Mineral Exploration, 1st Edition

Principles and Applications

Mineral Exploration, 1st Edition,S. K. Haldar,ISBN9780124160057





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A multidisciplinary reference that thoroughly addresses the full scope of mineral exploration—from mining and extraction to economic evaluation, policies and environmental impacts

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Key Features

  • Presents 16 case studies that allow readers to quickly apply exploration concepts to real-life scenarios in the field
  • Includes more than 200 illustrations and full-color photographs that aid the reader in retaining key procedures and applications
  • Each chapter is structured so that its topic is discussed theoretically first followed by specific applications
  • Combines both theory and application in a multidisciplinary reference that thoroughly addresses the full scope of mineral exploration
  • Authored by an instructor with more than 30 years of experience in the field and a decade as a consultant for commercial mining companies


Globally, mineral exploration has grown significantly in recent years, driven by the rapid acceleration in prices for gold and diamonds since 2004 and the emergence of a middle class in both China and India—aggressively increased demand. Despite this resurgence, no single book has been published that takes an interdisciplinary approach in addressing the full scope of mineral exploration—from mining and extraction to economic evaluation, policies, sustainability, and environmental impacts. Mineral Exploration: Principles and Applications accomplishes this by presenting each topic with theoretical approaches first followed by specific applications that can be immediately implemented in the field.


primary- geologists, petrologists, mineralogists, marine geologists with a focus on resource exploration
secondary- students and instructors at the graduate level in the geosciences

S. K. Haldar

1. Academic qualification: B. Sc (Hons) 1963, and M. Sc (Geology) 1965, Calcutta University, D. Sc, 1983, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. 2. Professional Affiliation: Life Member of Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India, Indian Geological Congress and Indian Society of Earth Sciences. 3. Work Experiences: 50 Yrs Professional and Academic Experience in oil and base-noble metal exploration and mining at various capacities at ESSO, Hindustan Copper Ltd, Hindustan Zinc Ltd, Anglo American (P) Ltd, Gold Stream Mining NL/ IMX Resource Ltd, Australia and BIL Infratech Ltd, Guest Faculty Sukhadia University Udaipur. 4. Exploration Projects and Mines visited abroad: His profession has often required visits and interaction with experts of zinc, lead, gold, tin, chromium, nickel and platinum mines and exploration camps of Australia-Tasmania, Canada, USA, Germany, Portugal, UK, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bangladesh and Nepal. 5. Research Projects as Principal Investigator (i) DST project in Geostatistical Applications, numerical processing, software development and derivation of parameters for mine planning of base metal deposits at IIT Kharagpur (1979-80) leading to PhD Degree (1983). (ii) DST project: HR/UR/22/2002 on “Exploration modeling for base / noble metals with special reference to sediment hosted Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag deposits in the northwestern Indian Shield” at Presidency College Kolkata (2003-06). (iii) DST Project: HR/UR/29/2007 on “Geology of Platinum-Nickel-Chromium mineralization: Resource evaluation and future potential”, at Presidency College, Kolkata (2008-2010). 6. Examination conducted: (i) Regular question papers for Mineral Exploration, Geo-statistics and Mining Geology for M. Sc Applies Geology of Sukharia University, Udaipur, Presidency University, Calcutta University, Indian School of Mines and Institution of Engineers. (ii) Examined 4 M. Sc Thesis of Delhi and Calcutta University. (iii) Examined including Viva of 5 PhD Thesis in Geostatistical Applications of Mineral Deposits at Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, IIT Mumbai and Kharagpur. 7. Current Assignments: Since 2003, Emeritus Scientist, Post Graduate Applied Geology teaching of Mineral Exploration at Presidency and Calcutta University, Kolkata, and industry related teaching at Indian school of Mines, Dhanbad. 8. Recipient: Dr. J. Coggin Brown Memorial (Gold) Medal for Geological Sciences (1993-94) by Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India. 9. Authored 3 books and 40 publications: 1. Haldar, SK. Exploration Modeling of Base Metal Deposits, Elsevier Publication; 2007, p. 227. 2. Haldar, SK, Mineral Exploration - Principles and Applications, Elsevier Publication; 2013, p. 374. 3. Haldar, SK and Josip Tišljar, Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology, Elsevier Publication; 2013, p. 356. Dr Haldar has a unique professional blend of mineral exploration, evaluation and mineral economics with an essence of classroom teaching of postgraduate students of two celebrity Universities over the last 1 decade. Annexure- I 1. Haldar, S. K., 2011, Platinum-Nickel-Chromium: Resource Evaluation and Future Potential Targets, IGC International Congress on New Paradigms of Exploration and Sustainable Mineral Development on Vision 2050, p. 67 - 82. 2. Haldar. S. K., 2010, Geostatistical Applications in Base Metal Deposits - A case Study, Science and Economics of Rocks - A Primer on Mineral geostatiscs, ed: Sarkar, B. C., pp. 95-109. 3. Haldar, S. K., 2009, The First Fifty Year’s Record and A New Beginning in Mineral Discovery in India with special Reference to Base Metals, in Shrivastava, K. L., eds., Economic Mineralization, Scientific Publisher (India), Jodhpur, pp. 442-450. 4. Haldar, S. K., 2008, Resource prediction mo

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Scientist, Department of Applied Geology and Environmental System Management, Presidency College, Kolkata, India, and Exploration Consultant, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Hindustan Copper Limited, and ESSO Standard Eastern Inc.

View additional works by S. K. Haldar

Mineral Exploration, 1st Edition



List of Acronyms used in this book




Time scale




About the Author

Chapter 1. Mineral Exploration

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definition

1.3 Exploration

1.4 Mineral Policy and Act

1.5 Mineral to Metal—A Full Circle

Further Reading

Chapter 2. Economic Mineral Deposits and Host Rocks

2.1 Definition

2.2 Common Economic Minerals

2.3 Classification of Mineral Deposits

2.4 Host Rocks

2.5 Industry Specifications

Further Reading

Chapter 3. Exploration Geology

3.1 Definition

3.2 Regional Planning and Organization

3.3 Surface Guide

3.4 Topographic Survey

3.5 Geological Mapping

3.6 Stratigraphic Correlation

3.7 Exploration Activity

3.8 Exploration of Coal and Coal Bed Methane

Further Reading

Chapter 4. Exploration Geochemistry

4.1 Definition

4.2 Field Procedure

4.3 Analytical Methods

4.4 Data Interpretation

4.5 Geochemical Methods

4.6 Review

Further Reading

Chapter 5. Exploration Geophysics

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Seismic Survey

5.3 Gravity Survey

5.4 Magnetic Survey

5.5 Electrical Survey

5.6 EM Survey

5.7 Radiometric Survey

5.8 Borehole Logging

5.9 Review

Further Reading

Chapter 6. Photogeology, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Mineral Exploration

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Photogeology

6.3 Remote Sensing

6.4 Geographic Information System

6.5 Global Positioning System

6.6 Software in RS-GIS

Further Reading

Chapter 7. Sampling Methods

7.1 Definition

7.2 Sampling Equipment

7.3 Sampling Methods

7.4 Sample Reduction for Chemical Analysis

7.5 Accuracy and Due Diligence in Sampling

7.6 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

7.7 Optimization of Samples

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve Estimation

8.1 Definition

8.2 Estimation of Quality

8.3 Conventional Resource/Reserve Estimation

8.4 Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve Classification

8.5 Ore Monitoring System

Further Reading

Chapter 9. Statistical and Geostatistical Applications in Geology

9.1 Why Geostatistics?

9.2 Statistical Applications

9.3 Misclassified Tonnage

9.4 Geostatistical Applications

Further Reading

Chapter 10. Exploration Modeling

10.1 Definition

10.2 Types of Model

10.3 Modeling: A Holistic Dynamic Approach

10.4 Limitations

Further Reading

Chapter 11. Elements of Mining

11.1 Definition

11.2 Surface Mining

11.3 Underground Mining

11.4 Mine Machinery

11.5 Mine Explosive

11.6 Rock Mechanics and Support System

11.7 Mine Ventilation

11.8 Mine Closure

11.9 Mining Software

Further Reading

Chapter 12. Mineral Processing

12.1 Definition

12.2 Ore Handling

12.3 Comminution

12.4 Screening and Classification

12.5 Concentration

12.6 Metallurgical Accounting

12.7 Ore to Concentrate and Metal

Further Reading

Chapter 13. Mineral Economics

13.1 Definition

13.2 Investment Philosophy

13.3 Stages of Investment

13.4 Investment Analysis

13.5 Sources of Investment Risk

13.6 Investment Risk and Sensitivity Analysis

13.7 Economic Evaluation of Mineral Deposits

13.8 Case Study of Economic Evaluation

13.9 Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 14. Environmental System Management of Mineral Resources and Sustainable Development

14.1 Definition

14.2 ESM in Mineral Industry

14.3 Sustainable Development in Mining

Further Reading

Chapter 15. Mineral Exploration—Case Histories

15.1 Definition

15.2 Zawar Group, India: An Age-Old Ancient Zinc-Lead-Silver Mining-Smelting Tradition

15.3 Broken Hill, Australia: The Largest and Richest Zinc-Lead-Silver Deposit in the World

15.4 Malanjkhand: The Single Largest Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum Orebody in India

15.5 Sindesar-Khurd: Routine Drilling Discovered Concealed Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit in India

15.6 Neves Corvo, Portugal: Discovery of Deep-Seated Zn-Cu-Sn Deposit: A Geophysical Success

15.7 Bushveld, South Africa: The Largest Platinum-Chromium Deposits of the World

15.8 Sudbury, Canada: The Largest Nickel-Platinum-Copper Deposits of the World

15.9 Rampura-Agucha: The Single Largest and Richest Zn-Pb-Ag Deposit in India: Geostatistical Applications in Mineral Exploration

15.10 Jhamarkotra, India: Discovery of the Largest Stromatolitic Rock-Phosphate Deposit by Geological Modeling and Exploration to Environment Management Practices: A Holistic Approach

15.11 Base Metal Discovery Trend: The Last 50 Years in India

Further Reading



Quotes and reviews

"The book is technically skillful and a laudable effort to create a comprehensive practical survey text written by someone who knows the territory in more than an academic way. There are also many useful diagrams."--Reference and Research Book News, August 2013

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