Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing, 1st Edition

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing, 1st Edition,Dushyant Shekhawat,J.J. Spivey,David Berry,ISBN9780444535634

Shekhawat   &   Spivey   &   Berry   

Elsevier Science




235 X 191

An essential guide to this cutting-edge technology and its industry applications

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Key Features

  • Chapters written by experts in each area
  • Extensive bibliography supporting each chapter
  • Detailed index
  • Up-to-date diagrams and full colour illustrations


Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient description of the fuel cell to show how it affects the fuel reformer. By focusing on the fundamentals, this book aims to be a source of information now and in the future. By avoiding time-sensitive information/analysis (e.g., economics) it serves as a single source of information for scientists and engineers in fuel processing technology. The material is presented in such a way that this book will serve as a reference for graduate level courses, fuel cell developers, and fuel cell researchers.


Professionals working in the energy market: transportation, residential, industrial, military, aerospace, fuel cell/fuel reforming industries (petrochemical, oil & gas); academics; and government energy departments and government research libraries

Dushyant Shekhawat

Affiliations and Expertise

National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Morgan Town, WV, USA

J.J. Spivey

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

View additional works by J.J. Spivey

David Berry

Affiliations and Expertise

National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Morgan Town, WV, USA

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing, 1st Edition

Preface Editors Biography Contributors 1. Introduction to Fuel Processing 1.1. Clean Energy 1.2. Fuel Cells 1.3. Fuel Processors 1.4. Reforming Modes 1.5. Thermal Integration of the Fuel Processor and Fuel Cell 1.6. Challenges for Fuel Cells and Fuel Processors 1.7. Scope of This Book References 2. Fuel Cells 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Fuel Cell Fundamentals 2.3. Fuel Cell Degradation 2.4. Fuel Cell Operation 2.5. Fuel Cell Types References 3. Fuels for Fuel Cells 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Fossil Fuels 3.3. Oxygenated Fuels References 4. Steam Reforming for Fuel Cells 4.1. Routes to Hydrogen 4.2. Steam Reforming of Natural Gas 4.3. Steam Reforming of Other Feedstocks 4.4. Hydrogen Production 4.5. Conclusions References 5. Catalytic Partial Oxidation 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Thermodynamics 5.3. Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics 5.4. Light Hydrocarbons 5.5. Higher Hydrocarbons 5.6. Oxygenated Hydrocarbons 5.7. Future Development and Applications References 6. Oxidative Steam Reforming 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Thermodynamics 6.3. Mechanism 6.4. Kinetics 6.5. Catalytic OSR of Hydrocarbons 6.6. Future Work References 7. Dry (CO2) Reforming 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Thermodynamics 7.3. Catalysts for Dry Reforming of Methane 7.4. Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Dry Reforming of Methane 7.5. Dry Reforming of Ethane 7.6. Dry Reforming of Propane 7.7. Reforming of Higher Hydrocarbons 7.8. Dry Reforming of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons 7.9. Summary References 8. Plasma Reforming for H2-Rich Synthesis Gas 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Types of Plasmas Used in Fuel Processing Applications 8.3. Plasma as an Alternative to Traditional Catalysts in Fuel Reforming 8.4. Plasma Reforming of Methane 8.5. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons 8.6. Combined Plasma-Catalytic Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels into Hydrogen-Rich Synthesis Gas 8.7. Conclusions and Future Trends References 9. Nonconventional Reforming Methods 9.1. Scope of the Chapter 9.2. Decomposition of Hydrocarbons 9.3. Supercritical Reforming 9.4. Non-catalytic Thermal Reforming in Porous Media 9.5. Radio Frequency (RF)-Assisted Reforming 9.6. Pre-reforming References 10. Deactivation of Reforming Catalysts 10.1. Scope of This Chapter 10.2. Introduction e General Mechanisms for Fuel Reforming 10.3. Thermally Induced Deactivation 10.4. Sulfur Poisoning 10.5. Coke/Carbon Deposition 10.6. Kinetics of the Deactivation Processes 10.7. Conclusions References 11. Desulfurization for Fuel Cells 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Scope 11.3. Gas Phase Desulfurization Upstream of Reformer 11.4. Liquid Phase Desulfurization Upstream of Reformer 11.5. Syngas Desulfurization Downstream of Reformer or Gasifier 11.6. Integration of Sulfur Removal 11.7. Conclusions and Future Directions References 12. Syngas Conditioning 12.1. Introduction 12.1. Water Gas Shift 12.2. Preferential Oxidation (PrOX) 12.3. Selective Catalytic Methanation of CO (SMET) References 13. Direct Reforming Fuel Cells 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Thermodynamics 13.3. Benefits of Internal Reforming 13.4. Carbon Formation 13.5. Experimental Studies on Low O/C Operation 13.6. Kinetics of Steam Reforming on Nickel-YSZ Anodes 13.7. Poisons for SOFC Anodes 13.8. Concluding Remarks References 14. Reactor Design for Fuel Processing 14.1. Design Requirements of the Fuel Processing Unit 14.2. Design Requirements of WGS Unit 14.3. Design Requirements of Carbon Monoxide Removal Unit 14.4. Design Requirements of Desulfurization Unit 14.5. Types of Reactors Used in Fuel Processing 14.6. Modeling and Design of Fuel Processing Reactors Acknowledgments References 15. Balance of Plant 15.1. Introduction 15.2. Fuel, Air, and Water Management 15.3. Fuel Injection System 15.4. Heat Management Systems 15.5. Other Components 15.6. Conclusion and Future Directions References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Index
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