Mast Cells and Basophils

Mast Cells and Basophils, 1st Edition

Mast Cells and Basophils, 1st Edition,Gianni Marone,Lawrence Lichtenstein,Federica Galli,ISBN9780124733350

Marone   &   Lichtenstein   &   Galli   

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Mast Cells and Basophils will be essential reading for immunologists, biochemists and medical researchers. Detailed chapters cover all aspects of mast cell and basophil research, from cell development, proteases, histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes, physiology and pathology to the role of these cells in health and disease. Chapters also discuss the clinical implications of histamine receptor antagonists.


Medical and academic researchers working in immunology, cell biology,pharmacology, biochemistry, endocrinology, and medicine with particular attention towards allergic response.

Gianni Marone

Affiliations and Expertise

Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy

Lawrence Lichtenstein

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Federica Galli

Affiliations and Expertise

Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.

Mast Cells and Basophils, 1st Edition

Contributors Preface Acknowledgments Section One Development of Mast Cells and Basophils Chapter 1 Regulation of Mast Cell and Basophil Development by Stem Cell Factor and Interleukin-3 Introduction SCF, a Ligand for the c-kit Receptor Multiple Effects of SCF in Mast Cell Biology SCF can Regulate Mast Cell Function In Vitro and In Vivo Interleukin-3 Using IL-3-/- Mice to Assess the Role of IL-3 in Mast Cell and Basophil Development Summary Acknowledgments References Chapter 2 Gain-of-function Mutations of c-kit in Human Diseases Introduction Loss-of-function Mutation of c-kit Stomach Lesions of W/Wv and SI/SId Mice Gain-of-function Mutation of c-kit in Mast Cell Neoplasms Sporadic Gastrointestinal Stromal Turnouts Familial GIST Conclusion References Chapter 3 Modulation of Mast Cell Development from Embryonic Haematopoietic Progenitors by Eotaxin Chemokines and Their Receptors Play Diverse Roles as Mediators of Inflammation Chemokines Participate in Multiple Mast Cell and Basophil Functions Chemokine Secretion by Mast Cells Eotaxin Results Discussion References Chapter 4 Regulation and Dysregulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis Introduction Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Growth Factors Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Death Receptors Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Perforin, Nitric Oxide and Bacterial Toxins Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Irradiation and Chemical Agents Perspective: Apoptosis and Mast Cell Disease References Section Two Phenotypic and Ultrastructural Features of Mast Cells and Basophils Chapter 5 Ultrastructural Features of Human Basophil and Mast Cell Secretory Function Introduction Mechanism(s) of Histamine and CLC-P Secretion from Human Basophils, of Histamine Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vitro and of TNF-a and Chymase Secretion from Rat Peritoneal Cells Histamine Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vivo Heparin Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vitro The Vesiculovacuolar Organelle, a New Endothelial Permeability Structure Acknowledgments References Chapter 6 Human Dendritic Mast Cells Introduction The Morphology of Human Dendritic Mast Cells Functional Aspects and Future Lines of Research Concluding Remarks References Chapter 7 The Phenotypic Similarities and Differences between Human Basophils and Mast Cells Introduction Morphology Membrane Receptors Cytoplasmic Contents Mast Cell Phenotypes in Tissues The Involvement of Mast Cells and Basophils in Asthma and Drug Reactions Acknowledgments References Chapter 8 Interactions between Nerves and Mast Cells in Amphibians Introduction Morphology of Frog Mast Cells Frog Mast Cells and Peripheral Nervous System Occurrence of Mast Cells in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of Mammals Concluding Remarks References Section Three Signal Transduction in Mast Cells and Basophils Chapter 9 Sequential Protein Kinase Activation and the Regulation of Mast Cell Cytokine Production Introduction Signaling Through Mast Cell Surface Receptors MAPK Family Members Transcriptional Regulation of TNF-a Production Stem Cell Factor Receptor (c-kit) Differentiation Signaling and Function of Mast Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Embryonic Stem Cells Identification of a Critical Role for MEKK2 in JNK Activation and Cytokine Production Summary Acknowledgments References Chapter 10 FceRI-mediated Induction of TNF-a Gene Expression in Mast Cell Lines Introduction Chromosomal Location and Gene Structure of TNF-a Regulation of TNF-a Gene Expression in Non-mast Cell Lines FceRI-dependent Regulation of TNF-a Production Concluding Remarks References Chapter 11 Regulation of Mast Cell Degranulation by SHIP Introduction Structure and Binding Partners of SHIP Biological Properties of SHIP Properties of the SHIP Knockout Mouse The Role of SHIP in FceRI-induced Degranulation of Mast Cells The Role of SHIP in Steel Factor-induced Signaling in Mast Cells The Role of SHIP in Thapsigargin-induced Signaling in Mast Cells A Model of IgE-induced Degranulation Major Questions Remaining Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References Section Four Regulation of Mast Cell and Basophil Signaling and Secretion Chapter 12 Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibition Motif-dependent Negative Regulation of Mast Cell Activation and Proliferation Introduction SIRP-a can Negatively Regulate FceRI-dependent Mast Cell Activation FcyRIIB can Negatively Regulate c-kit-dependent Mast Call Proliferation Conclusion Acknowledgments References Chapter 13 Perspectives on the Regulation of Secretion from Human Basophils and Mast Cells Introduction Regulation of FceRI Expression Desensitization Modification of Basophil Function by IL-3 Summary References Chapter 14 Interactions between Secretory IgA and Human Basophils Introduction Structure and Metabolism of sIgA Pathophysiology of sIgA sIgA-mediated Basophil Activation Receptors for sIgA Clinical Relevance of sIgA-mediated Basophil Activation Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 15 Regulation of Mast Cell Secretion by Interferon-y and Nitric Oxide Introduction Interferon and Mast Cells Do Mast Cells Produce Interferon-y? Nitric Oxide and Nitric Oxide Synthases Nitric Oxide Effects on Mast Cells Do Mast Cells Produce Nitric Oxide? How does Nitric Oxide Regulate Mast Cells? Nitric Oxide and Mast Cells In Vivo - Clinical Implications Conclusion: Mast Cells, Interferon-y and Nitric Oxide in Cell Interactions and Disease Acknowledgments References Section Five Structure and Function of Mast Cell Proteases Chapter 16 Human and Mouse Mast Cell Tryptases Introduction Identification and Cloning of Human Tryptase Genes Identification and Cloning of Mouse Tryptase Genes Biochemical Features of Human and Mouse Tryptases Expression of Mouse and Human Tryptases in Cells and Tissues Function of Human and Mouse Tryptases Tryptase Metabolism Concluding Remarks References Chapter 17 Expression, Function and Regulation of Mast Cell Granule Chymases during Mucosal Allergic Responses Introduction Investigating the Response of mMCP-1-/- Mice to Gastrointestinal Nematodes Regulation of the Expression of mMCP-1 in mBMMC Discussion Acknowledgments References Chapter 18 Structure and Function of Human Chymase Introduction General Properties X-ray Crystal Structure of rHC The Extended Substrate-binding Site of Human Chymase Modeling of the Human Chymase-angiotensin I Interaction Summary Acknowledgments References Chapter 19 Structure and Function of Human Mast Cell Tryptase Introduction Distribution and Secretion in Disease Structure and Physicochemical Properties Non-human Tryptases Regulation of Tryptase Activity Peptide Substrates Protein Substrates Actions on Cells and Tissues Cellular Receptors for Tryptase Tryptase as a Therapeutic Target Acknowledgments References Section Six Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions: Physiology and Pathology Chapter 20 Mast Cell-Nerve Interactions: Possible Significance of Nerve Growth Factor Evidence for Mast Cell-Nerve Interactions Possible Role of NGF Acknowledgment References Chapter 21 Nerve Growth Factor, Mast Cells and Allergic Inflammation Nerve Growth Factor: Early Discovery and Emerging Data NGF and the Nervous System NGF and the Endocrine System NGF and the Immune System NGF and Mast Cells NGF and Inflammation NGF and Allergic Responses Behavioral Influence on NGF Levels and Allergic Responses Possible Future Directions Acknowledgments References Chapter 22 Interactions between Neurotrophins and Mast Cells Definition and Basic Aspects of Neurotrophins Mast Cells as a Source of Neurotrophic Factors Effects of Neurotrophins on Mast Cells Evidence that NGF is also a Human Mast Cell Growth Factor Neurotrophin Receptors on Mast Cells Clinical Findings Suggesting Mast Cell and Neurotrophin Activity Mast Cells and Neurotrophins: Open Issues Acknowledgment References Chapter 23 Modulation of Peripheral Neurotransmission Associated with Mast Cell Activation Sensory (Afferent) Nervous System Enteric Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Summary References Chapter 24 Regulation of Gastrointestinal Mucin Production by Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions Introduction Neuronal Mediation of Mucin Secretion Effects of Stress on Colonic Mucin and Prostaglandin Release Role of Corticotropin-releasing Factor in Stress-induced Colonic Mucin Secretion Neurotensin is an Important Mediator of Colonic Stress Responses Mast Cells as a Major Link of Stress-mediated Mucin Secretion CRF and NT as Mediators of Intestinal Mast Cell Activation During Stress Clinical Implications References Section Seven Mast Cells and Basophils in Homeostasis and Host Defense Chapter 25 Mast Cell-Enterobacteria Interactions during Infection Introduction Protective Role of Mast Cells Against Bacterial Infection Mast Cell Phagocytosis of Bacteria Molecular Basis for Mast Cell-Enterobacteria Recognition Mast Cell Activation Via CD48 Interactions of Human Mast Cells with Enterobacteria Final Thoughts Acknowledgments References Chapter 26 Human Mast Cells and Basophils in Immune Responses to Infectious Agents Introduction Mast Cells in Host Defense Against Bacterial Infections Mast Cells and Basophils in Helicobacterpylori Infection Leukotrienes in the Defence against Bacterial and Viral Infections Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by Protein A Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by Protein L Activation of Human Basophils by Pepstatin A Endogenous Superallergen Protein Fv in Viral Hepatitis Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by HIV- 1 Glycoprotein gp120 The 'Three Faces' of Mast Cells and Basophils in the Immune Response to Infectious Agents Acknowledgments References Chapter 27 Differential Regulation of Mast Cell Mediator Secretion by Bacterial Products Introduction Receptors for Bacteria on Mast Cells Selective Mast Cell Responses to Specific Bacterial Products Combined Signals Alter and Enhance Mast Cell Responses Bacteria- and Bacterial Product-mediated Signaling Events in Mast Cells Conclusions References Chapter 28 The Role of Mast Cells, Basophils and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in Immune Responses to Parasites: Studies with Mast Cell- and IL-3-Deficient Mice Studies of Parasite Infection in Genetically Mast Cell-deficient Mice Assessing the Role of IL-3 in Host Responses to Nematodes using IL-3-/-Mice KitW/KitW-v, IL-3-/-Mice Exhibit a Profound Impairment of Basophilia, Mucosal Mast Cell Development and Immunity During Infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis Summary Acknowledgments References Section Eight Mast Cells in Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Diseases Chapter 29 Human Heart Mast Cells: Immunological Characterization In Situ and In Vitro Introduction Isolation of HHMC and Their Characterization In Situ Histamine, Proteolytic Enzymes and Proteoglycans Synthesized by HHMC Prostaglandins and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes Synthesized De Novo by HMMC Immunological and Non-immunological Stimuli that Activate HHMC In Vitro Mast Cells and Regulation of Coagulation and Fibrinogenolysis HHMC in Systemic and Cardiac Anaphylaxis and in Anaphylactoid Reactions HHMC and Atherosclerosis HHMC in Patients with Myocarditis and Hyper-eosinophilia HHMC and Angiogenesis in the Heart HHMC and Myocardial Ischaemia HHMC in Idiopathic and Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy Perspective and Conclusions Acknowledgments References Chapter 30 Mast Cells in Atherosclerotic Human Coronary Arteries: Implications for Coronary Fatty Streak Formation, Plaque Ulceration and Control of Local Haemostatic Balance Introduction Atherosclerosis is a Disorder of Lipid Metabolism in the Arterial Intima with a Strong Inflammatory Component Circulating Mast Cell Progenitors also find Their way in to the Arterial Intima Immunohistochemical Observations on Mast Cells in the Human Coronary Arterial Intima Potential Mechanisms by Which Mast Cells may Play a Role in Atherogenesis Conclusion and Future Directions Acknowledgments References Chapter 31 Role of Mast Cells in Endogenous Fibrinolysis and Related (Patho)physiological Processes Introduction Contribution of Mast Cells to Fibrinogen Extravasation and Fibrin Formation Mast Cell-dependent Fibrinolysis: Role of Tryptase and Chymase The Mast Cell as Site of tPA Expression Human Mast Cells Express the Urokinase Receptor (uPAR, CD87) Functional Significance of MC-tPA: Mast Cells are 'Pro-fibrinolytic' Cells Molecular Basis of Mast Cell Dependent Fibrinolysis: Role of Inhibitors (PAIs) Fibrin-independent Plasminogen Activation Clinical Significance Mast Cells Accumulate at the Site of Thrombosis SCF Regulates Expression and Release of tPA in Mast Cells Concluding Remarks and Future Directions Acknowledgment References Chapter 32 Mast Cells in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Introduction Mast Cells in Normal Hearts The Mast Cell as a Source of Cytokines Mast Cell Degranulation Following Myocardial Ischaemia Mast Cells in Healing Myocardial Infarcts Mast Cell Precursors Infiltrate the Healing Heart SCF Induction Following Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion Macrophages are the Main Source of SCF Following Myocardial Ischaemia Potential Role of Mast Cells in Healing The Mast Cell in Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion: Friend or Foe? Acknowledgment References Section Nine Leukotrienes, Cytokines and Chemokines in Allergic Disorders Chapter 33 Lipid Mediators from Mast Cells and Basophils in Allergic Diseases Introduction Arachidonic Acid Pools in Human Mast Cells and Basophils Phospholipase A 2 in Human Mast Cells and Basophils Extracellular Effects of Mast Cell-derived Secretory PLA 2 PAF and Related Phospholipids Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Chapter 34 Regulation and Function of Human Intestinal Mast Cells Introduction Effector Functions of Human Intestinal Mast Cells Regulation of Human Intestinal Mast Cell Functions Clinical Implications Future Directions References Chapter 35 Differential Regulation of Basophil Functions by Chemokines Basophil Phenotype and Functions Chemokines Acknowledgment References Chapter 36 Chemokine Receptors on Human Mast Cells Chemokines Mast Cells Chemokine Receptors on MC Concluding Remarks Acknowledgment References Chapter 37 Release and Cleavage of Stem Cell Factor by Human Mast Cells Introduction Stem Cell Factor Expression in Human Mast Cells Stem Cell Factor-Protease Interactions Biological Effects of SCF1-166 and SCF1-159 Oil HLMC and HSMC Conclusions Acknowledgments References Chapter 38 SCF-Induced Chemokine Production, Allergic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyper-reactivity Introduction SCF-Induced Mast Cell Activation, Inflammation and Airway Hyper-reactivity Regulation of SCF Production Initiation of Cytokine/Chemokine Production by SCF in Mast Cells and Eosinophils Structural Cell-derived SCF Contributes to Disease Progression: Differential Activation of Mast Cells by Soluble versus Membrane SCF Summary References Section Ten Clinical Implications of Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists Chapter 39 Pharmacological Profile of Mizolastine, a Novel Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist Histamine and Its Receptor Subtypes Specificity and Selectivity of Mizolastine for H1 Histamine Receptor Subtypes Antihistaminergic Effects of Mizolastine Allergic Reaction Anti-anaphylactic Properties of Mizolastine Immune System-mediated Inflammatory Reaction in Allergy Anti-allergic Effects of Mizolastine Other Pharmacological Effects of Mizolastine Conclusion Acknowledgment References Chapter 40 Adenosine-Induced Enhancement of Mast Cell Mediator Release in Asthma and COPD Introduction The Bronchoconstrictor Effect of Adenosine in Asthma The Airway Response to Adenosine in COPD Adenosine Receptors on Mast Cells Concluding Comments References Chapter 41 Neural Activation and Inflammation in Allergic Rhinitis Introduction Neurogenic Inflammation Neural Hyper-responsiveness Nerve Growth Factor Summary and Conclusion References Chapter 42 Antihistaminic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Mizolastine Introduction Pharmacokinetics of Mizolastine Clinical Efficacy of Mizolastine Anti-inflammatory effects of Mizolastine Concluding Remarks References Chapter 43 Electrophysiological and Molecular Basis for the Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Histamine H, Receptor Antagonists Introduction Cardiotoxicity of Second-generation Antihistamines Conclusions Acknowledgments References Index

Quotes and reviews

"This book is a very substantial contribution to our understanding of many aspects of these very interesting, important, and related cells - the mast cell and basophil. But for the fact that this field, like so many others, is changing so rapidly, this volume will be the standard against which others will be compared for several years to come. It is a 'must have' for any life science or medical library."
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