Conducting Organic Materials and Devices

Conducting Organic Materials and Devices, 1st Edition

Conducting Organic Materials and Devices, 1st Edition,Suresh Jain,M. Willander,V. Kumar,ISBN9780127521909

Semiconductors and Semimetals

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Elsevier Science




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Conducting polymers were discovered in 1970s in Japan. Since this discovery, there has been a steady flow of new ideas, new understanding, new conducing polymer (organics) structures and devices with enhanced performance. Several breakthroughs have been made in the design and fabrication technology of the organic devices. Almost all properties, mechanical, electrical, and optical, are important in organics. This book describes the recent advances in these organic materials and devices.


Students, researchers and engineers in material science, polymers, and semiconductors

Suresh Jain

Affiliations and Expertise

National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India

M. Willander

Affiliations and Expertise

Göteborg University and Linköping University

V. Kumar

Affiliations and Expertise

National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India

View additional works by V. Kumar

Conducting Organic Materials and Devices, 1st Edition

1 Introduction
1.1 Advantages of conducting polymers
1.2 Early attempts for applications
1.3 Growth and properties
1.4 Active Devices
2 Polyacetylene
2.1 Structure, Growth, and properties
2.1.1 Structure
2.1.2 Growth and doping of Polyacetylene
2.2 Band-structure of t-PA
2.3 The solitons and the polarons
2.3.1 The solitons
2.3.2 The polarons
2.4 Transport properties
2.4.1 Mobility in selected polymers
2.4.2 Conductivity and susceptibility
3 Optical and Transport Properties
3.1 Effect of electric field on photoluminescence(PL)
3.2 The dielectric constant
3.3 Space Charge Limited Currents
3.3.1 Early work of Mott. The Poisson and continuity equations
in a trap-free insulator
3.3.2 Effect of background doping
3.4 Polymers: The solids with traps
3.4.1 Poisson equation with trapped charges
3.4.2 Single level traps
3.4.3 Gaussianly distributed traps
3.5 Exponential traps
3.5.1 Calculation of J(V)
3.6 Relaxation of the approximation pt À p
3.6.1 J V curves when pt 6À p
3.6.2 Trap-filled limit
3.7 Effect of finite (non-zero) Schottky barrier
3.7.1 Importance of finite barriers
3.7.2 Theory
3.7.3 Results and discussion
3.7.4 Comparison with experiment
3.8 Combined effect
3.9 Temperature effects
3.9.1 Temperature effects in PPV-based polymers
3.9.2 Recent work
3.9.3 Temperature effects in MEH-PPV. Recent work
3.9.4 Temperature Effects in Alq3
3.10 The mobility model of charge transport
3.11 The unified model
3.11.1 Shallow Gaussian and single level traps
3.11.2 Unified model with exponentially distributed traps
3.12 High field or Pool-Frankel Effect
3.12.1 J V characteristics
3.12.2 Calculations and comparison with experiments
3.13 Mobility of charge carriers
3.13.1 Bulk materials
3.13.2 Mobility in blends
3.14 Important formulas
3.15 Summary of this chapter
4 Light Emitting Diodes and Lasers
4.1 Early work
4.2 Blue, green and white emission
4.2.1 Blue and green LEDs
4.2.2 White light emission from Organic LEDs
4.3 Comparison with other LEDs
4.4 Organic solid-state lasers
4.4.1 Photo pumped lasers
4.4.2 Spectral Narrowing
4.4.3 Blue Lasers
4.5 Quantum efficiency and degradation
4.6 Stability
4.6.1 Degradation of the polymer
4.6.2 The cathode and the black spots
4.6.3 Degradation of the anode
4.7 Soluble new 5-coordinated Al-complexes
4.8 Summary and conclusions
5 Solar cells
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Solar Cells
5.2.1 Single and bilayer solar cells
5.2.2 Interpenetrating network of donor-acceptor
organics. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
5.3 Source of VOC in BHSCs
5.3.1 Effect of acceptor strength
5.3.2 More recent work
5.4 Optimum PCBM concentration
5.4.1 Superposition principle
5.5 Modeling the output characteristics
5.5.1 The output currents
5.5.2 The model
5.6 Comparison with other solar cells
5.6.1 Amorphous-Si solar cells
5.6.2 Polycrystalline Si solar cells
5.7 Summary and Conclusions
6 Transistors
6.1 Importance of organic TFTs
6.2 Early work
6.3 Effect of traps
6.4 High field effects
6.5 Transport in polycrystalline organics
6.5.1 Effect of grain boundaries
6.6 Pentacene TFTs
6.7 Contacts
6.8 Organic Photo-transistor
6.9 Organic dielectrics
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