The Climate of the Mediterranean Region

The Climate of the Mediterranean Region, 1st Edition

From the Past to the Future

The Climate of the Mediterranean Region, 1st Edition,P. Lionello,ISBN9780123914774

P Lionello   




Presents the evolution of the Mediterranean climate over the past two millennia updated with the latest research

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Key Features

  • Written by leading experts in the field
  • Presents clear, compelling, and concise evidence
  • Includes the latest thinking in Mediterranean climate research


The Mediterranean region contains a diverse and interesting climate ranging from areas with permanent glaciers to areas of subtropical, semiarid regions. The region is potentially sensitive to climate change and its progress has environmental, social, and economic implications within and beyond the region. Produced by the Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability Research Networking Project, this book reviews the evolution of the Mediterranean climate over the past two millennia with projections further into the twenty-first century as well as examining in detail various aspects of the Mediterranean region’s climate including evolution, atmospheric variables, and oceanic and land elements. Integrated with this, the book also considers the social and economic problems or vulnerabilities associated with the region. Written and reviewed by multiple researchers to ensure a high level of information presented clearly, Mediterranean Climate Variables will be an invaluable source of information for geologists, oceanographers, and anyone interested in learning more about the Mediterranean climate.


Geologists, Earth and Environmental Scientists

P. Lionello

Dr P. Lionello is chairman of the international program MedCLIVAR (Mediterranean CLImate VARiability and predictability) and the International Scientific Steering Committee of the HyMeX program. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Council of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). He is currently teaching physics of the atmosphere and of the oceans at the University of Lecce for courses in physics and environmental science.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Salento and CMCC, Lecce, Italy

The Climate of the Mediterranean Region, 1st Edition



List of Contributors

Introduction: Mediterranean Climate—Background Information

1. Paleoclimate Variability in the Mediterranean Region

1.1 Introduction to Paleoclimatic Reconstruction Methods

1.2 The Geological History of the Mediterranean Through the Meso-Cenozoic: From a Global Latitudinal Ocean to an Enclosed Sea

1.3 Sensitivity and Variability at Different Climate States

1.4 Outlook



2. A Review of 2000 Years of Paleoclimatic Evidence in the Mediterranean

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Long Instrumental Data Series from the Mediterranean

2.3 Ships’ Logbooks from the Mediterranean as Quasi-Instrumental Climate Information

2.4 Tree-Ring Information from the Mediterranean

2.5 Speleothem Information from the Mediterranean

2.6 Paleoflood and Storm Records from the Mediterranean

2.7 Lake Sediments from the Mediterranean

2.8 Corals and Lower-Resolution Marine Proxies from the Mediterranean

2.9 Borehole Information from the Mediterranean

2.10 Vegetation, Land Use, and Fire History in Mediterranean Ecosystems

2.11 Pollen Data: Their Distribution and Possibilities/Challenges for Climate Reconstructions over the Mediterranean

2.12 Sea-Level Variations over the Last 2000 Years in the Mediterranean

2.13 Paleoclimate Modeling and Data Assimilation for Paleoclimatological Analysis in the Mediterranean

2.14 Data Assimilation with Paleo Data

2.15 Conclusions and Outlook




3. Circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its Variability

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Changes in the Thermohaline Circulation of the Mediterranean Sea

3.3 The Forcings of the Mediterranean Sea

3.4 Variability in the Heat and Freshwater Characteristics at Interannual to Multidecadal Timescales

3.5 Outlook and Future Research Priorities



4. Mediterranean Sea-Level Variability and Trends

4.1 Introduction

4.2 How Do We Observe Sea Levels in the Mediterranean Sea?

4.3 Interannual to Interdecadal Mean Sea-Level Changes and Trends

4.4 Interannual to Interdecadal Changes in the Seasonal Cycle

4.5 Changes in Extreme Sea-Level Events

4.6 Open Issues in the Study of Long-Term Sea-Level Variability

4.7 Conclusions



5. Climate of the Mediterranean

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Teleconnection Patterns Influencing the MR

5.3 Cyclones in the MR and Links to Large-Scale Patterns

5.4 Temperature and Temperature Extremes

5.5 Precipitation Extremes

5.6 Wind and Wind Extremes: Wind Storms, Dust Storms, and Storm Surges

5.7 Conclusion



6. Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Driving Extreme Climate Events in the Mediterranean and its Related Impacts

6.1 Introduction

6.2 HW Mechanisms and Impacts

6.3 Mediterranean Droughts and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation

6.4 Mediterranean Water Cycle

6.5 The NAO Impact on Renewable Energy and Vegetation Dynamics

6.6 Extreme Weather Associated with Exceptional Large-Scale Circulation

6.7 Conclusions



7. Modeling of the Mediterranean Climate System

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Mediterranean Climate Modeling from Global- to Regional Scale

7.3 Mediterranean Sea General Circulation

7.4 Conclusions and Perspectives



8. The Climate of the Mediterranean Region in Future Climate Projections

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Investigating Methods

8.3 Projections of Future Climate

8.4 Future Projections for the Mediterranean Sea

8.5 The Uncertainties of the Projections

8.6 Conclusion



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