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The Autoimmune Diseases
 
 

The Autoimmune Diseases, 5th Edition

 
The Autoimmune Diseases, 5th Edition,Ian Mackay,Noel R Rose,ISBN9780123849298
 
 
 

Mackay   &   Rose   

Academic Press

9780123849298

9780123849304

1304

279 X 216

Fully revised and updated to include the latest research in the field, The Autoimmune Diseases, 5th Edition, remains an essential resource for basic and clinical scientists committed to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune disorders.

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Key Features

  • Gives a thorough and an important overview on the entire field, framing individual disease chapters with information that compares and contrasts each disorder and therapy
  • Provides thorough, up-to-date information on specific diseases, along with clinical applications, in an easily found reference for clinicians and researchers interested in certain diseases
  • Keeps readers abreast of current trends and emerging areas in the field
  • Ensures that content is not only up-to-date, but applicable and relevant

Description

Since publication of the 4th Edition of The Autoimmune Diseases in 2006, the understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying autoimmunity and autoimmune disease has significantly deepened and broadened. This fully revised 5th Edition incorporates new material and combines common themes underlying inductive and effector mechanisms and therapies that relate generally to the autoimmune disorders. It discusses the biological basis of disease at genetic, molecular, cellular, and epidemiologic levels and includes expanded coverage of autoinflammatory disease and autoimmune responses to tumors.

Readership

Basic and clinical scientists working in immunology, rheumatology and autoimmune diseases

Ian Mackay

Affiliations and Expertise

Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

View additional works by Ian R. Mackay

Noel R Rose

Noel Rose was born in Stamford, Connecticut. He attended Yale University for his undergraduate education followed by the University of Pennsylvania for a Ph.D. and State University of New York at Buffalo for an MD. He was a member of the faculty of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine for a period of 20 years, rising through the ranks to become a professor of Microbiology and Medicine, Director of Clinical Laboratories and Director of the Center for Immunology. He then spent ten years at Wayne State University School of Medicine where he chaired the Department of Immunology and Microbiology. In 1981, he joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University as chairman of the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases. He presently holds professorial appointments in the Departments of Pathology, Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Medicine and Environmental Health Sciences at The Johns Hopkins University and directs the Center for Autoimmune Disease Research. Dr. Rose’s original investigations on the autoimmune basis of thyroid disease in 1956 opened the present era of research on autoimmunity. He has since investigated many areas of autoimmunity and related issues in clinical and basic immunology. Dr. Rose is the author or co-author of over 800 scientific papers and editor or co-editor of 24 books. He has received numerous honors, including two honorary doctoral degrees, election to fellowship in national or international societies, service in national and international organizations and editorial boards of leading journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Autoimmune Disease Research, Bloomberg School of Public Health, John's Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

View additional works by Noel R Rose

The Autoimmune Diseases, 5th Edition

List of Contributors

Preface

Present at the Beginning

Part 1: Immunologic Basis of Autoimmunity

Chapter 1. Autoimmune Disease: The Consequence of Disturbed Homeostasis

Evolution of the Autoimmune Response

A Phylogenetic Perspective

Self and Non-Self, and the Nature of Autoantigens

Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Disease

The Common Threads

The “Proper Study…”

Towards the Future

The Last Word

References

Chapter 2. Autoimmunity: A History of the Early Struggle for Recognition

The Search for Autoantibodies

Challenges to the Thesis

The Shift to Immunochemistry

The Return of Immunobiology

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 3. General Features of Autoimmune Disease

Innate Immune Activation

Cells of the Adaptive Immune System

Defining Autoimmune Disease

Prevalence of Autoimmunity

Genetics of Autoimmunity

Hormones and Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity and Central Tolerance

Autoimmunity and Peripheral Tolerance

Triggers of Autommunity

Activation of the Immune System

Role of Antigen as a Driver of Autoimmunity

Defective Downregulation of an Immune Response

Regulatory Lymphocytes

The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Autoimmunity

Mechanisms of Tissue Damage

Flares and Remissions During Disease

Therapeutic Advances

Goals for the Future

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 4. The Concept of Autoinflammatory Diseases

Historical Perspective

Definition

Spectrum from Autoimmune to Autoinflammatory Disease

Mechanisms in Autoinflammation

Classical Hereditary Autoinflammatory Disorders

Polygenic or Acquired Autoinflammatory Disorders

Autoinflammatory Mechanisms of Disease in Common Disorders

Newest Developments: Rare Hereditary Disorders with Autoinflammatory Aspects

Conclusion

References

Part 2: Immune Cells and Immune Responses

Chapter 5. Innate and Adaptive Systems of Immunity

Introduction

The Innate and Adaptive Responses

Innate Responses

Adaptive Immune Responses

References

Chapter 6. T Cells and their Subsets in Autoimmunity

Introduction

TH1 Cells

TH17 Cells

Regulatory CD4+ T Cells

Tr1 Cells

TFH Cells

Th2 Cells

Th9 Cells

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 7. Immunological Tolerance—T Cells

Early Studies Supporting the Induction of Tolerance

Thymic Tolerance

Peripheral Tolerance

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8. The Role of Invariant Natural Killer T Cells in Autoimmune Diseases

The Curious Case of iNKT Cells

The Janus-Like Character of iNKT Cells in Autoimmunity

Good or Bad Performers?

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 9. B Cell Development: How to Become One of the Chosen Ones

Introduction—What has to be Generated in B Cell Development to Make it to Maturity?

Follicular B Cells

Intraepithelial B Cells

Two Types of Memory B Cells

B Lymphopoiesis Before Ig Repertoire Generation—Development of Progenitor and Precursor Cells

Development in Waves During Ontogeny, and in Niches Throughout Life

Cellular Environments of the First Phase of Early, Antigen-Independent B Cell Development

Early Commitments to Antigen-Independent B Cell Development

The Second, Eventually Autoantigen-Sensitive, Phase of B Cell Development to sIgM+ Immature B Cells

The First Checkpoint for the Emerging B Cell Repertoire—Probing the Fitness for a Good BCR

Expression of IgL Chains

The Second Checkpoint: Sites and Mechanisms of Selection of Newly Generated sIgM+ B Cells

Future Approaches to Understanding Central B Cell Tolerance

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. B Cell Activation and B Cell Tolerance

B Cell Activation

B Cell Activation Requires Interaction with Helper T cells

Activation and Maturation of B Cells Occurs in Lymphoid Organs

T Cell-Independent Antibody Responses

B Cell Tolerance: A Traditional and New Concept

Survival Factors and Tonic Signals Modulate B Cell Tolerance

Regulatory T cells

Antibody-Independent Activity of B cells in Tolerance

Future Directions

References

Part 3: Non-Antigen-Specific Recognition

Chapter 11. Role of Macrophages in Autoimmunity

Introduction

Origin and Distribution of Monocytes and Macrophages

Recognition, Sensing, and Responses

Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation, and Secretion

Activation and Downregulation: Interactions with T and B Lymphocytes

Role of Macrophages in Adaptive Immunity and Tolerance

Role of Macrophages in Autoimmune Models and Diseases

Conclusions and Questions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. Dendritic Cells in Autoimmune Disease

Antigen Processing by Dendritic Cells

Pattern Recognition Receptors

Dendritic Cell Activation

Dendritic Cell Subsets

Mouse Dendritic Cells

Dendritic Cells in the Mouse Thymus

Dendritic Cell Subsets and Tolerance

Human Dendritic Cell Subsets in Steady State

Dendritic Cell Subsets in Human Skin: Epidermal Langerhans Cells and dermal Dendritic Cells

Dendritic Cells and Autoimmune Disease

Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy as a Treatment for Autoimmune Diseases

Targeting of Dendritic Cells in Autoimmune Disease

Conclusions and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 13. Natural Killer Cells

Introduction to NK Cells

NK Cell Development and Differentiation

Phenotype and Tissue Localization of NK Cells

Functional Responses by NK Cells

NK Cell Receptor Signaling and Effector Functions

NK Cells and Human Autoimmunity

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Granulocytes: Neutrophils, Basophils, Eosinophils

Neutrophils

Basophils

Eosinophils

Conclusions and Therapeutic Implications

References

Chapter 15. The Roles and Contributions of the Complement System in the Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases

The Complement System and Complement Activation Pathways

Control of Complement Activation

The Biological Effects of Complement Activation

Complement Involvement in the Pathophysiology of Diverse Autoimmune Diseases

References

Chapter 16. Cytokines, their Receptors and Signals

Historical Perspective

Cytokines and Immunity

Cytokine Receptor Subsets

Class II Cytokine Receptor Family

TNF Receptor Family

The IL-1/TLR Family of Receptors

Immunosuppressive Cytokines/Growth Factors

Chemokines

Alarmins

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Part 4: Initiation of Autoimmunity

Chapter 17. Cellular Injury and Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis in Autoimmunity

Necrosis

Clearance of Dead Cells

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Apoptotic Cells

Immuno-Stimulatory Effects of Necrotic Cells

A Glimpse into the Future

References

Chapter 18. Autophagy in Autoimmunity

Autophagy Pathways

Autophagy in Innate Immunity

Autophagy in Lymphocyte Development and Activation

Antigen Presentation for CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Recognition

Autophagy in Tolerance and Autoimmunity

Future Prospects

References

Chapter 19. Infectious Triggers of T Cell Autoimmunity

Introduction

Role of Infections in Priming of Autoreactive Immune Responses

Potential Mechanisms of Infection Triggering Autoimmunity

How do these Mechanisms Lead to Autoimmune Disease?

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 20. Autoimmune Diseases: The Role for Vaccines

Introduction

Theoretical Concerns for Autoimmune Diseases in the Context of Vaccination

Crossfire and Coincidence

Challenges using Animal Models

Practical Approach to Vaccination in Patients with Autoimmune Disease

Conclusion

References

Chapter 21. Non-infectious Environmental Agents and Autoimmunity

Introduction

Evidence Supporting the Role of Environmental Agents in Autoimmune Disease

Identifying and Defining Environmentally Associated Autoimmune Diseases

Non-Infectious Agents Associated with Autoimmune Diseases

Possible Mechanisms by Which Environmental Agents May Induce Autoimmune Diseases

Overview and Future Directions

References

Chapter 22. Adhesion Molecules and Chemoattractants in Autoimmunity

Microvascular Determinants of T Cell Recruitment

Adhesion Molecules

Chemoattractants and Their Receptors

Multistep Adhesion Cascades

Effector T Cell Migration

Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Part 5: Facilitation of Autoimmunity

Chapter 23. Effector Mechanisms in Autoimmunity

Introduction

Autoantibodies

Direct Antibody-Mediated Disease

Immune Complex Disease

Complement Cascades

Macrophages

Neutrophils

Mast Cells

Natural Killer Cells and Cytotoxic T Cells

Effector T Helper Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Disease

Effector Cytokines and their Targets

Conclusions

References

Chapter 24. Sexual Dimorphism in the Immune System

Introduction

Overview of Sexual Dimorphism

Sexual Dimorphism in the Immune System

Effects of Hormones on the Immune System

Role of the Sex Chromosomes in Immunity

Environmental Effects on Sex Differences in Immunity

Consequences for Autoimmunity of Sexual Dimorphism in the Immune System

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 25. Microbiome and Autoimmunity

Introduction

The Intestinal Microbiome

Effect of a GF Environment on Experimental Diseases

Microbiome Composition and Autoimmune Diseases

Effect of Probiotics on Autoimmune Diseases

The Relationship Between the Intestinal Microbiome and the Hygiene Hypothesis

Synthesis and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 26. Genetic Predisposition, Humans

Introduction

Diseases of Interest

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex and other Candidate genes

Gene Linkage Studies of Autoimmunity

Genome-wide Association Studies of Autoimmunity

From Location to Molecular Mechanisms

Concluding Comments

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 27. Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases Conferred by the Major Histocompatibility Complex: Utility of Animal Models

Major Histocompatibility Complex

HLA Class II Association with Autoimmune Diseases

Environmental Factors

Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Vitamin D in Autoimmune Diseases

Post-Translational Modifications in Autoimmunity

Humanized Animal Models of Autoimmunity

HLA class II MoleculeS Regulate Infection Through Modulation of Cytokine Networks

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 28. Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases

Epigenetic Modifications

Epigenetics of Immune Tolerance to Self

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Systemic Sclerosis

Sjögren’s Syndrome

Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies-Associated Vasculitis

Type 1 Diabetes

Multiple Sclerosis

Epigenetic Therapy

Future Prospects

References

Chapter 29. Autoimmunity in Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders

Introduction

T Cell Developmental Defects

Antibody Production Defects

Innate Immune Defects

Monogenic Defects Affecting Immune Homeostasis and/or Tolerance

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Part 6: Experimental Models of Autoimmunity

Chapter 30. Animal Models: Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

Introduction

Spontaneous Models of Systemic Autoimmunity

Genetically Manipulated Models of Systemic Autoimmunity

Induced Models of Systemic Autoimmunity

Concluding Comments

References

Chapter 31. Animal Models of Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disease

What Can Animal Models Teach us about Organ-Specific Autoimmunity?

Animal Models—Advantages and Disadvantages

Animal Models for Organ-Specific Autoimmune diseases

Conclusions

References

Part 7: Multisystem Autoimmune Diseases

Chapter 32. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Genetics

Epidemiology

Autoantibody

Clinical

Measurement of Clinical Activity

Lupus Therapeutics

References

Chapter 33. Systemic Sclerosis, Scleroderma

Introduction

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features and Immunologic Markers in Disease

Genetic Features

Environmental Influences

Animal Models of SSc

Pathogenic Mechanisms

Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 34. Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Introduction

The Clinical Spectrum of Antiphospholipid Syndrome

The Antiphospholipid Antibodies

Non-Criteria aPL Antibodies

The Mechanisms of aPL-Mediated Disease Expressions

Treatment of APS

Conclusions and Future Aspects

References

Chapter 35. Sjögren’s Syndrome

Introduction

Clinical Features

Autoimmune Features and Pathogenic Mechanisms

Etiopathogenesis

Exocrine Gland Dysfunction

Therapy

Future Prospects

References

Chapter 36. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Introduction

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

In Vivo Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 37. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Epidemiology

Clinical Features

Etiology and Pathogenesis

Treatment

References

Chapter 38. Spondyloarthritides

Definition, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment

The Role of HLA-B27 in the Pathogenesis of Spondyloarthritis

The Role of Non-MHC Genes in Spondyloarthritis

Bacterial Trigger and Autoimmunity in the Pathogenesis of the Spondyloarthritides

Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Reactive Arthritis

Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis

What is the Immune Target in Ankylosing Spondylitis?

Inflammation and Bone Formation

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 39. The Autoimmune Myopathies

Defining Autoimmune Myopathies

Clinical and Pathological Descriptions of Different Phenotypes, Including IMNM

Characteristic Pathology, but Significant Overlap between Phenotypes

Epidemiological Clues into Mechanism

Specific Autoantibodies are Strongly Associated with Phenotype, Making them Useful Probes of Disease Mechanism

Mechanisms of Disease

Therapeutic Insights

Concluding Remarks

References

Part 8: Endocrine System

Chapter 40. Thyroid Disease

Autoimmune Thyroiditis

Graves’ Disease

References

Chapter 41. Autoimmune (Type 1) Diabetes

Introduction

Clinical and Pathologic Features

Epidemiologic Features

Genetic Features

Autoimmune Features

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

In Vivo and In Vitro Models

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 42. Adrenalitis

Introduction

Anatomy and Physiology of the Adrenals

Epidemiology of Addison’s Disease and Autoimmune Adrenalitis

Autoimmune Addison’s Disease (AAD)

Histopathology

Animal Models

Immunologic Studies

Natural History of AAD

Diagnosis of AAD

Different Clinical Presentations of AAD

Therapy

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 43. Polyendocrine Syndromes

Historical Background

Clinical Pathologic and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

Environmental Features

Animal Models

Pathogenic Mechanisms

Immunologic Markers in Diagnosis

Treatment and Outcome

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 44. Autoimmune Gastritis and Pernicious Anemia

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

In Vivo and In Vitro Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 45. Autoimmune Hypophysitis

Definition and Classification of Autoimmune Hypophysitis

Historical Background

Epidemiology and Body of Literature

Clinical Features

Pathological Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic and Environmental Influences

Animal Models

Diagnosis

Treatment

Outcome

Hypophysitis Secondary to CTLA-4 Blockade

Concluding Remarks—Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Part 9: Blood Disorders

Chapter 46. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

Historical Background

Classification of Aiha

Animal Models of Aiha

Mechanisms of Rbc Destruction in Aiha

Clinical Signs of Aiha

Laboratory Diagnosis of Aiha

Treatment of Aiha

Etiology of Aiha and Predisposing Factors

Immune Mechanisms Underlying Loss of Self Tolerance in Warm Aiha

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 47. Immune Thrombocytopenia

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmunes Features

Genetics Features

In Vivo Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 48. Autoimmune Neutropenia

Historical Background

Clinical and Pathologic Features

Autoimmune Neutropenia of Infancy

Primary Autoimmune Neutropenia in Adolescents and Adults

Neutrophil-Specific Antigens in Primary Autoimmune Neutropenias

Differential Diagnosis

Laboratory Diagnosis

Treatment

Perspectives and Future Directions

References

Chapter 49. Acquired Aplastic Anemia

HistoricAL Background

Genetic Features

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features and Pathogenic Mechanisms

Environmental Features

Animal Models

Therapy for Aplastic Anemia

Immunosuppressive Therapy

High-Dose Cyclophosphamide without BMT

Aplastic Anemia and Clonality

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 50. Monogenic Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndromes

Introduction—Apoptosis and the Immune System

Clinical and Pathological Features

ALPS-Related Disorders

Autoimmune LympHoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

RAS-Associated Autoimmune Leukoproliferative Disorder

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 51. Autoimmune Clotting Dysfunction

Introduction

Procoagulant Thrombotic Diseases

Anticoagulant (Bleeding) Diseases

Conclusions and Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

References

Part 10: Central and Peripheral Nervous System

Chapter 52. Multiple Sclerosis

HistoricAL Background

Clinical Features

Immunological Markers in Diagnosis

Pathology

Epidemiology of MS

Immune Pathogenesis

Treatment

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 53. Peripheral Neuropathies

Introduction

Acute Neuropathies: The Guillain–Barré Syndrome

Chronic Neuropathies: Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 54. Myasthenia Gravis and Related Disorders

Introduction

Myasthenia Gravis

Clinical Heterogeneity

Antibodies in Myasthenia

Pathogenic Mechanisms

The Thymus and Cellular Immunity in MG

Lambert–Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome

Conclusions and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 55. Ocular Disease

Historical Background

Clinical Features

Pathologic Features

Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Hormonal Influences

Genetic Factors

Animal Models

Pathogenic Mechanisms

Immunologic Markers

Treatment and Outcomes

Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 56. Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease

Introduction

Clinical Features

Evidence of Autoimmunity

Genetic Susceptibility

Animal Models

Treatment

Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 57. Encephalomyelopathies

Introduction

Neurological Syndromes of Autoimmune Causation

Systemic Immunopathic Disorders with Encephalitis and Myelitis

Diseases with Autoantibodies to Cell-surface Channels, Receptors

CNS Diseases with Autoantibodies to Intracellular Antigens

Conclusions and Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

Abbreviations

References

Chapter 58. Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndromes

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Diagnosis

Antibodies

Treatment

Clinical Syndromes

References

Part 11: Gastrointestinal System

Chapter 59. Celiac Disease

Clinical, Pathologic and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

Environmental Influences

In Vivo and In Vitro Models

Pathogenic Mechanisms

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Treatment and Outcome

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 60. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Introduction

History

Epidemiology and Environmental Factors

Clinical and Pathologic Features

Genetics

Immunopathogenesis

Biomarkers

Treatment

Future Prospects

References

Chapter 61. Hepatitis

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Genetic Features

Animal Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Treatment and Outcome

Concluding Remarks—future Prospects

References

Chapter 62. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

Environmental Provocation of PBC

Experimental Animal Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 63. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

Natural History, Clinical Features, and PSC-IBD

Diagnosis

PSC Subtypes and Pediatric psc

PSC-Associated Malignancies

Genetics

Animal Models

Potential Pathogenic Mechanisms

Treatment

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 64. Autoimmune Pancreatitis and IgG4-related Disease

Historical Background

Autoimmune Pancreatitis – Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiological Features

Animal Models

Pathological Mechanisms

Immunological Markers in Diagnosis

Treatment and Outcome

IgG4-related Disease

Concluding Remarks: Future Prospects

References

Part 12: Skin Diseases

Chapter 65. Autoimmune Bullous Skin Diseases—Pemphigus and Pemphigoid

Introduction

Pemphigus Vulgaris

Pemphigus Foliaceus

Other Types of Pemphigus

Bullous Pemphigoid

Other Subepidermal Bullous Diseases

Treatment of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 66. Non-bullous Skin Diseases: Alopecia Areata, Vitiligo, Psoriasis, and Urticaria

Alopecia Areata

Vitiligo

Psoriasis

Chronic Urticaria

References

Part 13: Nephropathies and Reproductive System

Chapter 67. Autoimmune Disease in the Kidney

Introduction

Are there Hallmarks of Autoimmune Disease?

Hallmarks of Autoimmune Diseases of the Kidney

Summary

Future Directions

References

Chapter 68. Autoimmune Orchitis and Autoimmune Oophoritis

Introduction

Experimental Autoimmune Disease of the Testis

Clinical Autoimmune Disease of the Testis

Experimental Autoimmune Disease of the Ovary

Clinical Autoimmune Disease of the Ovary

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Part 14: Cardiovascular System and Lungs

Chapter 69. Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease

Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

In Vivo and In Vitro Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Autoantibodies as Potential Immunologic Markers

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 70. Myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Historical Background

Clinical, Pathologic, and Epidemiologic Features

Autoimmune Features and Immunologic Markers

Genetic Features

Environmental Features

Animal Models and Pathogenic Mechanisms

Treatment and Outcome

Personal Thoughts

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 71. Atherosclerosis

Introduction

Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions

Mouse Models of Atherosclerosis

Culprit Autoantigens

Immune Responses in Atherosclerosis

References

Chapter 72. Necrotizing Arteritis and Small Vessel Vasculitis

Historical Background

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Kawasaki’s Disease

ANCA-associated Vasculitis (AAV)

Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis

IgA Vasculitis (Henoch–Schönlein Purpura)

Concluding Remarks—Future Prospects

References

Chapter 73. Large and Medium Vessel Vasculitides

Vasculitides of Large and Medium-sized Blood Vessels

Giant Cell Arteritis

Takayasu’s Arteritis

Concluding Remarks—Future Perspectives

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 74. Idiopathic and Autoimmune Interstitial Lung Disease

Introduction

History

Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiological Features

Autoimmune Features

Genetic Features

In Vivo and In Vitro Models

Pathologic Effector Mechanisms

Treatment and Outcome

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Part 15: Unclassified Expressions of Autoimmunity

Chapter 75. Cameos: Candidates and Curiosities

Introduction

Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants

Autonomic Neuropathy

Birdshot Retinopathy

Cystitis, Interstitial

Endometriosis

Epilepsy

Fatigue Syndrome

Folate Deficiency

Lichen Sclerosus

Lymphocytic Mastitis

Metabolic–Genetic Storage Diseases

Movement Disorders

Narcolepsy

Osteoarthritis

Parathyroid Disease

Polychondritis, Relapsing

Prostatitis

Sarcoidosis

References

Chapter 76. Autoantibodies Against Cytokines

Introduction

Autoantibodies Against Cytokines in Humans

Pathogenicity of Autoantibodies Against Cytokines—General Comments

Are Anti-Cytokine Autoantibodies Against a Range of Cytokines in all Healthy Humans?

Analysis of a Panel of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies to GM-CSF

Autoantibodies to GM-CSF: Implications for B Cell Tolerance to Cytokines

Role of T Cells and the Thymus in Pathogenesis of Autoantibodies to Cytokines

Induction of Autoantibodies as a Consequence of Therapy with Recombinant Cytokines

Conclusions and Future Prospects

References

Part 16: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Therapy

Chapter 77. Autoantibody Assays: Performance, Interpretation, and Standardization

Introduction

Spectrum of Autoantibodies

Assays and Technologies for Autoantibody Testing

Clinical Interpretation and Application of Autoantibody Testing

Clinical Practice Guidelines

Laboratory Reports, Electronic Medical Records, and Cost Analysis

Standardization and Quality Assurance

Conclusions and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 78. Prediction of Autoimmune Disease

TYPE 1 DIABETES Mellitus as a Model for Prediction of Autoimmune Disease

The Pancreatic Pathology in TYPE 1 Diabetes MELLITUS and Islet Autoimmunity

Laboratory Markers of Autoimmunity (Including Autoantibodies and T Cell Assays)

Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases

Non-Organ Specific Disease

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 79. Prevention of Autoimmune Disease: The Type 1 Diabetes Paradigm

Introduction

People at Risk for TYPE 1 DIABETES

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Epilogue

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 80. Treatment of Autoimmune Disease: Established Therapies

Principles of Immune Suppression

General Considerations

Non-Specific Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Established Treatments of Rheumatic Diseases

Other Treatment Options

Moving Towards Biological and Molecular Therapies

References

Chapter 81. Treatment of Autoimmune Disease: Biological and Molecular Therapies

Introduction

The Therapeutic Armamentarium Derived from Biotechnology

Soluble Autoantigens

Bone Marrow Transplantation

Cell Therapy and Gene Therapy

Perspectives for the Future

References

Index

Quotes and reviews

"...incorporates new material and combines common themes underlying inductive and effector mechanisms and therapies that relate generally to the autoimmune disorders."--Anticancer Research, February 2015

"This authoritative book on autoimmune diseases is useful for clinicians and basic scientists alike. It is easy to read but is also useful as a reference. The authors provide an extensive overview of autoimmunity, ranging from basic mechanisms of disease to clinical features. Rating - 4 Stars"--Doody.com, August 2014

"...edited by Noel R. Rose and Ian R. Mackay, widely recognized experts in autoimmunity and its pathophysiological and clinical aspects. This thoughtfully updated new edition takes into consideration important developments in basic and clinical science. This book will be a valuable resource to clinicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases, to scientists who want to follow developments in the field, and to all those who enjoyed the previous edition."--Martha M. Eibl, M.D. for NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Jan 2006

 
 
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