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Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases
 
 

Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases, 2nd Edition

Microbiological Aspects and Risks

 
Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases, 2nd Edition,Steven Percival,Marylynn Yates,David Williams,Rachel Chalmers,Nicholas Gray,ISBN9780124158467
 
 
 

Percival   &   Yates   &   Williams   &   Chalmers   &   Gray   

Academic Press

9780124158467

9780124159761

696

246 X 189

Provides current knowledge on drinking water pathogens highlighting their microbiology, clinical features, survival in the environment and risk assessment

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Key Features

  • Focuses on the microorganisms of most significance to public health, including E. coli, cryptosporidium, and enterovirus
  • Highlights the basic microbiology, clinical features, survival in the environment, and gives a risk assessment for each pathogen
  • Contains new material on antimicrobial resistance and biofilms
  • Covers drinking water and both marine and freshwater recreational bathing waters

Description

The second edition of Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases describes the diseases associated with water, their causative agents and the ways in which they gain access to water systems. The book is divided into sections covering bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Other sections detail methods for detecting and identifying waterborne microorganisms, and the ways in which they are removed from water, including chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

The second edition of this handbook has been updated with information on biofilms and antimicrobial resistance. The impact of global warming and climate change phenomena on waterborne illnesses are also discussed. This book serves as an indispensable reference for public health microbiologists, water utility scientists, research water pollution microbiologists environmental health officers, consultants in communicable disease control and microbial water pollution students.

Readership

Researchers in infectious disease, microbiology, public health workers, and water and wastewater treatment engineers.

Steven Percival

Professor Steven L. Percival holds a PhD in medical microbiology and biofilms, a BSc in Applied Biological Sciences, Postgraduate Certificate in Education, diploma in Business Administration, an MSc in Public Health and an MSc in Medical and Molecular Microbiology. He is also a fellow of the Institute of Biomedical Science and Institute of Biology. Early in his career, Steven held R&D positions for over 3 years at The British Textile Technology Group Plc, followed then by 6 years as a senior university lecturer in medical microbiology and later the positions of Chief Scientific Officer and Director of R and D at Aseptica, Inc., and senior clinical fellowships at the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, and Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom. More recently, Steven held senior R&D manager positions at Bristol Myers Squibb, ConvaTec, Advanced Medical Solutions PLC and also held an honorary Professorship of Microbiology at West Virginia University. In 2011, Steven joined ScapaHealthcare PLC as Vice President of Global Healthcare R&D and was awarded an honorary Professorship at The University of Liverpool, UK. He has written over 260 scientific publications and conference abstracts on water microbiology, biofilms, antimicrobials, and infection control and has authored or edited six textbooks on biofilms and microbiology and provided over 100 presentations on biofilms and public health worldwide.

Affiliations and Expertise

Leeds Teaching Hospitals, UK

Marylynn Yates

Marylynn V. Yates is Professor of Environmental Microbiology and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of California, Riverside. She serves as Dean of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, and is Chair of the University of California Global Health Institute’s Education Committee. Dr. Yates holds a B.S. in Nursing from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, an M.S. in Chemistry from the New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, and a Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of Arizona. Her research interests include characterizing and predicting the fate and transport of human enteric pathogenic microorganisms in soils, water, and wastewater; development of methods for rapid, sensitive detection of infective enteric viruses in water samples; human pathogen considerations associated with wastewater reuse and biosolids application to land; and the use of indicators for predicting pathogen occurrence and behavior in the environment. Dr. Yates serves as an editor for Applied & Environmental Microbiology, as a member of the Water Science & Technology Board of the National Research Council, and on the USEPA’s Science Advisory Board Drinking Water Committee. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, the American Academy of Microbiology, and a National Associate of the National Academies of Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Environmental Sciences University of California, Riverside, USA

David Williams

BSc (Hons), PhD

Dr. Williams currently leads the Oral Microbiology Group based at the School of Dentistry, at Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Since Dr. Williams’ first degree (Cardiff University), he has worked in the pharmaceutical industry, food microbiology and as an academic researcher. Having completed a PhD at the School of Dentistry in Cardiff on the immunopathogenesis of oral candidosis, Dr. Williams’ research has continued within Cardiff University and primarily focuses within the field of Clinical Microbiology with an emphasis on studies involving microbial biofilms. Dr. Williams’ research encompasses investigating biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, expression of virulence factors such as hydrolytic enzyme production, adhesion, and microbial modulation of innate immune responses. Of particular interest has been research into the development of biomaterials (e.g. silicone rubber, acrylic, titanium) to inhibit biofilm formation on medical devices. Dr. Williams is a previous recipient of the Senior Colgate Award (British Society for Oral and Dental Research) and the International Hatton Award (The International Association for Dental Research).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, UK

Rachel Chalmers

Dr. Rachel Chalmers is the director of the Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health, Wales. Her research includes evaluation of new laboratory methods for Cryptosporidium detection, diagnosis, typing and subtyping, epidemiology and seroepidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.

Affiliations and Expertise

Head of the PHLS Cryptosporidium Unit, U.K.

Nicholas Gray

Nick Gray is Professor of Environmental Science at Trinity College Dublin and is a leading academic and researcher in the field of environmental engineering specializing in water and wastewater treatment processes. He has worked closely with the water industry for over 35 years both as a consultant and as a collaborative researcher. He has published a number of books, including Drinking Water Quality (Cambridge University Press), Water Technology (Elsevier), Biology of Wastewater Treatment ( Imperial College Press), The coliform Index and Waterborne Diseases (Spon) and Activated Sludge (Oxford University Press), as well as over 150 research papers. He is the Director of the Water Technology Research Group based in the Centre for the Environment at Trinity College, University of Dublin.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Natural Science Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases, 2nd Edition

Preface

Dedication

Contributors

Part One: Introduction

Chapter One. Pathogens in Water and Biofilms

Abstract

Introduction

Biofilm Formation and Pathogen Adhesion to Biofilms

Factors Influencing Biofilm Formation

Growth in Biofilms

How Pathogens Enter Water and How Much Biofilm They See

Prevalence of Pathogens in Water Biofilms

Detachment: Biofilms as Sources of Pathogens

Advantages of Living in a ‘City’

Survival

Ecology

Risk and Infectivity of Biofilm-Associated Pathogens

Conclusions

References

Part Two: Bacteriology

Chapter Two. Acinetobacter

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Three. Aeromonas

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Four. Campylobacter

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Five. Cyanobacteria

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Pathogenicity and Virulence

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Six. Escherichia coli

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Virulence and Pathogenicity

EAEC

DAEC

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Seven. Helicobacter pylori

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Eight. Legionella

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Nine. Mycobacterium

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Detection Methods

Evidence for Growth in Biofilms

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Ten. Salmonella

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Survival in the Environment

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Eleven. Shigella

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Twelve. Vibrio

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Metabolism and Physiology

Clinical Features

Evidence for Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Thirteen. Yersinia

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Clinical Conditions

Growth in Environment

Growth in a Biofilm

Methods of Detection

Antimicrobial Control

Risk Assessment

References

Part Three: Protozoa

Chapter Fourteen. Acanthamoeba

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

History

Life Cycle and Taxonomy

Clinical Features, Pathogenicity, Virulence and Causation

Treatment

Methods of Detection

Survival in Water and the Environment

Critical Review of the Epidemiology

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Future Implications

References

Chapter Fifteen. Balantidium coli

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History and Life Cycle

Clinical Features, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Causation and Treatment

Methods of Detection

Survival in Water and the Environment

Critical Review of the Epidemiology

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Future Implications

References

Chapter Sixteen. Cryptosporidium

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History and Development of Drinking Water Regulation

Life Cycle, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity

Clinical Features, Treatment and Diagnosis

Methods of Detection in Water and Environmental Samples

Occurrence and Survival in the Environment

Prevalence and Epidemiology of Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Future Implications (Waterborne Incidences)

References

Chapter Seventeen. Cyclospora cayetanensis

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History and Life Cycle

Clinical Features, Pathogenesis and Treatment

Methods of Detection and Diagnosis

Occurrence and Survival in the Environment

Prevalence and Epidemiology of Waterborne Cyclosporiasis

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Future Implications (Waterborne Incidences)

References

Chapter Eighteen. Entamoeba histolytica

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History and Life Cycle

Clinical Features, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Causation and Treatment

Methods of Detection

Survival and Detection in the Environment and in Water

Critical Review of the Epidemiology

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Future Implications

References

Chapter Nineteen. Giardia duodenalis

Abstract

Introduction

Prevalence of Infection and of Disease

Clinical Giardiasis, Including Diagnosis and Treatment

Transmission Routes

Waterborne and Foodborne Outbreaks of Giardiasis

Occurrence and Detection of Giardia Cysts in Environmental Samples

Giardia Cyst Survival: Approaches to Removal and Inactivation

Overall Risk Assessment

Future Challenges

Conclusion

References

Chapter Twenty. Naegleria

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

History and Life Cycle

Clinical Features, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Causation and Treatment

Methods of Diagnosis and Detection

Survival in Water and the Environment

Critical Review of the Epidemiology

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

References

Chapter Twenty-One. Toxoplasma gondii

Abstract

Introduction

Life Cycle

Natural History

Survival in the Environment

Clinical Features

Treatment

Methods of Detection

Genetic Variation

Critical Review of the Epidemiology of T. Gondii

Risk Assessment and Risk Management

References

Part Four: Viruses

Chapter Twenty-Two. Methods for the Detection of Waterborne Viruses

Abstract

Introduction

Concentration Methods

Detection and Enumeration of Waterborne Viruses

References

Chapter Twenty-Three. Adenovirus

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Origin of the Organism

Clinical Features and Virulence

Pathogenicity

Transmission and Epidemiology

Treatment

Distribution in the Environment

Waterborne Outbreaks

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Twenty-Four. Astroviruses

Abstract

Introduction

Basic Microbiology

Origin of the Organism

Pathogenesis and Clinical Features

Transmission and Epidemiology

Distribution in the Environment

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Twenty-Five. Enterovirus

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Clinical Features

Waterborne Outbreaks

Risk Assessment

References

Further Reading

Chapter Twenty-Six. Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History of the Organism

Clinical Features

Epidemiology of Waterborne Outbreaks

Removal by Treatment

Risk Assessment

References

Chapter Twenty-Seven. Norovirus

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History of the Organism

Clinical Features

Epidemiology of Waterborne Outbreaks

References

Chapter Twenty-Eight. Rotavirus

Abstract

Basic Microbiology

Natural History

Clinical Features

Epidemiology of Waterborne Outbreaks

References

Chapter Twenty-Nine. Emerging Viruses

Abstract

Sapoviruses

Aichiviruses

Polyomaviruses

Torque Teno Virus

References

Part Five: Control

Chapter Thirty. Pathogen Control in Drinking Water

Abstract

Introduction

Pathogen Control

History of Disinfection

Methods of Disinfection

Kinetics of Disinfection

Point-of-Use and Point-of-Entry Treatment

Conclusions

References

Chapter Thirty-One. Free and Combined Chlorine

Abstract

Introduction

Chemistry of Chlorination

Conclusions

References

Chapter Thirty-Two. Chlorine Dioxide

Abstract

Introduction

Conclusions

References

Chapter Thirty-Three. Ozone Disinfection

Abstract

Introduction

Chemistry of Ozonation

Process Technology

Disinfection

Conclusions

References

Chapter Thirty-Four. Ultraviolet Disinfection

Abstract

Introduction

History

Method of Disinfection

UV Lamps and Equipment

Conclusion

References

Chapter Thirty-Five. Filtration Methods

Abstract

Introduction to Filtration

Granular Filtration

Membrane Filtration

Conclusions

References

Part Six: Global Warming

Chapter Thirty-Six. The Implications of Global Warming and Climate Change on Waterborne Diseases

Abstract

Introduction

Incidence of Waterborne Infection

Effects of Climate Change

Integrated Approach

Conclusions

References

Index

Quotes and reviews

"...highly recommended for academic, medical, and special libraries with relevant programs. The text is well-written and highly understandable, and presents an excellent summary of waterborne pathogens and their relevance to drinking water."--E-STREAMS
"This multi-author book provides current knowledge on drinking water pathogens highlighting their microbiology, clinical features, survival in the environment and risk assessment…This book will serve as a reference material for public health microbiologists, water utility scientists, water pollution research microbiologists, environmental health officers, consultants in communicable disease control, and microbial water pollution students"--CAB Abstracts
 
 
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