In the relatively short period since Cryptosporidium was recognised as a human pathogen, and that it could be transmitted in water as well as directly between animals and people, it has been the subject of intense investigations. Its status as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in AIDS patients, and the lack of effective anti-cryptosporidial drugs have served to emphasise the public health importance of this organism. This has to some extent overshadowed the fact that Cryptosporidium is also an important pathogen of domestic animals and wildlife.
In recent years, the application of molecular biology and culture techniques have had an enormous impact on our understanding of the aetiological agents of cryptosporidial infections and our ability to study the causative agents in the laboratory. As a consequence, a wealth of information and novel data has been produced during the last 3-4 years, particularly in the areas of taxonomy, biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology - particularly zoonotic and water borne transmission, and treatment.
It is thus very timely to bring together in this book the international research community involved to review the major advances in research and identify the important research priorities for the future, thus enabling as wide an audience as possible to benefit from and share in this comprehensive look at Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis.
Parasitologists, microbiologists, veterinarians, physicians, gastroenterologists, water quality professionals.
Cryptosporidium: From Molecules to Disease, 1st Edition
Preface (A. Thompson). Introduction: Cryptosporidium: from molecules to disease (G. Meinke). Cryptosporidiosis - Aetiology, Infectivity and Pathogenesis. Cryptosporidium:
they probably taste like chicken (S.J. Upton). Cryptosporidium:
from molecules to disease (R. Fayer). Cryptosporidium parvum:
infectivity, pathogenesis and the host-parasite relationship (C.L. Chappell, P.C. Okhuysen et al.
). What is the clinical and zoonotic significance of cryptosporidiosis in domestic animals and wildlife (M.E. Olson, B.J. Ralston et al.
). Extended Abstracts.
Control of Cryptosporidium parvum
infection and the role of IL-4 in two strains of inbred mice (C.A. Notley, S.A.C. Mcdonald et al.
). Human peripheral CD8+
T-lymphocyte transmigration through inverted Cryptosporidium parvum
sporozoite infected HCT-8 cell monolayers (G. Gargala, A. Delaunay et al.
). Cryptosporidium parvum
volunteer study: infectivity and immunity (C.L. Chappell, P.C. Okhuysen et al.
). Transmission of human genotype 1 Cryptosporidium parvum
into lambs (M. Giles, D.C. Warhurs et al.
). A longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium
prevalence and its impact on performance in feedlot cattle (B.J. Ralston, M.E. Olson et al.
). Identification and characterisation of the antigenic CPA135 protein (F. Tosini, A. Agnoli et al.
). A permanent method for detectingCryptosporidium parvum
life cycle stages in in vitro
culture (H.V. Smith, R.A. Nichols et al.
Successful cultivation of Cryptosporidium
reveals previously undescribed Gregarino-like developmental stages (N. Hijjawi, B.P. Meloni et al.
). Epidemiology and species differentiation. Cryptosporidium
as a public health challenge (R.M. Chalmers). The zoonotic potential of Cyptosporidium
(R.C.A. Thompson). Molecular epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis (L. Xiao, C. Bern et al.
). Molecular characterisation and taxonomy of Cryptosporidium
(U.M. Ryan). Extended Abstracts.
Antigenic differences in Cryptosporidium parvum
oocysts: the "Iowa strain" enigma (A. Ronald, S. Birrell et al.
). Antigenic analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum
isolates of human and animal origin (A. Ronald, J.E. O'Grady, H.V. Smith). Typing of Cryptosporidium parvum
oocysts using phage-display technology (C. Lima, H.V. Smith et al.
). High resolution genotyping of Cryptosporidium
by mutation scanning (A. El-Osta, Y. Zhu et al.
). Evaluation of oocyst DNA extraction methods using real-time PCR (P. Monis, A. Keegan et al.
). Differentiation of Cryptosporidium parvum
subtypes by a novel microsatelite-telomere PCR with page (S.A. Blasdall, J.E. Ongerth, N. Ashbolt). Genotypic variation of Cryptosporidium
organisms recovered from persons living in Kenya, Malawi, Vietnam and Brazil (W. Gatei, C.A. Hart et al.
). Epidemiological surveys of cryptosporidiosis in Thai orphans (M. Mungthin, T. Naaglor et al.
-associated diarrhea in Kathmandu, Nepal (K. Ono, K. Kimura et al.
). Ecology of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in watersheds containing cattle farming operations (T.K. Graczyk, C.J. Shiff et al.
). Identifying variation among human, animal and environmental isolates of Cryptosporidium
(R.M. Chalmers). Cryptosporidium
in eastern grey kangaroos Macropus giganteus
(M.L. Power, M.B. Slade et al.
). Viability and infectivity.
Detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum
oocysts in environmental water samples (G.D. Di Giovanni, R. Aboytes). Measuring inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum
by in vitro
cell culture (P.A. Rochelle, A.A Mofidi et al.
). In vitro
cultivation and development of Cryptosporidium
in cell culture (N. Hijjawi). Extended Abstracts.
The use of cell culture and real-time PCR to assess disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum
(A. Keegan, S. Gelonese et al.
). Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum
oocysts by low pressure UV-light (P. Karanis, D. Schoenen, O. Hoyer). Detection of viable oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum
by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) (C.J. Lowery, J.E. Moore et al.
). Flow cytometric evaluation of Cryptosporidium parvum
oocyst viability (A. Delaunaya, G. Gargalaa et al.
). Cryptosporidium and the environment.
The public health significance of Cryptosporidium
in the environment (P.T. Monis, R.M. Chalmers). Assessing variables in disinfection parameters of Cryptosporidium parvum
oocysts (M.M. Marshall). Detection of Cryptosporidium
oocysts in water matrices (F.W. Schaefer III). Microbiological health criteria for Cryptosporidium
(C. Ferguson, G. Medema et al.
). Case-control studies of sporadic Cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide (B.R. Robertson, C.K. Fairley et al.
). The DWI licensed inter-laboratory Cryptosporidium
proficiency scheme (CRYPTS) (H.V. Smith, B.M. Campbell, J. Peet). Extended Abstracts.
Detection of Cryptosporidium
spp. via fluorescent in situ
hybridisation: novel approaches of background reduction and signal enhancement (M. Dorsch, D.A. Veal). The risk of Cryptosporidium
to Sydney's drinking water supply (P. Cox, P. Hawkins et al.
). Outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidiosis at North Battleford, SK, Canada (P. Wallis, N. Bounsombath et al.
). Event sampling for Cryptosporidium
South Australian water sources (S. Hayes, P. Dobson et al.
). Drinking water regulations for Cryptosporidum
in England and Wales (D. Drury, A. Lloyd). Why Cryptosporidium
research for large water supplies: investigations in the Lake Mornos, the big water reservoir of Greater Athens, Greece (P. Karanis, C. Papadopoulou et al.
). NATA accreditation of laboratories testing water for the presence of parasitic protozoa (T.G. Orlova). Use of ferric sulfate flocculation method for the recovery of Cryptosporidium
oocysts from drinking water (P. Karanis, A. Kimura). A sensitive, semi-quantitative direct PCR-RFLP assay for simultaneous detection of five Cryptosporidium
species in treated drinking waters and mineral waters (R.A.B. Nichols, C.A. Paton et al.
). The incidence of Cryptosporidium
in private water supplies in the United Kingdom (J. Watkins, D. Drury). The problem with Cryptosporidium
in swimming pools (G. Nichols, R. Chalmers et al.
). Cryptosporidium parvum
oocyst recovery using immunomagnetisable separation (C.A. Paton, D.E. Kelsey et al.
). Significance of enhanced morphological detection of Cryptosporidium
sp. oocysts in water concentrates using DAPI and immunofluorescence microscopy (H.V. Smith, B.M. Campbell et al.
). Surveillance of Cryptosporidiosis: progressive approaches (G. Nichols, J. McLauchlin et al.
). Cryptosporidium and the environment - overview and summary (R.M. Chalmers, P. Monis). Cryptosporidium - chemotherapy.
A review of chemotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of Cryptosporidium
(A. Armson, J.A. Reynoldson, R.C.A. Thompson). Extended Abstracts.
An examination of the activity of the dinitroanilines on Cryptosporidium parvum
using in vitro
, in vivo
and target expression methods (A. Armson, R.C.A. Thompson et al.
). Nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (J.F. Rossignol, A. Youb et al.
). The application of quantitative-PCR for high throughput screening of novel compounds against Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro
and their subsequent IC50
determination (L. Pallant, L. Macdonald et al.
). Development of a standard method to recover protozoan parasites from soft fruit and salad vegetables (C.A. Paton, N. Wilkinson et al.
). How safe is drinking water in primary schools? (U. Chukohtuad, V. Suphiphat). Synthesis.
Facilitators: (P. O'Donoghue, S. Upton et al.