Water at the Surface of Earth

Water at the Surface of Earth, 1st Edition

An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics

Water at the Surface of Earth, 1st Edition,David Miller,ISBN9780124967526


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Water at the Surface of the Earth: An Introduction to Ecosystem Hydrodynamics provides an introduction to the ways in which biological, physical, cultural, and urban systems at the surface of the earth operate, with a particular focus on the hydrodynamics of ecosystems, i.e., water and its association with other forms of matter, including pollutants, and with several forms of energy. The chapter sequence in this book follows the downward progress of water from the lower atmosphere, through ecosystems at the earth's surface, through the soil and mantle rock, to the ""waters under the earth."" In other words, the book begins with input of water to ecosystems, then describes how it is processed in these systems, and ends with the liquid water yield from them. The book first discusses storms in the atmosphere. These are systems that convert inflows of water vapor into outflows of raindrops and snowflakes that are precipitated to the underlying surface. This is followed by separate chapters on how water is delivered from the atmosphere to surface ecosystems; water budgets at the surface and in the soil; evaporation from these systems back to the atmosphere; water in the local air and rocks; and horizontal movement of water transformed by ecosystems where the preceding storages and fluxes were located.

David Miller

Deptartment of Cell Biology

Affiliations and Expertise

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Water at the Surface of Earth, 1st Edition

Preface Chapter I Introduction Just What is the Earth's Surface? The Budget Idea Water in Systems Water Supplied by the Atmosphere to the Earth's Surface Chapter II Atmospheric Vapor Flows and Atmospheric Storms Water Vapor and Its Movement over the Earth's Surface Atmospheric Storms Sizes and Movement of Atmospheric Storms Atmospheric Storms: Causes of Variability in Rainfall References Chapter III Point Rainfall-The Delivery of Water to an Ecosystem Measuring Rain and Snow The Dimensions of Point Rainfall The Frequency of Precipitation-Intensity Events Water Delivery to Ecosystems References Chapter IV Hydrologic Storms The Area of Hydrologic Storms Areal Syntheses The Episodic Occurrence of Hydrologic Storms Closing References Chapter V Large-Scale Organization of Rainfall Organization of Storms in Time Spatial Grouping of Rainfall Spatial Pattern of Annual Precipitation Areal Pattern of Long-Term Changes in Rainfall Associated Mass Fluxes Time and Space Organization of the Water Delivered to Ecosystems References Chapter VI Reception of Water by Ecosystems Ecosystem Hydrodynamics Delivery of Rain and Snow to Vegetation Interception of Water by Vegetation Storage of Rain and Snow on Foliage during Storms The Outflows from Interception Storage of Rain and Snow Evaporation as a Mode of Outflow from Interception Storage Water Intercepted by Litter Areal Redistribution of Water by Vegetation above the Soil References Chapter VII Water Detained on the Soil Surface Snow Cover Liquid Water on the Ground Outflows from Detention Storage References Chapter VIII Infiltration of Water into the Soil of an Ecosystem The Soil as Environment of Water Infiltration of Water into the Soil Influences of Vegetation on Infiltration Time Differences in Infiltration Infiltrated Water in Ecosystems References Chapter IX Soil Moisture Soil-Moisture Bookkeeping Soil-Moisture Distributions in Space Time Variations of Soil Moisture Freezing and Melting of Soil Water Outflows of Water from the Soil References Chapter X Evaporation from Wet Surfaces Determining Evaporation Rates Evaporation from Deep Water Bodies Evaporation from Shallow Water Bodies Evaporation from a Wet Soil Surface Evaporation References Chapter XI Evaporation from Well-Watered Ecosystems Transpiration of Water from Leaves Evapotranspiration from Plant Communities Empirical Patterns of Potential Evapotranspiration Evaporation Differs with Ecosystems References Chapter XII Evaporation from Drying Ecosystems Bare Soil Surfaces Evapotranspiration from a Drying Soil-Vegetation System Variations in Evapotranspiration over Time Large-Scale Patterns The Era of Evaporation References Chapter XIII Water in the Local Air Water Vapor in the Local Air Visible Forms of Water in the Local Air Condensation of Vapor on the Underlying Surface References Chapter XIV Percolation from Ecosystems Shallow Percolation Deeper Percolation Mass Transports by Percolating Water Significance of Percolation Percolation and Recharge References Chapter XV Groundwater and Its Outflows into Local Ecosystems The Environments of Groundwater Groundwater Recharge The Volume of Stored Underground Water Mass Budgets Associated with Groundwater Local Outflows of Water from Underground Storage Artificial Outflows from Underground Storage Groundwater Budgets References Chapter XVI Surface Transports from Ecosystems Movement of Snow Gravity-Powered Movement of Liquid Water Other Forms of Mass Transport Associated with the Flow of Water at and near the Surface Time Variations in Off-Site Flow Off-Site Flows from Ecosystems References Chapter XVII Off-Site Yield of Ecosystems Outflows from Groundwater Storage Water Yield as Associated with Biological Yield Total Off-Site Movement of Water Total Yield References Chapter XVIII Water in Ecosystems Environments of Water in Ecosystems Unknowns and Uncertainties in Water Budgets Patterns of Distribution Water is Everywhere References Index

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