Peatlands, 1st Edition

Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes

 
Peatlands, 1st Edition,I.P. Martini,A. Martinez Cortizas,W. Chesworth,ISBN9780444528834
 
 
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Martini   &   Martinez Cortizas   &   Chesworth   

Elsevier Science

9780444528834

9780080468051

606

240 X 165

From yesterday to today - An interdisciplinary approach of how peatlands effect today's environment

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Key Features

* Presents an interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on Earth Science, and addresses the need for intergration between subdisciplines and the developing of new approaches
* Synthesizes the evolutionary, ecological, and chemical characteristics of major peatlands, as well as focuses on the environmental changes, from climate changes to surface ares changes due to human activities
* Covers topical studies of worldwide interest and provides examples from many different countries

Description

'In the past two decades there has been considerable work on global climatic change and its effect on the ecosphere, as well as on local and global environmental changes triggered by human activities. From the tropics to the Arctic, peatlands have developed under various geological conditions, and they provide good records of global and local changes since the Late Pleistocene.

The objectives of the book are to analyze topics such as geological evolution of major peatlands basins; peatlands as self sustaining ecosystems; chemical environment of peatlands: water and peat chemistry; peatlands as archives of environmental changes; influence of peatlands on atmosphere: circular complex interactions; remote sensing studies of peatlands; peatlands as a resource; peatlands degradation, restoration, plus more.'

Readership

Researchers and graduate and post graduates in biology, earth science, geography, environmental engineering, landuse planning, environmental impact studies, and global change

I.P. Martini

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

A. Martinez Cortizas

Affiliations and Expertise

Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain

W. Chesworth

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Peatlands, 1st Edition

Contents
Preface
List of COntributors
List of Reviewers
Chapter 1: Peatlands: a concise guide to to volume (I.P. Martini, A. Martinez Cortizas, W. Chesworth).
A. Peatland basin analysis: Evolution and structure
Chapter 2: Northern peatlands: their characteristics, development and sensitivity to climate change (C. Tarnocai, V. Stolbovoy).
Introduction
Area and extent
Peatland regions
Canada
Russia
Peatland classification
Canada
Finland
Russia
Peat materials
Peat developments
Age of peat deposits
Peat accumulation
Carbon stocks
Sensitivity to climate change
Canada
Northern Eurasia
References
Chapter 3. The cold-climate peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowland, Canada: Brief review of recent work. (I.P. Martini)
Introduction
Peatland evolution
Peat stratigraphy
Palynology
Organic mineralogy
Peat Pb chemistry
Peatlands and the carbon cycle
Resources
References
Chapter 4: Mountain mires from Galicia (NW Spain) (X. Pontevedra-Pombal, J.C. Novoa-Munoz, E. Garcia-Rodeja, A. Martinez Cortizas)
Introduction
Mires development
Distribution of biogeographical conditions
Typology
Chronology
Growth and accumulation rates
Composition and properties
Classification
Galicia mires: geochemical archives of environmental changes
Conclusions
References
Chapter 5: Geomorphological emplacement and vegetation characteristics of Fuegian peatlands, southernmost Argentina, South America (A. Coronato, C. Roig, L. Collado, F. Roig).
Introduction
Physical setting
Previous work
Methodology
Results
Geomorphologic aspects
Vegetation and floristic diversity aspects
Relationships between geomorphology and vegetation
Conclusions
References
Chapter 6: The peatlands of Argentine Tierra del Fuego as a source of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental information (J. Rabassa, A. Coronato, C.J. Heusser, F. Roig Junent, A. Borromei, M. Quattrocchio)
Introduction
Geographical setting
Methodology for peatlands studies
Glacial history of Tierra del Fuego and basal peat chronostratigraphic data
Peat accumulation rates
The occurrence of Holocene tephras in Fuegian peatlands
Coastal wetlands
Climatic variability as demonstrated by proxy elements
Pleistocene pollen records
Holocene pollen records
Dendrochonology
Bogs and archaeology
Final comments
References
Chapter 7. Lowland tropical peatlands of Southeast Asia (S.E. Page, J.O. Rieley, R Wüst)
Introduction
History, location and extent of lowland tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia
Structure and hydrology of lowland tropical peatlands
Classification and genesis
Coastal peatlands
Basin or valley peatlands
High, interior, or watershed peatlands
Physical and chemical characteristics of lowland tropical peat
Vegetation and biodiversity
Biomass and nutrient dynamics
The geochemical record
Age and rates of peat and carbon accumulation
The role of tropical peatlands in the global carbon cycle
Modern tropical peatlands and past coal deposits
Future prospects for tropical peatlands: the wise use approach
References
B Selected characteristics of peat and peatland environments (W. Chesworth, A. Martinez Contizas, E. Garcia-Rodeja)
Introduction
Physico-chemical background
Predominance fields
Geochemical fences
The pedogenic grid
Geochemical trends in the weathering zone
Proton and electron pumps
The peatland environment
Ombrotrophic mires
Minerotropic mires
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Chapter 9. Weathering of inorganic matter in peat bogs (G. Le Roux, W. Shotyk)
Introduction
Characterization of the weathering milieu
Botanical composition and climate
Bog water chemistry
Geological substrate
Distribution and supply of inorganic compounds in bog profile
Preparation of peat samples for mineral identification
Inorganic constituents supplied by atmospheric deposition
Mechanisms and rates of weathering
Reductive dissolution
Proton-promoted dissolution
Organic acids promoted dissolution
Rates of weathering
Special case: carbonate-dissolution
Perspectives
Microorganisms
Weathering rate and mass balance
Pb and Sr Isotopes tracers of dust sources and mineral weathering
Conclusions
References
Chapter 10 Molecular chemistry by pyrolysis-GC/MS of selected samples of the Penido Vello peat deposit, Galicia, NW Spain (P. Buurman, K.G.J. Nierop, .X. Pontevedra-Pombal, A. Martinez COrtizas
Introduction
Materials and methods
Extraction of humus
Pyrolysis gas chromatography – Mass Spectrometry
Principal component analysis
Results and discussion
Conclusions
Future research
References
Chapter 11. Mineral matter and major and trace elements in raised bog peat. A case study from southern Sweden, Ireland and Tierra del Fuego, south Argentina (L.G. Franzen)
Introduction
Methods
Sampling
Laboratory analyses
Results and discussion
Mineral matter
Detrital minerals
Authigenic minerals
Major and trace elements in –peat
Summary and final remarks
References
Chapter 12. Consequences of increasing levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on ombrotrophic peatlands: a plant-based perspective (L. Bragazza)
Introduction
Effects of increasing N Input: the plant species level
Mosses
Vascular plants
Effects of increasing N input: the community level
Gas fluxes
Inter-specific competitive relationships
Peat accumulation and peat decomposition
Conclusions
References
Chapter 13. Microbial diversity in Sphagnum peatlands (D. Gilbert, E.A. D. Mitchell)
Introduction
Microbial diversity in peatlands
Overviewing of the sampling, observation and biomass estimation methods
Sampling and fixation
Observation and counting
Biomass evaluation
Individual groups: diversity, abudance, biomass
Prokaryotes
Fungi
Microalgae
Heterotrophic protests
Micrometazoa
Total microbial biomass and relative importance of the different groups
Functional importance of microbial communities in peatland
Heterotrophic activities: organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling
Microbial primary production
The microbial loop
Transfer to higher trophic levels
Practical applications
Biomonitoring
Paleoecology
Open research questions
References
Chapter 14. Peatland hydrology (J. Holden)
Introduction
Water sources and water budget for peatlands
Inputs
Stores
Losses
Introduction to hillslope hydrology
The acrotelm-catotelm model
Runoff processes within peatlands
Matrix and overland flow
Preferential flow
Conclusions
References
Chapter 15. Hydrogeology of major peat basins in North America (P. Glaser, D.S. Siegel, A.S. Reeve, J. Chanton).
Introduction
Central problems
Study areas
Properties of large peat basins in North America
Physiographic setting
Genesis of the peat basins
Peat landform patterns
Hydrological models for large peat basins
Hydrogeological investigations in large North American peat basins
Peatland hydrology in an isostatically rising landscape
Response of peatland flow systems to climatic thresholds
Biogeochemical drivers for groundwater flow in large peat basins
Problems, prospects and future directions
Conclusions
References
Chapter 16. Slope instability and mass movements in peat (A.P. Dykes, K.J. Kirk)
Introduction
Failures types
Causes of instability in peatlands
Anthropogenic causes
Peat properties
Failure mechanisms
Case example of blanket blog instability: Cuilcagh Mountain, Ireland
Future research directions
References
C Peatlands as multi-signal archives of environmental changes
Chapter 17. Using peat bog archives to reconstruct paleo-pollution and vegetation change during the late Holocene (T.M. Mighall, S. Timberlake, D.A. Jenkins, J.P. Grattan).
Introduction
The metallurgical industry as an agent of vegetation change
Vegetation change during prehistory
Vegetation change during Roman and historical times
Paleopollution, mining and metalworking: records from bogs
Experimental archaeology and peatland research
Conclusions
References
Chapter 18. Beyond the peat: synthesizing peat, lake sediments and soils in studies of the Swedish environment (R. Bindler, J. Klaminder)
Introduction
Combining peat and lake sediment records
Properties of peat and lake sediments
Improving chronologies of the peat record (using lake sediments)
Reconstructing regional long-term changes in deposition
Using the peat record to determine the fate of lead in the Swedish environment
The example: background levels of lead in the organic horizon of boreal forest soils
Conclusions
References
Chapter 19. Occurrence and fate of halogens in mires (H. Biester, A. Martinez Cortizas, F. Keppler)
Introduction
Sources of halogens in peatlands
Halogens in peat
Net accumulation and retention rates of halogens
Halogen accumulation and peat accumulation
Halogens in peat porewaters
Release of halogens from peat
Conclusions
References
Chapter 20. Mercury in mires (H. Biester, R. Bindler, A. Martinez Cortizas)
Introduction
Atmospheric deposition and retention of mercury
Mercury concentrations in peat
Mercury concentrations and peat decomposition
Mercury accumulation rates
Mercury accumulation rates and influence of peat diagenesis
Hg accumulation and climate variation
Outlook
References
Chapter 21. Archiving natural and anthropogenic lead deposition in peatlands (M.E. Kylander, D.J. Weiss, E. Peiteado Varela, T. Taboada Rodriguez and A. Martinez COrtizas)
Introduction
Lead from a geological perspective
Geochemical tools and interpretation
Lead isotopes – powerful tracers and proxies
Lead isotope geochemistry
Applications of lead isotopes
Enrichment Factors (EF) – gauging the magnitude
The Swiss experience
Some examples from north-western Spain
The lead story told in peatlands
The pre-anthropogenic period (< 3000 years BP)
The ancient period (3000-1600 years BP)
The pre-industrial period (1600-200 years BP)
The industrial period (200-30 years BP)
Recent times (30 years BP to present)
Final thoughts and future directions
References
D Direct human impact on peatlands
Chapter 22. Impacts of artificial drainage of peatlands on runoff production and water quality (J. Holden, P.J. Chapman, S.N. Lane and C. Brookes)
Introduction
History and extent of drainage
Impact of peat drainage on catchment hydrology
Impact of peat drainage on soil properties
Hydrological implications
Chemical implications
Impact of peat drainage on water chemistry
Impacts of peat drainage on erosion
Peatland restoration and the utility of field and modelling approaches
Water table and vegetation recolonization
Modeling approaches
Ditch blocking techniques
Thresholds of recovery and non-reversible trajectories
Conclusions
References
Chapter 23. Peatland subsidence in the Venice watershed (M. Camporese, G. Gambolati, M. Putti, P. Teatini)
Introduction
Peat oxidation and geochemical land subsidence
Description of the study area
Field measurements and model setup
Environmental variables
CO2 fluxes
Detailed model of peat swelling/shrinking
Stephens et al (1984) model of peatland subsidence
Results
Hydrology
Recoverable peatland displacements
Unrecoverable peatland subsidence
Conclusions
References
Glossary
Index
 
 
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