Catalyst production for the transformation of crudes into gasoline and other fuel products is a billion dollar/year business and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) represent almost half of the refinery catalyst market.
During the cracking reactions, the FCC surface is contaminated by metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and by coke deposition. As a result, the catalyst activity and product selectivity is reduced to unacceptable levels thus forcing refiners to replace part of the recirculating equilibrium FCC inventory with fresh FCC to compensate for losses in catalyst performance. About 1,100 tons/day of FCC are used worldwide in over 200 fluid cracking catalyst units (FCCUs).
It is for these reasons that refiners' interest in FCC research has remained high through the years almost independantly, of crude oil prices. However, recent oil company mergers and the dissolution of research laboratories, have drastically decreased the number of researchers involved in petroleum refining research projects; as a result the emphasis of research has shifted from new materials to process improvements and this trend is clearly reflected in the type of papers contained in this volume.
Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential in the understanding of catalyst performance and several chapters in the book describe the use of 27Al, 29Si and 13C NMR to study variation in FCC acidity during aging and coke deposition. In addition several chapters have been dedicated to the modeling of FCC deactivation, and to the understanding of contact times on FCC performance. Refiners efforts to conform with environmental regulations are reflected in chapters dealing with sulfur removal, metals contaminants and olefin generation.
For industrialists and technologists in the field of fluid cracking catalysts.
Fluid Catalytic Cracking V, 1st Edition
Defect structure and acid catalysis of high silica, FAU-framework zeolites: effects of aluminum removal and of basic metal oxide addition
(R.A. Beyerlein, G.B. McVicker).
The use of microcalorimetry and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study the effects of post-synthesis treatments on the acidity and framework composition
of several HY-type zeolites
(M.L. Occelli et al.
The effects of steam aging temperature on the properties of an HY zeolite of the type used in FCC preparations
(M.L. Occelli et al.
Effect of catalyst properties and feedstock composition on the evaluation of cracking catalysts
(A.A. Lappas et al.
Study on the deactivation-aging patterns of fluid cracking catalysts in industrial units
(F. Hernández-Beltrán et al.
The improvement of catalytic cracking process through the utilization of new catalytic materials
(M.I. Levinbuk et al.
- Novel short contact time catalytic cracking technology
(J. Hiltunen et al.
Effect of vanadium on light olefins selectivity
(C.-Y. Li et al.
Reduction of olefins in FCC gasoline
(S. Katoh et al.
Gasoline sulfur removal: kinetics of S compounds in FCC conditions
(A. Corma et al.
Development of a kinetic model for FCC valid from ultra-short residence times
(M.A. den Hollander et al.
Deactivation of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts: a modelling approach
Catalyst design for resin cracking operation: benefits of metal tolerant technologies
(L.T. Boock, T.F. Petti).
Active site accessibility of resid cracking catalysts
(Y. Lu et al.
Catalyst evaluation for atmospheric residue cracking, the effect of catalyst deactivation on selectivity
Optimum properties of RFCC catalysts
(S.-I. Andersson, T. Myrstad).
An experimental protocol to evaluate FCC stripper performance in terms of coke yield and composition
(C.E. Snape et al.
Use of 13C-labelled compounds to probe catalytic coke formation in fluid catalytic cracking
(C.L. Wallace et al.
Bifunctionality in catalytic cracking catalysis (W.L. Schuette, A.E. Schweizer).
Catalytic cracking of alkylbenzenes. Y-zeolites with different crystal sizes
(S. Al-Khattaf, H. de Lasa).
On the mechanism of formation of organized mesoporous silica that may be used as catalysts for FCC
(R. Zana et al.
Catalyst assembly technology in FCC. Part I: A review of the concept, history and developments
(P. O'Connor et al.
Catalyst assembly technology in FCC. Part II: The influence of fresh and contaminant-affected catalyst structure on FCC performance
(C.W. Kuehler et al.