- Provides a comprehensive overview of seismic signals at different stages of volcano eruption.
- Discusses dozens of case histories from around the world to provide real-world applications.
- Illustrations accompany detailed descriptions of volcano eruptions alongside the theories involved.
Volcanic seismology represents the main, and often the only, tool to forecast volcanic eruptions and to monitor the eruption process. This book describes the main types of seismic signals at volcanoes, their nature and spatial and temporal distributions at different stages of eruptive activity. Following from the success of the first edition, published in 2003, the second edition consists of 19 chapters including significant revision and five new chapters. Organized into four sections, the book begins with an introduction to the history and topic of volcanic seismology, discussing the theoretical and experimental models that were developed for the study of the origin of volcanic earthquakes. The second section is devoted to the study of volcano-tectonic earthquakes, giving the theoretical basis for their occurrence and swarms as well as case stories of volcano-tectonic activity associated with the eruptions at basaltic, andesitic, and dacitic volcanoes. There were 40 cases of volcanic eruptions at 20 volcanoes that occurred all over the world from 1910 to 2005, which are discussed. General regularities of volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms, their participation in the eruptive process, their source properties, and the hazard of strong volcano-tectonic earthquakes are also described. The third section describes the theoretical basis for the occurrence of eruption earthquakes together with the description of volcanic tremor, the seismic signals associated with pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and lahars, and volcanic explosions, long-period and very-long-period seismic signals at volcanoes, micro-earthquake swarms, and acoustic events. The final section discuss the mitigation of volcanic hazard and include the methodology of seismic monitoring of volcanic activity, the examples of forecasting of volcanic eruptions by seismic methods, and the description of seismic activity in the regions of dormant volcanoes.
This book will be essential for students and practitioners of volcanic seismology to understand the essential elements of volcanic eruptions.
Seismologists, Volcanologists, Geophysicists
Introduction to Volcanic Seismology, 2nd Edition
1.1. Terms and definitions. 1.2. Subject of the book. 1.3. Acknowledgements. 2. Seismicity at volcanoes.
2.1. History of seismic monitoring of volcanic activity. 2.2. Classification of volcanic earthquakes. 2.3. Sequences of volcanic earthquakes. 3. Origin of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.
3.1. Magma and its physical and chemical properties. 3.2. Volcanism and tectonics. 3.3. Models of volcano-tectonic earthquake sequences. 4. Origin of eruption earthquakes.
4.1. Processes of the outlet of eruption products from volcanic crater. 4.2. Seismic modeling of eruption earthquakes. 5. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes at basaltic volcanoes.
5.1. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with shield volcanoes. 5.2. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with stratovolcanoes. 5.3. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with fissure eruptions. 5.4. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with caldera collapse. 5.5. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with submarine eruptions. 6. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes at andesitic volcanoes.
6.1. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with volcanic "directed blasts". 6.2. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with phreatic and phreato-magmatic explosions. 6.3. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with lava extrusions. 6.4. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with flank eruption. 7. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes at dacitic volcanoes.
7.1. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with central eruptions. 7.2. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with flank eruptions. 8. General properties of volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms.
8.1. Properties of volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms inferred from the data of Chapters 4 to 6. 8.2. Additional data about volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm properties. 9. Source properties of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.
9.1. Focal mechanisms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes: double couple and non-double couple models. 9.2. Spectral characteristics of volcano-tectonic earthquakes. 9.3. Seismo-tectonic deformations in volcanic region. 10. Significant volcano-tectonic earthquakes and their role in volcanic processes.
10.1. Selection of significant volcano-tectonic earthquakes that occurred in the XXth century. 10.2. Focal rupturing of significant volcano-tectonic earthquakes and its role in volcanic processes. 10.3. The magnitude 7 volcano-tectonic earthquakes in volcanic processes. 10.4. Seismic hazard of significant volcano-tectonic earthquakes. 11. Volcanic tremor.
11.1. Seismograms and spectra. 11.2. Location of volcanic tremor. 11.3. Volcanic tremors in eruptive process. 11.4. Relationships between the intensity of seismic signals and volcanic events. 11.5. Special cases of volcanic tremors. 12. Earthquakes related to pyroclastic flows and rockfalls.
12.1. Occurrences of "fall-and-flow" earthquakes. 12.2. Relationship between the "fall-and-flow" earthquakes and volcanic activity. 12.3. Quantification of "fall-and-flow" earthquakes. 12.4. Location pyroclastic flows using amplitude signals of "fall-and-flow" earthquakes. 13. Explosion earthquakes.
13.1. Waveforms of explosion earthquakes. 13.2. Occurrences of explosion earthquakes and their location. 13.3. Explosion earthquakes in the eruptive process. 13.4. Size of explosion earthquakes. 14. Seismic monitoring of volcanic activity and prediction of volcanic eruptions.
14.1. Methodology of seismic monitoring of volcanic activity. 14.2. Applications of volcanic seismicity in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. 15. Some remarks about unresolved problems.
15.1. Variety of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. 15.2. Seismic activity at dormant volcanic structures: A problem of possible eruption. References. Index.
Quotes and reviews
Praise for the first edition: C. Lomnitz "...This book will be on the shelves of every geophysicist. I am delighted to report that it is useful, fun to read, full of information and worth rereading." source:Natural Hazards