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Brain Stimulation
 
 

Brain Stimulation, 1st Edition

Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series editors: Aminoff, Boller, Swaab)

 
Brain Stimulation, 1st Edition,Andres Lozano,Mark Hallett,ISBN9780444534972
 
 
 

  &      

Elsevier

9780444534972

9780444534989

784

262 X 192

A comprehensive tutorial-reference focused on brain stimulation, including deep brain stimulation and other noninvasive methods for clinical application

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Key Features

  • A comprehensive introduction and overview of deep brain stimulation (DBS)
  • Coverage of DBS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
  • Details the basic science and research utility of DBS and clinical application

Description

The field of brain stimulation is expanding rapidly, with techniques such as DBS, TMS, and tDCS moving from the research community into clinical diagnosis and treatment. Clinical applications include treating disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and even depression.

The chapters of Brain Stimulation are written by leading international researchers and clinical specialists include coverage of techniques, modes of action and applications in physiology and therapeutics. The combination of research and clinical coverage will be of interest to neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, and health care workers.

Readership

Neurologists, Neuroscience research workers

Andres Lozano

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Mark Hallett

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

View additional works by Mark Hallett

Brain Stimulation, 1st Edition

Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series

Foreword

Preface

References

Contributors

Section 1: Deep brain stimulation

Chapter 1. Principles of electrical stimulation of neural tissue

Abstract

Introduction

Fundamentals of electrical stimulation of neural tissue

Polarity of stimulation

Current–distance relationship

Strength–duration relationship

Frequency of stimulation

Considerations for nondamaging stimulation

Closing remarks

References

Chapter 2. Deep brain stimulation in animal models

Abstract

Background

Electrodes for deep brain stimulation in animal models

Surgery for deep brain stimulation in animal models

Stimulation parameters of deep brain stimulation in animal models

Evaluation of electrodes tips in animal models of deep brain stimulation

Problems encountered during the development of deep brain stimulation in animal models

Examples of the contribution of deep brain stimulation in animal models to clinical practice

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3. Deep brain stimulation surgical techniques

Abstract

Introduction

Brain atlases: Relating anatomy and radiography

Coordinate systems and registration

Frame systems

Frameless systems – principles and technique

Image fusion and target localization

Microelectrode recording and lead placement

Interventional mri for dbs placement

Pulse generator placement

Complications

Conclusion

References

Chapter 4. Deep brain stimulation: how does it work?

Abstract

Introduction

Neural responses to deep brain stimulation

Therapeutic mechanism of deep brain stimulation

Therapeutic targets of deep brain stimulation

References

Chapter 5. Computational modeling of deep brain stimulation

Abstract

Deep brain stimulation

Patient-specific models

Modeling neurostimulation

Deep brain stimulation models

Clinical application of deep brain stimulation models

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 6. Therapeutic stimulation versus ablation

Abstract

Introduction

Chronic pain: ablation versus stimulation?

Movement disorders

Psychiatric indications

Ethics of ablation versus deep brain stimulation

Reasons for popularity of deep brain stimulation

Reasons for decline of ablative procedures

Pros and cons of dbs versus ablation in functional neurosurgery

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 7. Magnetic resonance imaging safety of deep brain stimulator devices

Abstract

Introduction

The MRI environment: basic physics of potential interactions with implanted DBS devices

Experimental studies

In vivo studies

Recommendations and conclusion

References

Chapter 8. Brain stimulation and functional imaging with fMRI and PET

Abstract

Introduction to functional imaging

Deep brain stimulation and functional imaging

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging

Future directions

References

Chapter 9. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease – patient selection

Abstract

Introduction

The ideal parkinson's disease candidate for deep brain stimulation

Contraindications for neurosurgery

Previous therapies for parkinson's disease

Features of parkinson's disease

Personal, professional, and social issues

Conclusion

References

Chapter 10. Clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease

Abstract

Introduction

The targets of deep brain stimulation

Measuring the compound motor effects of DBS

Motor effects

Effects on specific motor symptoms of advanced parkinson's disease

Nonmotor effects

Quality of life

Adverse events

Patients qualifying for deep brain stimulation and outcome predictors

Timing of the intervention

Choosing the target

Conclusion

References

Chapter 11. Postoperative management of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease

Abstract

Introduction

General programming strategy

Stimulation parameters

Battery replacement

Initial programming session

Stabilization period and beyond

Subthalamic nucleus stimulation

Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna

Deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus

Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 12. Psychiatric considerations in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease

Abstract

Introduction

Pathophysiology

Suicidal behaviors

Depression

Apathy

Hypomania and mania

Anxiety

Impulse control disorders

Conclusion

References

Chapter 13. Deep brain stimulation for essential tremor

Abstract

Introduction

Deep brain stimulation

Clinical studies

DBS of non-vim areas for tremor control in patients with essential tremor

Summary

References

Further Reading

Chapter 14. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia

Abstract

Introduction

How effective is DBS in the treatment of dystonia?

GPi DBS in generalized and segmental primary dystonia (including cervical dystonia)

GPi DBS in focal dystonia: blepharospasm, meige syndrome, upper limb dystonia

Long-term follow-up

Persistence of beneficial effect after the stimulator has been switched off

Predictive factors of outcome

Other types of dystonia with good outcome

Tardive dystonia

Dystonia with less predictible outcomes: status dystonicus and secondary dystonia

Safety and adverse effects

Current practice and future directions

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 15. Role of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of secondary dystonia–dyskinesia syndromes

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Results

DBS for secondary dystonia: presentation of studies

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Chapter 16. Deep brain stimulation for other tremors, myoclonus, and chorea

Abstract

Introduction

Deep brain stimulation in huntington’s disease

Deep brain stimulation in hemiballism–hemichorea

Deep brain stimulation in tardive dyskinesia

Deep brain stimulation in holmes tremor

Deep brain stimulation in posttraumatic tremor

Deep brain stimulation for tremor associated with multiple sclerosis

Thalamic deep brain stimulation in orthostatic tremor

Deep brain stimulation in myoclonus

Summary and conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Deep brain stimulation for epilepsy

Abstract

Introduction

Sites of brain stimulation for epilepsy

Conclusion

Acknowledgments and disclosures

References

Chapter 18. Deep brain stimulation for major depression

Abstract

The need for new treatment options in therapy-resistant depression

Targets under research in therapy-resistant depression

Efficacy, side-effects, and neurobiological changes

Case studies, new targets, and new indications

Quality standards

Conclusion

References

Chapter 19. Deep brain stimulation in obsessive–compulsive disorder: neurocircuitry and clinical experience

Abstract

Background and historical context

Circuitry of OCD: translation to deep brain stimulation

DBS in OCD: experience with various potential targets

Conclusion: OCD as a neuropsychiatric illness

References

Chapter 20. Deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome

Abstract

Introduction

Deep brain stimulation

Conclusion and future directions

References

Chapter 21. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use

Abstract

Introduction

Epidemiological significance

Neurobiology of reward and addiction

Stereotactic lesional procedures

Animal models

Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens for treating substance dependence in humans

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in substance-related addictions in humans

Hypotheses regarding the effects of deep brain stimulation on addictions

Conclusion

References

Chapter 22. Evaluating the potential of deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant anorexia nervosa

Abstract

Background: disease burden and scope

Neuroimaging

Neurocircuitry

Rationale for deep brain stimulation treatment and target selection

Neuromodulation in anorexia

Neurosurgical interventions (lesions and dbs) in anorexia

Ethics and deep brain stimulation in anorexia nervosa

Conclusion

References

Chapter 23. Deep brain stimulation for pain

Abstract

Introduction

Patient selection

Basic science

Surgical technique

Clinical assessment

Evidence

Discussion

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 24. Central thalamic deep brain stimulation for support of forebrain arousal regulation in the minimally conscious state

Abstract

Historical efforts to apply thalamic brain stimulation in the severely injured brain placed in a modern context

Proof of concept in a single-subject study of central thalamic deep brain stimulation

Neuronal mechanisms underpinning the rationale of CT-DBS in the severely injured brain

Directions for development of CT/DBS for MCS: preferable neuronal substrates, behavioral profiles, and goals of the intervention

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 25. Deep brain stimulation for cognitive disorders

Abstract

Background

Previous deep brain stimulation trials in disorders with cognitive disturbances

Other observations and future prospects

Conclusion

References

Chapter 26. Ethics guidance for neurological and psychiatric deep brain stimulation

Abstract

Introduction

Ethical challenges in movement disorders

Specific ethical challenges of psychiatric dbs and emerging areas of investigation

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Section 2: Superficial brain stimulation

Chapter 27. Transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation: technique and paradigms

Abstract

Introduction

Transcranial electric stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Conclusions and future directions

References

Chapter 28. Epidural and subdural stimulation

Abstract

Introduction

History

Mechanism of action

Stimulation parameters

Surgical technique

Summary

References

Chapter 29. Physics of effects of transcranial brain stimulation

Abstract

Introduction

Relationship between electric field and current density

Low-frequency dielectric properties of head tissues

Effect of tissue heterogeneity and anisotropy

The quasistatic approximation

Focality in transcranial stimulation

The electric field induced in transcranial magnetic stimulation

The electric field in transcranial current stimulation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 30. Biological effects of non-invasive brain stimulation

Abstract

Introduction

Single-pulse stimulation

Transcranial electrical stimulation

Magnetic stimulation

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation

Repetitive stimulation of the motor cortex

Overall view

References

Chapter 31. Central motor conduction time

Abstract

Introduction

Methods used to measure central motor conduction time

Effects of anthropometric factors on central motor conduction time

Clinical utility of central motor conduction time

Conclusion

References

Chapter 32. Pharmaco-transcranial magnetic stimulation studies of motor excitability

Abstract

Introduction

Motor threshold

Motor evoked potential amplitude

Cortical silent period

Short-interval intracortical inhibition

Intracortical facilitation

Short-interval intracortical facilitation

Long-interval intracortical inhibition

Short-latency afferent inhibition

Summary

References

Chapter 33. Treating the depressions with superficial brain stimulation methods

Abstract

Introduction

Why brain stimulation and depression

Electroconvulsive therapy

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and repetitive TMS

Transcranial direct current stimulation

Transcranial electrical stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation

Epidural and subdural stimulation

Conclusion and next steps

References

Chapter 34. Other therapeutic psychiatric uses of superficial brain stimulation

Abstract

Introduction

Anxiety disorders

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Panic disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Catatonia

Schizophrenia

Bipolar disorder

Discussion

References

Chapter 35. Pain

Abstract

Introduction

Mechanisms of action

Epidural motor cortex stimulation

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex

Transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex

Other cortical targets

Conclusion

References

Chapter 36. Tinnitus: therapeutic use of superficial brain stimulation

Abstract

Introduction: Terminology and epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Methodological considerations

Brain stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus

Auditory brain stimulation

Concluding remark

References

Chapter 37. Parkinson’s disease

Abstract

Background

Rationale for noninvasive brain stimulation

Pathophysiology of motor disturbance of parkinson's disease

Therapeutic studies of noninvasive brain stimulation in parkinson's disease

Physiological effects of noninvasive brain stimulation in parkinson's disease

Current concepts of noninvasive brain stimulation in parkinson's disease

Outlook for noninvasive brain stimulation in parkinson's disease

References

Chapter 38. Dystonia

Abstract

Introduction

Writer's Cramp

Blepharospasm

Conclusion

References

Chapter 39. Epilepsy

Abstract

Introduction

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in seizure suppression

Safety of TMS in epilepsy

TMS as a diagnostic instrument in epilepsy

Spike provocation by TMS

Transcranial direct current stimulation in epilepsy

Conclusion

References

Chapter 40. Noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation

Abstract

Introduction

Poststroke reorganization

Physiological mechanisms of reorganization

Noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 41. Plasticity

Abstract

Terms and physiology

Models of plasticity in the naive central nervous system

Modulation of stimulation-induced plasticity by concomitant experimental physiological manipulation

Modulation of stimulation-induced plasticity by prior experience or behavior

Modulation of effects of subsequent training through stimulation-induced plasticity

References

Chapter 42. Parkinson’s disease

Abstract

Standard measures of motor cortex excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation

Premovement facilitation of motor evoked potentials

Transcallosal inhibition and mirror movements

Cerebellum and tremor

Effects of deep brain stimulation on cortical excitability

Motor cortex plasticity

Levodopa-induced dyskinesia and cortical plasticity

Plasticity: conclusions

References

Chapter 43. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in dystonia

Abstract

Introduction

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and dystonia pathophysiology

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and diagnostic applications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and therapeutic applications

References

Chapter 44. Noninvasive brain stimulation in Huntington’s disease

Abstract

Introduction

Brainstem excitability and plasticity in huntington's disease

Primary motor cortex excitability and plasticity in huntington's disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 45. Utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation in delineating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathophysiology

Abstract

Introduction

The effects of single-pulse TMS on motor function

Stimulus–response curves

Central motor conduction time

Cortical silent period

Paired-pulse TMS and motor function

Short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation

Peristimulus time histograms

Contribution of TMS to the understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis

An excitotoxic paradigm

Diagnostic utility of TMS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Future clinical utility of TMS

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 46. Superficial brain stimulation in multiple sclerosis

Abstract

Introduction

Diagnostic applications of superficial brain stimulation in multiple sclerosis

Monitoring and prediction of the course of multiple sclerosis

Evaluations of functions other than direct corticospinal connection by superficial brain stimulation

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 47. Brain stimulation in migraine

Abstract

Introduction

Pathophysiology of migraine: the neurostimulation insight

Noninvasive neurostimulation for the treatment of migraine

Conclusion

References

Chapter 48. Dementia

Abstract

Introduction

Cortical reactivity measures, plasticity, and functional connectivity

Studies on cortical excitability, connectivity, and plasticity

Pharmacological modulation of cortical excitability in dementia

Therapeutic interventions

Discussion

References

Chapter 49. Addiction

Abstract

Introduction

The neurobiology of addiction: a brief overview

Addiction and brain stimulation

Nicotine and brain stimulation

Alcohol and brain stimulation

Cocaine and brain stimulation

Cannabis and brain stimulation

Ecstasy and brain stimulation

Safety of brain stimulation techniques within addiction populations

Future research applications

Conclusion

References

Chapter 50. Tourette syndrome

Abstract

Introduction

Depolarization thresholds: resting and active motor thresholds

The cortical silent period

Paired-pulse studies of inhibition: SICI and SAI

Single pulse: input–output curves

Repeated pulse: neuroplasticity

References

Chapter 51. Cerebellum

Abstract

Introduction

Anatomy of cerebellocerebral connection

Cerebellar stimulation – methodology

Cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects

Cerebellar inhibition in neurological disorders

Other investigations

Methodological limitations

Summary, outlook, and perspectives

References

Chapter 52. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and vision

Abstract

Introduction

How can TMS contribute to the study of vision?

Pioneering TMS studies on the visual system

Phosphenes – visual percepts induced by TMS

Stimulation site localization

Recent TMS studies on visual motion perception

TMS studies on object and face processing

Chronometric TMS: tracing information flow between brain areas

TMS studies on in neurological disorders affecting vision

State dependency of TMS effects

Revealing neuronal selectivity with state-dependent TMS

Mechanisms underlying TMS-induced impairments in visual perception

Impact of stimulation intensity on whether TMS impairs or facilitates perception

Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 53. Transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques to study the somatosensory system: research applications

Abstract

Introduction

Stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex (S1)

Interaction of intermodal attentional and sensorimotor systems

Stimulation of nonsomatosensory regions and the effect on somatosensory cortical processing

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 54. Language

Abstract

Introduction

Phonology

The phonological loop in verbal working memory

Semantics

Grammar and syntax

Figurative language

Speech production: the speech arrest phenomenon

Prosody

Reading

Conclusion

References

Chapter 55. Learning and memory

Abstract

Introduction

Framing application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the context of neuropsychological definitions

Understanding the neural mechanisms of learning and memory

Using noninvasive brain stimulation as a diagnostic tool

Modulating learning and memory

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 56. Transcranial stimulation and cognition

Abstract

Introduction

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial electrical stimulation

Future directions: cognitive neurorehabilitation and noninvasive brain stimulation

References

Index

Quotes and reviews

"This outstanding and comprehensive new book covers the rapidly growing use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as well as superficial brain stimulation (SBS) for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders…This is a first-rate book covering the emerging treatment technology of DBS and SBS. Any clinician who wants to keep abreast of these important treatment modalities should read this book. I highly recommend it." Rating: 3 Stars--Doody.com, March 21, 2014
"This volume is focused on brain stimulation, considering both deep and superficial versions. Among the topics are postoperative management of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease, evaluating the potential of deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant anorexia nervosa, treating depression with superficial brain stimulation methods, noninvasive brain stimulation in neuro-rehabilitation…"--ProtoView.com, January 2014

 
 
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