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The Cat Primary Visual Cortex

The Cat Primary Visual Cortex, 1st Edition

The Cat Primary Visual Cortex, 1st Edition,Bertram Payne,Alan Peters,ISBN9780125521048

Payne   &   Peters   

Academic Press




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Key Features

Key Features
* Comprehensive account of cat primary visual cortex
* Generous use of illustrations including color
* Covers research from structure to connections to functions
* Chapters by leaders in the field
* Topics presneted on multiple, compatible levels


Written by experts on the forefront of investigations of brain function, vision, and perception, the material presented is of an unparalleled scientific quality, and shows that analyses of enormous breadth and sophistication are required to probe the structure and function of brain regions. The articles are highly persuasive in showing what can be achieved by carrying out careful and imaginative experiments. The Cat Primary Visual Cortex should emerge as essential reading for all those interested in cerebral cortical processing of visual signals or researching or working in any field of vision.


Neuroscientists, neurologists, cell and developmental biologists, and anyone involved in the visual sciences field.

Bertram Payne

Affiliations and Expertise

Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Alan Peters

Affiliations and Expertise

Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

The Cat Primary Visual Cortex, 1st Edition

Preface 1 The Concept of Cat Primary Visual Cortex Prologue Milestones in the Development of the Concept of Cat Primary Visual Cortex Connections Composition of Area 17 Comparison of the Architectonics of Areas 17 and 18 and Identification of Borders Visual Maps in Areas 17 and 18 Circuitry and Signal Processing in Areas 17 and 18 Visually Guided Behavior Synthesis Recent Challenges to the Primacy of Areas 17 and 18 Epilogue 2 Optical Imaging of Functional Architecture in Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction Methodological Aspects of Optical Imaging Optical Imaging of Functional Maps in Cat Visual Cortex Relationships between Columnar Systems Comparison with the Functional Architecture in Other Species Concluding Remarks 3 2-Deoxyglucose Architecture of Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction Orientation Domains Ocular Dominance Domains Spatial Frequency Domains Development and Experience-Dependent Changes of Cortical Maps Advantages and Disadvantages of the 2-DG Technique Outlook 4 Functional Mapping in The Cat Primary Visual Cortex Using High Magnetic Fields Introduction Limitations of Current Techniques, or Why We Need Another Mapping Technique Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Functional MRI of the Cat Primary Visual Cortex Conclusions 5 Relationships of LGN Afferents and Cortical Efferents to Cytochrome Oxidase Blobs Parallel Processing in the Mammalian Visual System Organization of CO Staining in Cat Primary Visual Cortex Geniculate Inputs to the CO Blobs Molecular Markers for Other Blob/Interblob Inputs Outputs of the CO Blobs Projections to Area 19 Comparisons with Primates Conclusions 6 INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY AND OCULAR DOMINANCE ON THE FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF CALLOSAL CONNECTIONS IN CAT STRIATE CORTEX Introduction The Vertical Meridian Rule Callosal Fibers Interlink Cortical Sites That are in Retinotopic, Rather Than Anatomical, Correspondence Interhemispheric Correlated Activity Guides Callosal Development Summary and Concluding Remarks 7 Essential and Sustaining LGN Inputs to Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction The Reversible Inactivation Technique Two Circuits in Area 17 Area 18: More Integrative Than Area 17 Functional Architecture of Visual Cortex 8 Integration of Thalamic Inputs to Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction Simple Receptive Fields Numerical Aspects of the Geniculocortical Projection Feedforward (Thalamic) Connections and Simple Cell Responses Intrinsic Connections and Simple-Cell Responses Conclusions 9 The Emergence of Direction Selectivity in Cat Primary Visual Cortex Overview Directional Tuning: The Basics Computational Requirements for Direction Selectivity Biological Instantiation of Computational Principles Origins of Cortical Timings: The Lagged/Nonlagged Cell Model Comparison with Recent Models Intracortical Inhibition: Experimental Evidence How are Inputs Combined? Intralaminar and Interlaminar Interactions Summary and Conclusions Future Directions 10 Long-Range Intrinsic Connections in Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction Historical Overview Layout of Long-Range Horizontal Connections Types of Neurons Forming Long-Range Horizontal Connections Synaptic Targets of Long-Range Intrinsic Connections Divergence and Convergence of Long-Range Horizontal Connections at the Ultrastructural Level Topographic Relations between Long-Range Intrinsic Connections and Functional Cortical Maps Possible Functions Plasticity of Long-Range Connections in the Adult Conclusions 11 Pharmacological Studies on Receptive Field Architecture Receptive Field Architecture in Cat Striate Cortex Cells Specific Local Synaptic Input Systems to Striate Cortex Cells Striate Cortical Network Effects on RF Properties 12 Orientation Selectivity and its Modulation by Local and Long-Range Connections in Visual Cortex Overview and Introduction Contributions of Local Cortical Excitation to the Generation of Orientation Selectivity: The Emergent Model Effect of Long-Range Connections on Orientation-Specific Responses Supraoptimal Responses and Dynamic Properties of Recurrent Inhibition Short-Term Plasticity of Orientation Tuning Induced by Pattern Adaptation Concluding Remarks 13 Response Synchronization, Gamma Oscillations, and Perceptual Binding in Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction Two Complimentary Strategies for the Representation of Relations: Smart Neurons and Assemblies A Need for Dynamic Response Selection and Binding Dynamic Grouping Mechanisms Predictions Response Synchronization in Striate Cortex Response Synchronization, Mechanisms and Properties Relation between Response Synchronization and Perceptual Phenomena Dependency on Central States and Attention Plasticity of Synchronizing Connections The Impact of Synchronized Responses Gamma Oscillations and Visual Perceptions in Human Subjects Stimulus Locked Synchronization and Perceptual Grouping Conclusions 14 The Special Relationship between ? Retinal Ganglion Cells and Cat Primary Visual Cortex Introduction Identification of Subsystems and Connections Visual System Connections and Function in the Newborn Visual Cortex Lesions Factors Linked to Survival and Death of Ganglion Cells Primates Summary 15 Primary Visual Cortex within the Cortico-Cortico-Thalamic Network Introduction Function Structure Structure-Function Relationships Conclusions 16 Behavioral Analyses of the Contributions of Cat Primary Visual Cortex to Vision Introduction The Behavioral Consequences of Lesions of the Visual Cortex Insights Gained from Cats Reared with Selected Forms of Early Visual Deprivation Conclusions Index

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