* Written by leading scholars and industry experts of international standing
* Includes strong coverage of the theoretical background, yet also provides practical examples and current developments
* Provides practical reference for professionals, students and academics
Over the last two decades the development, evaluation and use of MFM systems has been a major focus for the Oil & Gas industry worldwide. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been around 2,000 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and well testing. So far, many alternative metering systems have been developed, but none of them can be referred to as generally applicable or universally accurate. Both established and novel technologies suitable to measure the flow rates of gas, oil and water in a three-phase flow are reviewed and assessed within this book. Those technologies already implemented in the various commercial meters are evaluated in terms of operational and economical advantages or shortcomings from an operator point of view. The lessons learned about the practical reliability, accuracy and use of the available technology is discussed. The book suggests where the research to develop the next generation of MFM devices will be focused in order to meet the as yet unsolved problems.
The book provides a critical and independent review of the current status and future trends of MFM, supported by the authors’ strong background on multiphase flow and by practical examples. These are based on the authors’ direct experience on MFM, gained over many years of research in connection with both operators and service companies.
As there are currently no books on the subject of Multiphase Flow Metering for the Oil & Gas industry, this book will fill in the gap and provide a theoretical and practical reference for professionals, academics, and students.
Researchers, Scientists, Engineers, Students and Academics.
Multiphase Flow Metering, 1st Edition
1. Multiphase flow fundamentals.
1.1 Introduction to Multiphase Flow.
1.2 Brief History of Multiphase Flow
1.3 Types of Multiphase Flows, Flow Patterns and Flow-Pattern Maps
1.4 Significance of Flow Structure and Development in Multiphase Flow Metering
1.5 Modelling of Multiphase Flow
1.6 References2. Introduction to multiphase flow metering.
2.1 What is Multiphase Flow Metering?
2.2 Brief History of Multiphase Flow Metering
2.3 Applications of Multiphase Flow Metering to the Oil and Gas Industry
2.4 Multiphase Flow Metering Trends
2.5 What Do We Expect from Multiphase Flow Metering?
2.6 Key Factors for the Selection of Multiphase Flow Metering Solutions
2.7 References3. Multiphase flow metering principles.
3.1 Multiphase Flow Metering Fundamentals
3.2 Categories of Instruments
3.3 Possible Combinations of Instruments
3.4 Options for Measurement
3.4 References4. Key multiphase flow metering techniques.
4.2 Density Measurement
4.3 Velocity Measurement
4.4 Momentum Flux Measurement
4.5 Mass Flux Measurement
4.6 Elemental Analysis
4. 7 References5. Current status and limitation of multiphase flow metering.
5.1 Multiphase Flow Metering capabilities
5.2 What can Multiphase Flow Metering really do?
5.3 Required Accuracy and Regulations
5.4 References6. Wet gas metering applications.
6.1 Why Wet Gas?
6.2 Critical Review of Wet Gas Definitions
6.3 Issues Related to Metering Wet Gas
6.4 References7. Heavy oil metering applications.
7.1 Why Heavy Oil?
7.2 Definitions of Heavy Oil for Metering Applications
7.3 Issues Related to Metering Heavy Oils
7.4 References8. Non-conventional multiphase flow metering solutions.
8.1 Choke Valves
8.2 Virtual Metering
8.3 Integration of Metering Hardware and Artificial Intelligence Techniques
8.4 References9. Flow loops for validating and testing multiphase flow meters.
9.2 Main Criteria for the Classification of Flow Loops
9.3 Flow Loop Capabilities
9.4 Using Flow Loops to Verify the Performance of Multiphase Flow Meters
9.5 Future Needs
9.6 References10. Reserves estimation using multiphase flow meters.
10.1 The Concept of Recovery Factor of Oil and Gas Fields
10.2 Factors Affecting Estimation of Recovery Factor
10.3 Reducing the Uncertainty in Reserves Estimation through Accurate Production Measurement