdivisions

    24.2 Regional Correlations

    24.3 Permian Stratigraphy

    24.4 Permian Time Scale

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 25. Triassic

    25.1 History and Subdivisions

    25.2 Triassic Stratigraphy

    25.3 Triassic Time scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 26. Jurassic

    26.1 History and Subdivisions

    26.2 Jurassic Stratigraphy

    26.3 Jurassic Time scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 27. Cretaceous

    27.1 History and Subdivisions

    27.2 Cretaceous Stratigraphy

    27.3 Cretaceous Time Scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 28. The Paleogene Period

    28.1 History and Subdivisions

    28.2 Paleogene Biostratigraphy

    28.3 Physical Stratigraphy

    28.4 Paleogene Time Scale

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 29. The Neogene Period

    29.1 Chronostratigraphy

    29.2 Stages

    29.3 Biostratigraphy

    29.4 Event Stratigraphy

    29.5 Radio-Isotopic Ages

    29.6 Climate Change and Milankovitch Cycles

    29.7 Astronomically Tuned Neogene Time Scale – ATNTS2012

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 30. The Quaternary Period

    30.1 Evolution of Terminology

    30.2 The Plio–Pleistocene Boundary and Definition of the Quaternary

    30.3 Subdivision of the Pleistocene

    30.4 Terrestrial Sequences

    30.5 Ocean-Sediment Sequences

    30.6 Land–Sea Correlation

    30.7 Pleistocene–Holocene Boundary

    30.8 Holocene Series

    30.9 “Anthropocene Series”

    30.10 Quaternary Dating Methods

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 31. The Prehistoric Human Time Scale

    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Hominin Phylogeny and Migration Episodes

    31.3 The Paleoenvironmental Context of Early Hominin Evolution

    31.4 Hominin Industries and the Terminology of Prehistoric Periods

    31.5 Early and Mid Pleistocene Technologies

    31.6 The earliest technologies of Homo sapiens – The Upper Paleolithic

    31.7 Holocene Technologies – Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age

    31.8 Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    REFERENCES

    Chapter 32. The Anthropocene

    32.1 The Anthropocene

    32.2 Stratigraphic Signature

    32.3 Beginning of the Anthropocene?

    32.4 Future Duration of the Anthropocene?

    32.5 Formal Consideration of the Anthropocene

    32.6 Definition

    32.7 Hierarchical Level

    Acknowledgments

    REFERENCES

    APPENDIX 1: Color Codes for Geological Timescales

    APPENDIX 2: Radiometric ages used in GTS2012

    References Cited

    APPENDIX 3: Cenozoic and Cretaceous Biochronology of Planktonic Foraminifera and Calcareous Nannofossils

    References

    Index

    Quotes and reviews

    "…one of the main distinctions of the new version is the more detailed subdivision of the preceding Precambrian interval. As before, the earlier chapters of the book summarize the approaches used; they review the main methods of obtaining chronometric dates and calibrating them with geomagnetic polarity and orbital fluctuations, as well as the use of various stable isotopes in chronological and paleoenvironmental analysis…Required for specialist libraries and a valuable acquisition for other libraries lacking the 2004 edition."--CHOICE April 2013

     
     
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