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Treatise on Water Science, Four-Volume Set
 
 

Treatise on Water Science, Four-Volume Set, 1st Edition

 
Treatise on Water Science, Four-Volume Set, 1st Edition,Peter Wilderer,ISBN9780444531933
 
 
 

P Wilderer   

Elsevier Science

9780444531933

9780444531995

2102

281 X 222

Examines water technology topics in depth, with an emphasis on innovative research and technologies.

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Key Features

*Published in partnership with and endorsed by the International Water Association (IWA), demonstrating the authority of the content.
*Editor-in-Chief Peter Wilderer, a Stockholm Water Prize recipient, has assembled a world-class team of volume editors and contributing authors
*Topics related to water resource management, water quality and supply, and handling of wastewater are treated in depth

Description

Water quality and management are of great significance globally, as the demand for clean, potable water far exceeds the availability. Water science research brings together the natural and applied sciences, engineering, chemistry, law and policy, and economics, and the Treatise on Water Science seeks to unite these areas through contributions from a global team of author-experts. The 4-volume set examines topics in depth, with an emphasis on innovative research and technologies for those working in applied areas.

Readership

Oceanographers, engineers, advanced students and others whose work concerns water research; water supply/utility companies; government agencies tasked with environmental resource management; and environmental science libraries

Peter Wilderer

Affiliations and Expertise

Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching, Germany

Treatise on Water Science, Four-Volume Set, 1st Edition

  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Editors
  • The Importance of Water Science in a World of Rapid Change: A Preface to the Treatise on Water Science
  • Volume 1: Management of Water Resources
    • Preface – Management of Water Resources
      • 1 The Water Crisis
      • 2 Why Studying Water Is So Important
      • 3 Current Global Water Balance
      • 4 Establishing Water Policy
      • 5 Predicting Future Demands for Water
      • 6 Drivers of Socioeconomic Growth
      • 7 Transboundary Conflicts
      • 8 River Basin Politics
      • 9 The Contents of Volume I
      • References
    • 1.01. Integrated Water Resources Management
      • 1.01.1 Introduction
      • 1.01.2 IWRM at the Watershed Level: Watershed Management
      • 1.01.3 IWRM at the Water-Use Systems Level: Agricultural Water Management
      • 1.01.4 IWRM at the Water-Use Systems Level: Water Supply and Sanitation Services
      • 1.01.5 IWRM at the Basin Level
      • 1.01.6 IWRM at the National Level: Policies and Governance
      • 1.01.7 IWRM at the Transnational and Global Level: Information Sharing, Cooperation, and Technical and Financial Assistance
      • 1.01.8 IWRM as a Meta-Concept
      • 1.01.9 History and Evolution of the Concept of IWRM
      • 1.01.10 Assessments and Critiques of the Concept of IWRM
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 1.02. Governing Water: Institutions, Property Rights, and Sustainability
      • 1.02.1 Introduction
      • 1.02.2 International Organizations and Water Policy Debate
      • 1.02.3 Governing Water from the Ground Up
      • 1.02.4 Courts: Hiding in Plain View
      • 1.02.5 Conclusion: Reconceptualizing Water Governance
      • References
    • 1.03. Managing Aquatic Ecosystems
      • 1.03.1 Introduction
      • 1.03.2 Key Concepts
      • 1.03.3 Distribution and Classification of Aquatic Ecosystems
      • 1.03.4 Drivers of Change in Inland Aquatic Ecosystems
      • 1.03.5 Management Responses
      • 1.03.6 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 1.04. Water as an Economic Good: Old and New Concepts and Implications for Analysis and Implementation
      • 1.04.1 Introduction
      • 1.04.2 Challenge One: Revisiting the Old Issue of the Indirect Effects of Investments in Major Water Projects
      • 1.04.3 Challenge Two: Managing Water as a Scarce Resource
      • 1.04.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • 1.05. Providing Clean Water: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations
      • 1.05.1 Introduction
      • 1.05.2 Water Quantity
      • 1.05.3 Water Quality
      • 1.05.4 Nonprice Determinants of Clean Water Adoption
      • 1.05.5 Potentially Scalable Approaches to Improving Water Quality
      • 1.05.6 Methods and Theory: Contributions of Randomized Evaluations of Domestic Water
      • 1.05.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • 1.06. Pricing Water and Sanitation Services
      • 1.06.1 Introduction
      • 1.06.2 The Costs of Providing W&S Services
      • 1.06.3 W&S Development Paths
      • 1.06.4 Objectives of Tariff Design
      • 1.06.5 Tariff Structures – the Alternatives
      • 1.06.6 Achieving Economic Efficiency and Recovering Capital Costs: Fundamentals of Dynamic Marginal Cost Pricing in the W&S Sector
      • 1.06.7 Subsidizing Capital Costs: Reaching the Poor
      • 1.06.8 Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • 1.07. Groundwater Management
      • 1.07.1 Introduction
      • 1.07.2 The Global Silent Revolution of Intensive Groundwater Use
      • 1.07.3 The Economics of Groundwater Use
      • 1.07.4 Regulatory Frameworks for Groundwater Multilevel Governance
      • 1.07.5 Institutional Aspects of Groundwater Management
      • 1.07.6 The Complex Concept of Groundwater Sustainability and Future Management Issues
      • 1.07.7 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 1.08. Managing Agricultural Water
      • 1.08.1 Introduction and Overview
      • 1.08.2 Water Productivity in Agriculture
      • 1.08.3 Water Management and Competitiveness
      • 1.08.4 Water Resource Management, Institutions, and Implementation
      • 1.08.5 Water Management and the Environment
      • 1.08.6 Water for Agriculture and Poverty Reduction
      • 1.08.7 Water Management of Rainfed Agriculture
      • 1.08.8 Policy Actions for the Future
      • 1.08.9 Summary
      • References
      • Relevant Website
    • 1.09. Implementation of Ambiguous Water-Quality Policies
      • 1.09.1 Nonpoint Sources and the CWA
      • 1.09.2 Intrastate Cases
      • 1.09.3 Interstate Nonpoint Management
      • 1.09.4 Summary and Conclusions
      • References
    • 1.10. Predicting Future Demands for Water
      • 1.10.1 Water Supply and Demand
      • 1.10.2 Water-Use Data
      • 1.10.3 Water-Demand Relationships
      • 1.10.4 Demand Forecasting Techniques
      • 1.10.5 Example of a Regional Multisector Forecast
      • 1.10.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • 1.11. Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Communication: Methods for Climate Variability and Change
      • 1.11.1 Introduction
      • 1.11.2 Background on Risk Assessment and Management
      • 1.11.3 Risk Management versus Consequence Management: The Upside of Risk
      • 1.11.4 Climate Risk
      • 1.11.5 Conclusion
      • References
  • Volume 2: The Science of Hydrology
    • Preface – The Science of Hydrology
      • References
    • 2.01. Global Hydrology
      • 2.01.1 Introduction
      • 2.01.2 Global Water Cycle
      • 2.01.3 Global Water-Balance Requirements
      • 2.01.4 Global Water Balance
      • 2.01.5 Challenges in the Global Hydrology and Research Gaps
      • References
    • 2.02. Precipitation
      • 2.02.1 Introduction
      • 2.02.2 Physical and Meteorological Framework
      • 2.02.3 Precipitation Observation and Measurement
      • 2.02.4 Precipitation modeling
      • 2.02.5 Precipitation and Engineering Design
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.03. Evaporation in the Global Hydrological Cycle
      • 2.03.1 Introduction
      • 2.03.2 General Theory of Evaporation
      • 2.03.3 Regional and Equilibrium Evaporation
      • 2.03.4 Trends and Variability in Global Evaporation
      • 2.03.5 Summary and Conclusions
      • References
    • 2.04. Interception
      • 2.04.1 Introduction
      • 2.04.2 Importance of Interception
      • 2.04.3 Types of Interception
      • 2.04.4 Methods to Measure Interception
      • 2.04.5 Interception Models
      • 2.04.6 Consequences of Underestimating Interception for Hydrological Modeling and Water Resource Assessment
      • 2.04.7 Outlook
      • References
    • 2.05. Infiltration and Unsaturated Zone
      • 2.05.1 Introduction
      • 2.05.2 Soil Properties and Unsaturated Water Flow
      • 2.05.3 Infiltration Equations
      • 2.05.4 Measurements
      • 2.05.5 Scaling and Spatial Variability Considerations
      • 2.05.6 Summary and Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • Mechanics of Groundwater Flow
      • 2.06.1 Introduction
      • 2.06.2 Brief History
      • 2.06.3 Hydraulic Head
      • 2.06.4 Darcy’s Law
      • 2.06.5 Steady Conservation of Mass
      • 2.06.6 Flow Types
      • 2.06.7 The Dupuit Approximation
      • 2.06.8 Potential Flow and the Discharge Vector
      • 2.06.9 One-Dimensional Flow
      • 2.06.10 One-Dimensional Radial Flow
      • 2.06.11 The Principle of Superposition
      • 2.06.12 The Stream Function and the Complex Potential
      • 2.06.13 Transient Flow
      • 2.06.14 Computer Models
      • 2.06.15 Discussion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.07. The Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics of Rivers
      • 2.07.1 Early History of Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics in Rivers and Channels
      • 2.07.2 State of the Art in Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.08. Lakes and Reservoirs
      • 2.08.1 Morphometry, Hydrodynamics, Chemistry, and Biology of Lakes
      • 2.08.2 Fundamental Properties of Reservoirs
      • 2.08.3 Management, Protection, and Rehabilitation of Lakes and Reservoirs
      • 2.08.4 Current Knowledge Gaps and Future Research Needs
      • References
    • 2.09. Tracer Hydrology
      • 2.09.1 Introduction
      • 2.09.2 Principal Conception and Approaches of Tracer Hydrology
      • 2.09.3 Fundamentals of Environmental and Artificial Tracers
      • 2.09.4 Tracer Hydrology Applications
      • 2.09.5 Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • 2.10. Hydrology and Ecology of River Systems
      • 2.10.1 Introduction
      • 2.10.2 Key Hydrological Characteristics of River Networks
      • 2.10.3 River-Corridor Dynamics
      • 2.10.4 Aquatic Ecosystems
      • 2.10.5 Managing River Flows to Protect Riverine Ecosystems
      • References
    • 2.11. Hydrology and Biogeochemistry Linkages
      • 2.11.1 Introduction
      • 2.11.2 Hydrological Pathways on Drainage Basin Slopes
      • 2.11.3 Mountain Environments
      • 2.11.4 Within-River Processes
      • 2.11.5 Wetland Processes
      • 2.11.6 Lakes
      • 2.11.7 Groundwater
      • 2.11.8 Acidic Atmospheric Deposition – Acid Rain
      • 2.11.9 Summary and Future Considerations
      • 2.11.10 Additional Reading
      • References
    • 2.12. Catchment Erosion, Sediment Delivery, and Sediment Quality
      • 2.12.1 A Changing Context
      • 2.12.2 Sediment Budgets
      • 2.12.3 Documenting Catchment Sediment Budgets
      • 2.12.4 Modeling the Catchment Sediment Budget
      • 2.12.5 The Quality Dimension
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.13. Field-Based Observation of Hydrological Processes
      • 2.13.1 Runoff Generation Processes
      • 2.13.2 Quantifying the Processes
      • 2.13.3 Conclusion
      • References
    • 2.14. Observation of Hydrological Processes Using Remote Sensing
      • 2.14.1 General introduction
      • 2.14.2 Water in the Atmosphere: Clouds and Water Vapor
      • 2.14.3 Water from the Atmosphere: Precipitation
      • 2.14.4 Water to the Atmosphere – Evaporation
      • 2.14.5 Water on the Land – Snow and Ice
      • 2.14.6 Water on the Land – Surface Water, River Flows, and Wetlands (Altimetry)
      • 2.14.7 Water in the Ground – Soil Moisture
      • 2.14.8 Water in the Ground – Groundwater (Gravity Observations)
      • 2.14.9 Optical RS of Water Quality in Inland and Coastal Waters
      • 2.14.10 Water Use in Agro- and Ecosystems
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.15. Hydrogeophysics
      • 2.15.1 Introduction to Hydrogeophysics
      • 2.15.2 Geophysical Methods
      • 2.15.3 Petrophysical Models
      • 2.15.4 Parameter Estimation/Integration Methods
      • 2.15.5 Case Studies
      • 2.15.6 Summary and Outlook
      • References
    • 2.16. Hydrological Modeling
      • 2.16.1 Introduction
      • 2.16.2 Classification of Hydrological Models
      • 2.16.3 Conceptual Models
      • 2.16.4 Physically Based Models
      • 2.16.5 Parameter Estimation
      • 2.16.6 Data-Driven Models
      • 2.16.7 Analysis of Uncertainty in Hydrological Modeling
      • 2.16.8 Integration of Models
      • 2.16.9 Future Issues in Hydrological Modeling
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.17. Uncertainty of Hydrological Predictions
      • 2.17.1 Introduction
      • 2.17.2 Definitions and Terminology
      • 2.17.3 Classification of Uncertainty and Reasons for the Presence of Uncertainty in Hydrology
      • 2.17.4 Uncertainty Assessment
      • 2.17.5 Classification of Approaches to Uncertainty Assessment
      • 2.17.6 Assessment of the Global Uncertainty of the Model Output
      • 2.17.7 Assessment of Data Uncertainty
      • 2.17.8 Assessment of Parameter Uncertainty
      • 2.17.9 Assessment of Model Structural Uncertainty
      • 2.17.10 Uncertainty Assessment as a Learning Process
      • 2.17.11 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.18. Statistical Hydrology
      • 2.18.1 Introduction
      • 2.18.2 Analysis and Detection of Nonstationarity in Hydrological Time Series
      • 2.18.3 Extreme Value Analysis: Distribution Functions and Statistical Inference
      • 2.18.4 IDF Curves
      • 2.18.5 Copula Function for Hydrological Application
      • 2.18.6 Regional Frequency Analysis
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.19. Scaling and Regionalization in Hydrology
      • 2.19.1 Introduction
      • 2.19.2 The Linear Statistical Approach
      • 2.19.3 Scaling in Hydrology
      • 2.19.4 Regionalization in Hydrology
      • 2.19.5 Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • 2.20. Stream–Groundwater Interactions
      • 2.20.1 Introduction
      • 2.20.2 Hydrology – Range of Interactions
      • 2.20.3 Chemical and Ecological Significance
      • 2.20.4 Field Study Methods and Models
      • 2.20.5 Summary and Future Challenges
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
  • Volume 3: Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
    • Preface – Aquatic Chemistry and Biology
      • The World of Aquatic Chemistry and Microbiology
    • 3.01. Sum Parameters: Potential and Limitations
      • 3.01.1 Introduction
      • 3.01.2 General Considerations and Scope
      • 3.01.3 DOC and TOC
      • 3.01.4 Oxygen Demand Parameters
      • 3.01.5 UVA and Visible Range Absorbance
      • 3.01.6 Organically Bound Halogens Adsorbable on Activated Carbon (AOX)
      • 3.01.7 Additional Sum Parameters
      • References
    • Trace Metal(loid)s (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, PGE, Sb, and Zn) and Their Species
      • 3.02.1 Introduction
      • 3.02.2 Natural Waters and Anthropogenic Influence
      • 3.02.3 Selected Elements
      • 3.02.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • 3.03. Sources, Risks, and Mitigation of Radioactivity in Water
      • 3.03.1 Introduction
      • 3.03.2 Establishing Limits on the Risk from Radionuclides
      • 3.03.3 Specific Radionuclides of Interest
      • 3.03.4 Mitigation Methods
      • 3.03.5 Geographic Areas of Special Concern
      • 3.03.6 Measuring Radioactivity in Water
      • 3.03.7 Conclusions
      • Reference
    • 3.04. Emerging Contaminants
      • 3.04.1 Introduction
      • 3.04.2 General Aspects: What Are the Emerging Contaminants and Micro-Pollutants?
      • 3.04.3 Parent Compounds, Metabolites, and Transformation Products
      • 3.04.4 A High Diversity of Chemicals Is Present in the Aquatic Environment
      • 3.04.5 Sources and Fate
      • 3.04.6 Examples of Individual Groups
      • 3.04.7 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
      • 3.04.8 Anticorrosive Additives – BT and TT
      • 3.04.9 Gasoline Additives – Methyl tert-Butyl Ether
      • 3.04.10 Perfluorinated Surfactants – PFOS and PFOA
      • 3.04.11 Personal-Care Products
      • 3.04.12 Fragrances and Odorants
      • 3.04.13 Disinfectants
      • 3.04.14 UV Filters
      • 3.04.15 Pharmaceuticals
      • 3.04.16 Engineered Nanoparticles
      • 3.04.17 Artificial Sweeteners
      • 3.04.18 Cyanotoxins
      • Referencs
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.05. Natural Colloids and Manufactured Nanoparticles in Aquatic and Terrestrial Systems
      • 3.05.1 Introduction
      • 3.05.2 Definitions
      • 3.05.3 Major Types of Natural Colloids
      • 3.05.4 Major Types of Manufactured NPs
      • 3.05.5 Important Physico-Chemical Properties of Natural Colloid
      • 3.05.6 Intrinsic Properties of Manufactured NPs
      • 3.05.7 Environmental Fate and Behavior of Natural Colloids
      • 3.05.8 Environmental Fate and Behavior of Nanomaterials
      • 3.05.9 Conclusions and Recommendations
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.06. Sampling and Conservation
      • 3.06.1 Introduction
      • 3.06.2 General Aspects and Requirements of Sampling Environmental Waters
      • 3.06.3 Handling and Conservation of Liquid Water Samples
      • 3.06.4 Water Sampling Using Traditional Methods
      • 3.06.5 Water Sampling Using Passive Sampling Technology
      • References
      • Relevant Website
    • 3.07. Measurement Quality in Water Analysis
      • 3.07.1 Introduction
      • 3.07.2 Terminology
      • 3.07.3 How to Set the Analytical Requirement
      • 3.07.4 Quality of Drinking Water Analysis
      • 3.07.5 How to Assess the Quality in a Lab
      • 3.07.6 Data Treatment
      • 3.07.7 Conclusions
      • Glossary
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • Identification of Microorganisms Using the Ribosomal RNA Approach and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
      • 3.08.1 Introduction
      • 3.08.2 The Full-Cycle rRNA Approach
      • 3.08.3 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
      • 3.08.4 Cell Counting
      • 3.08.5 From Cell Detection to Ecological Function
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.09. Bioassays for Estrogenic and Androgenic Effects of Water Constituents
      • 3.09.1 Introduction
      • 3.09.2 In Vivo Bioeffect Assays
      • 3.09.3 In Vitro Assays at the Cellular Level
      • 3.09.4 Subcellular Assays
      • 3.09.5 Conclusions
      • References
    • 3.10. Online Monitoring Sensors
      • 3.10.1 Introduction
      • 3.10.2 Sensors for pH Measurements
      • 3.10.3 Sensors for Ionic Species
      • 3.10.4 Sensors for Dissolved Carbon Dioxide
      • 3.10.5 Dissolved Oxygen Sensors
      • 3.10.6 Sensors for Waterborne Ozone
      • 3.10.7 Sensors for Waterborne Hydrocarbons
      • 3.10.8 Sensors for Waterborne Organic Matter
      • 3.10.9 Waterborne Chlorophyll Sensors
      • 3.10.10 Sensors for Waterborne Pesticides
      • 3.10.11 Sensors for Waterborne Toxins
      • 3.10.12 Sensors for Waterborne Bacteria
      • 3.10.13 Turbidity Sensors
      • 3.10.14 Oxidation–Reduction Potential Sensors
      • 3.10.15 Conductivity Sensors
      • 3.10.16 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.11. Standardized Methods for Water-Quality Assessment
      • 3.11.1 Introduction
      • 3.11.2 Features of Standards and Standardization
      • 3.11.3 Standardization Organizations Delivering Water-Testing Standards and Their TCs
      • 3.11.4 Items Covered by Standardization in the Field of Water Examination
      • 3.11.5 Resume and Outlook
      • 3.11.6 List of Standards
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.12. Waterborne Parasitic Diseases: Hydrology, Regional Development, and Control
      • 3.12.1 Introduction
      • 3.12.2 Parasites Transmitted through Drinking Water
      • 3.12.3 Food-Borne Parasites Transmitted through Freshwater and Marine Foods
      • 3.12.4 Other Parasites with a Water-Dependent Life Cycle
      • 3.12.5 Parasites Penetrating Human Skin on Contact with Freshwater
      • 3.12.6 Water-Dependent Vector-Borne Parasites
      • 3.12.7 Environmental Factors Influencing the Dynamics of Water-Associated Parasites
      • 3.12.8 Synopsis
      • 3.12.9 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.13. Bioremediation: Plasmid-Mediated Bioaugmentation of Microbial Communities – Experience from Laboratory-Scale Bioreactors
      • 3.13.1 Horizontal Gene Transfer-Mediated Bioaugmentation
      • 3.13.2 Plasmid pWW0
      • 3.13.3 Plasmid pJP4
      • 3.13.4 Plasmid pNB2
      • 3.13.5 Conclusions and Recommendations
      • References
    • Drinking Water Toxicology in Its Regulatory Framework
      • 3.14.1 Introduction
      • 3.14.2 From Chemical Hazards to Chemical Standards
      • 3.14.3 Panels and Institutions for Setting Drinking Water Standards
      • 3.14.4 Defining Standards to Prevent Human Health Risks from Drinking Water
      • 3.14.5 A Holistic Approach for Defining Quality Goals or Standards for Drinking Water
      • 3.14.6 Practical Regulation of Drinking-Water Quality
      • 3.14.7 The Author’s Short Conclusions
      • 3.14.8 Perspectives on Perception of Drinking Water
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 3.15. Characterization Tools for Differentiating Natural Organic Matter from Effluent Organic Matter
      • 3.15.1 Introduction
      • 3.15.2 Advantages of Bulk Water Characterization over NOM/EfOM Isolates
      • 3.15.3 Bulk Water Analysis Protocols
      • 3.15.4 EfOM versus NOM Differences in Bulk Water Parameters
      • 3.15.5 Application of Protocols to Case Studies
      • 3.15.6 Summary
      • References
    • 3.16. Chemical Basis for Water Technology
      • 3.16.1 Introduction
      • 3.16.2 Goals and Processes for Water Treatment
      • 3.16.3 Key Chemical and Physical Principles/Phenomena for Water Treatment
      • 3.16.4 Summary of Processes Used in Water Treatment
      • 3.16.5 The Evolving Nature of Water Treatment
      • 3.16.6 Addressing the Treatment Goals – From the Perspective of the Chemical, Physical, and Biological Processes Involved
      • 3.16.7 Summary (Concluding Remarks)
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
  • Volume 4: Water-Quality Engineering
    • Preface – Water-Quality Engineering
    • 4.01. Water and Wastewater Management Technologies in the Ancient Greek and Roman Civilizations
      • 4.01.1 Aqueducts
      • 4.01.2 Minoan and Greek Aqueducts
      • 4.01.3 Roman Aqueducts
      • 4.01.4 Cisterns and Reservoirs
      • 4.01.5 Water Distribution Systems
      • 4.01.6 Fountains
      • 4.01.7 Drainage and Sewerage Systems and Toilets
      • 4.01.8 Discussion and Conclusions
      • References
    • 4.02. Membrane Filtration in Water and Wastewater Treatment
      • 4.02.1 Membrane Application to Water Purification
      • 4.02.2 Membrane Application to Wastewater Treatment
      • References
    • 4.03. Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse System
      • 4.03.1 Foundation of Water Reuse
      • 4.03.2 Water Reuse Terminology and Definitions
      • 4.03.3 Reclaimed Water Applications
      • 4.03.4 Water-Quality Considerations
      • 4.03.5 Treatment Technology
      • 4.03.6 Infrastructure for Water Reuse
      • 4.03.7 Source Control
      • 4.03.8 Future Directions for Water Reuse
      • References
    • 4.04. Seawater Use and Desalination Technology
      • 4.04.1 Introduction
      • 4.04.2 Seawater
      • 4.04.3 Brackish Water
      • 4.04.4 Desalination of Wastewater for Reuse
      • 4.04.5 Alternative Technologies
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 4.05. Abstraction of Atmospheric Humidity
      • 4.05.1 Introduction
      • 4.05.2 Volume of Water in the Atmosphere
      • 4.05.3 Fundamentals of Rainfall Generation
      • 4.05.4 Innovative Abstraction Methods
      • 4.05.5 Rainwater Collection, Purification, and Storage
      • 4.05.6 Overarching Aspects
      • References
    • 4.06. Safe Sanitation in Low Economic Development Areas
      • 4.06.1 Introduction
      • 4.06.2 Historical Background
      • 4.06.3 Sanitation as Part of The Hydrological Cycle or Properly Closing the Water Loop
      • 4.06.4 Pollutants
      • 4.06.5 Sanitation in Low-Income Countries: A Complex Current Situation
      • 4.06.6 Wastewater Management Systems
      • 4.06.7 Wastewater Disposal versus Reintegration
      • 4.06.8 Sludge and Excreta Management
      • 4.06.9 Policy
      • 4.06.10 Funding
      • 4.06.11 Science and Innovation: Need to Develop Individual Knowledge
      • 4.06.12 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 4.07. Source Separation and Decentralization
      • 4.07.1 Introduction
      • 4.07.2 Gray Water
      • 4.07.3 Urine
      • 4.07.4 Feces
      • 4.07.5 Combined Domestic Wastewater
      • 4.07.6 Outlook
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 4.08. Modeling of Biological Systems
      • 4.08.1 Introduction
      • 4.08.2 Mathematical Modeling of Biochemical Processes
      • 4.08.3 Modeling of Biological Processes in Activated Sludge Systems
      • 4.08.4 Soil Filters
      • 4.08.5 Waste Stabilization Ponds
      • 4.08.6 Anaerobic Treatment
      • References
    • Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution Focusing on Micropollutants and Pathogens
      • 4.09.1 Introduction
      • 4.09.2 Physicochemical Characterization of Road Dust and Soakaway Sediment
      • 4.09.3 Pathogenic Pollution in a Seaside Park after CSO
      • 4.09.4 Summary
      • References
    • 4.10. Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds
      • 4.10.1 Introduction
      • 4.10.2 Principles of CW and WSP Systems for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
      • 4.10.3 Design Criteria and Operation of CW and WSP Systems
      • 4.10.4 Case Studies of CW and WSP
      • 4.10.5 Emerging Environmental Issues versus Potentials of CW and WSP
      • 4.10.6 Summary
      • References
    • 4.11. Membrane Technology for Water: Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration, and Reverse Osmosis
      • 4.11.1 Introduction
      • 4.11.2 Membrane Types and Properties
      • 4.11.3 Membrane Materials and Preparation
      • 4.11.4 Membrane Characterization
      • 4.11.5 Membrane Modules
      • 4.11.6 Basic Relationships and Performance
      • 4.11.7 Membrane Process Operation
      • 4.11.8 Conclusions
      • References
    • 4.12. Wastewater as a Source of Energy, Nutrients, and Service Water
      • 4.12.1 Introduction
      • 4.12.2 Resources of Interest
      • 4.12.3 Origin and Amounts of Resources
      • 4.12.4 Energy
      • 4.12.5 Nutrients
      • 4.12.6 Water Reuse
      • 4.12.7 Recovery Fosters Decentralization
      • 4.12.8 Summary and Outlook
      • References
    • 4.13. Advanced Oxidation Processes
      • 4.13.1 Introduction
      • 4.13.2 Fundamentals
      • 4.13.3 Guidance for Selecting an AOP
      • 4.13.4 Description of Processes
      • 4.13.5 Full-Scale Applications
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 4.14. Biological Nutrient Removal
      • 4.14.1 Introduction
      • 4.14.2 System Configuration and Organism Groups
      • 4.14.3 Transformations in the Biological Reactor
      • 4.14.4 Wastewater Characterization
      • 4.14.5 Modeling Biological Behavior
      • 4.14.6 AS System Constraints
      • 4.14.7 Model Development – Completely Mixed Aerobic System
      • 4.14.8 The COD (or e) Mass Balance
      • 4.14.9 The AS System Steady-State Equations for Real Wastewater
      • 4.14.10 Reactor Volume Requirements
      • 4.14.11 Determination of Reactor TSS Concentration
      • 4.14.12 Carbonaceous Oxygen Demand
      • 4.14.13 Daily Sludge Production
      • 4.14.14 System Design and Control
      • 4.14.15 Selection of Sludge Age
      • 4.14.16 Sludge Age – The Dominant Driver for Size
      • 4.14.17 Nitrification – Introduction
      • 4.14.18 Nitrification Biological Kinetics
      • 4.14.19 Nitrification Process Kinetics
      • 4.14.20 Factors Influencing Nitrification
      • 4.14.21 Nutrient Requirements for Sludge Production
      • 4.14.22 Nitrification Design Considerations
      • 4.14.23 Nitrification Design Example
      • 4.14.24 Biological Denitrification
      • 4.14.25 Denitrification Kinetics
      • 4.14.26 Development and Demonstration of Design Procedure
      • 4.14.27 System Volume and Oxygen Demand
      • 4.14.28 Biological Excess Phosphorus Removal
      • 4.14.29 Principles of Maximizing BEPR
      • 4.14.30 Model Development for BEPR
      • 4.14.31 Mixed Culture Steady-State Model
      • 4.14.32 Influence of BEPR on the System
      • 4.14.33 Factors Influencing Magnitude of BEPR
      • 4.14.34 Denitrification in NDBEPR Systems
      • 4.14.35 Denitrification in the UCT System
      • 4.14.36 Conclusion
      • References
    • 4.15. Biofilms in Water and Wastewater Treatment
      • 4.15.1 Introduction
      • 4.15.2 Part I: Biofilm Fundamentals
      • 4.15.3 Part II: Biofilm Reactors
      • 4.15.4 Part III. Undesirable Biofilms: Examples of Biofilm-Related Problems in the Water and Wastewater Industries
      • References
    • 4.16. Membrane Biological Reactors
      • 4.16.1 Introduction
      • 4.16.2 Aeration and Extractive Membrane Biological Reactors
      • 4.16.3 History and Fundamentals of Biosolid Separation MBR
      • 4.16.4 Worldwide Research and Development Challenges
      • 4.16.5 Worldwide Commercial Application
      • 4.16.6 Future Vision
      • 4.16.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • 4.17. Anaerobic Processes
      • 4.17.1 Anaerobic Process Fundamentals
      • 4.17.2 Selection and Design of Anaerobic Technology
      • 4.17.3 Interpretation and Operation of Anaerobic Systems
      • 4.17.4 Future Applications of Anaerobic Digestion
      • References
    • 4.18. Microbial Fuel Cells
      • 4.18.1 Resource Recovery from Wastewater
      • 4.18.2 Microbial Fuel Cells
      • 4.18.3 Thermodynamics of Microbial Fuel Cells
      • 4.18.4 Factors Determining the Decrease of Cell Voltage
      • 4.18.5 Materials and Architectures
      • 4.18.6 Electrochemically Active Microorganisms and Extracellular Electron Transfer
      • 4.18.7 Oxidative Processes
      • 4.18.8 Reductive Processes
      • 4.18.9 Challenges toward Improving MFC Efficiency
      • 4.18.10 Opportunities for Bioelectrochemical Systems
      • 4.18.11 Outlook
      • References
      • Relevant Website
    • 4.19. Water in the Pulp and Paper Industry
      • 4.19.1 Overview of Pulp and Papermaking
      • 4.19.2 Water in the Pulp and Paper industry
      • 4.19.3 Water Use
      • 4.19.4 Water Treatment
      • 4.19.5 Potentials and Limits of Water Saving
      • 4.19.6 Improving Water Efficiency in Paper Manufacturing Industries – 30 Years of Success
      • References
    • 4.20. Water in the Textile Industry
      • 4.20.1 Textile Industry
      • 4.20.2 Characteristic of Textile Water and Wastewater
      • 4.20.3 Treatment and Reuse of Textile Wastewater
      • 4.20.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • 4.21. Water Availability and Its Use in Agriculture
      • 4.21.1 Water Availability and Its Use in Agriculture
      • 4.21.2 Productive Use of Agricultural Water
      • 4.21.3 Environmental and Health Implications of Agricultural Water Use
      • 4.21.4 Water Governance
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
  • Subject Index
  • Authors
 
 
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