Obesity, 1st Edition

Obesity, 1st Edition,Gerald Litwack,ISBN9780124077669

Vitamins and Hormones

G Litwack   

Academic Press




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Cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins and hormones

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Key Features

  • Contributions from leading authorities
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field


First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms.

Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

This volume focuses on obesity.


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested

Gerald Litwack

Following a liberal arts education with a major in chemistry and biology at Hobart College, Gerald (Gerry) Litwack earned M.S. and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where he served as a Lecturer in Enzymology before starting a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne in Paris. His first academic position was assistant professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University where he started his work on hormone action for six years. During this period, he did a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, where he concentrated on rapid enzyme kinetics. In 1960 he accepted an offer of an associate professorship at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. In 1964, he was invited to be full professor of biochemistry at The Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple Medical School, simultaneously with a Career Development Award from the NIH, where he later was named Deputy Director of the Institute and the Laura H. Carnell Professor in biochemistry. Subsequently, he was given the Faculty Research Award. He co-discovered ligandin, later found to be in the family of glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that protect the body from carcinogens. In 1991, he moved to the Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University as Professor of Biochemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Deputy Director of the Kimmel Cancer Research Institute. Later, he became chair of the combined Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and concurrently held the position of Vice Dean for Research. In 2003, he moved to Los Angeles and from 2004-2006 was a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine and, in this period, wrote “Human Biochemistry and Disease” a volume of 1254 pages. In 2007, he moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania, as Founding Chair of Basic Sciences and Acting Associate Dean for Research to start a new medical school, The Commonwealth Medical College. Having completing his mission in 2010, he moved to The Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, as Professor of Biochemistry and Associate Director. Currently, he is retired and lives in North Hollywood, California, where he continues as an author and as Series Editor of Vitamins and Hormones. He is involved in writing another textbook and has written a first novel, “One-Eighty”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA

View additional works by Gerald Litwack

Obesity, 1st Edition

Former Editors



Chapter One. Hormonal Regulation of Lipogenesis

1 Introduction

2 Defining Lipogenesis

3 Lipogenesis in Metabolic Target Tissues

4 Regulation of Lipogenesis

5 Hormonal Regulation

6 Conclusions


Chapter Two. Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Related Vascular Diseases

1 Introduction

2 Genetic Determinants of Obesity

3 Vascular Diseases Related to Overweight and Obesity

4 Conclusions


Chapter Three. Brd2 Gene Disruption Causes “Metabolically Healthy” Obesity: Epigenetic and Chromatin-Based Mechanisms that Uncouple Obesity from Type 2 Diabetes


1 Introduction: The Problem of Obesity and Its Complications

2 Complex Polygenic Interactions with the Environment and Epigenetics in Obesity

3 The “brd2 lo” Mouse Model of “Metabolically Healthy” Obesity

4 Who are “Metabolically Healthy” Obese Humans?

5 Other Animal Models of “Metabolically Healthy” Obesity

6 Derepression of Insulin Transcription in the “brd2 lo” Environment

7 Translational Implications of Epigenetic Reprogramming: Conclusions


Chapter Four. The TBC1D1 Gene: Structure, Function, and Association with Obesity and Related Traits

1 Introduction

2 TBC1D1 Gene Structure and Expression

3 TBC1D1 Protein Structure and Function

4 The TBC1D1 Gene in Obesity and Related Traits

5 Conclusions


Chapter Five. Replication Initiator 1 in Adipose Tissue Function and Human Obesity

1 Introduction

2 Structure of Repin1

3 Cellular Localization of Repin1

4 Repin1 Function in Adipose Tissue

5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter Six. Adipokines in Childhood Obesity

1 Introduction

2 White Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ: The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adipose Axis

3 Changes in White Adipose Tissue Due to Obesity: Importance of the age at Obesity Onset

4 Energy Homeostasis Control: Leptin as a Key Player

5 Insulin Sensitivity: Role of Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Vaspin

6 Low-Grade Inflammatory Environment: Proinflammatory Adipokines

7 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter Seven. Gut Hormones and Obesity: Physiology and Therapies

1 Introduction

2 Central Structures Involved in the Control of Food Intake

3 Gut Hormones

4 Integration of Gut Hormone Signals

5 Influence of Gut Hormone Signals on Other Aspects of Energy Homeostasis

6 Alterations in Gut Hormones and their Function in Obesity

7 Targeting of Gut Hormones in Obesity

8 Conclusion


Chapter Eight. Neuroinflammation in Overnutrition-Induced Diseases


1 Introduction

2 IKKβ/NF-κB and Metabolic Inflammation

3 Mediators of Brain Metabolic Inflammation

4 Metabolic Inflammation and Neural Dysregulation

5 Brain Metabolic Inflammation and Obesity

6 Brain Metabolic Inflammation and Diabetes

7 Brain Metabolic Inflammation in Hypertension and Stroke

8 Metabolic Inflammation and Neurodegeneration

9 Conclusions


Chapter Nine. p66ShcA: Linking Mammalian Longevity with Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance

1 Aging: Oxidative Stress Versus Metabolic Unbalance

2 Adipose Tissue and Longevity in Mammals

3 Adipose Tissue, Insulin Resistance, and Longevity

4 p66Shc and Longevity in Mice

5 p66Shc and Insulin Signaling

6 p66Shc in Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance

7 p66 and Aging: The Role of mTOR/S6K

8 p66Shc: TOR and ROS?


Chapter Ten. The Emerging Role of Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Its Cross talk with Liver X Receptors and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor A in Lipid Metabolism

1 Introduction

2 Initial Characterization of CAR and Its Emerging Roles in Lipid Metabolism

3 LXRs and PPARα in Lipid Metabolism

4 Functional Crosstalk Between CAR and LXR or CAR and PPAR in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism

5 Conclusion Remarks


Chapter Eleven. Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency Protects from Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Obesity—Novel Insights from Mouse Models

1 Introduction

2 Novel Metabolic Phenotypes in Murine Models of LCAT Deficiency

3 Conclusions


Chapter Twelve. Sphingolipids in Lipid Microdomains and Obesity

1 Introduction

2 Sphingolipids Function in Lipid Microdomains

3 Sphingolipid and Obesity

4 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Thirteen. Ghrelin At the Interface of Obesity and Reward

1 Introduction

2 Ghrelin in Obesity

3 Ghrelin in the Multicircuit Control of Appetite

4 Stress-Induced Ghrelin-Mediated Food Reward

5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives


Chapter Fourteen. Endocannabinoids and Obesity

1 Introduction

2 Discovery of the Endocannabinoid System

3 Obesity and Endocannabinoid System

4 Studies of Cannabinoid Receptors and Endocannabinoid Metabolic Enzymes

5 Physiological Roles of CB1 in Different Tissues

6 Novel CB1 Antagonists

7 Future Perspectives

8 Conclusions


Chapter Fifteen. Lipocalin 13 Regulation of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Obesity

1 Introduction

2 LCN Structure and Function

3 LCN13 Regulation of Glucose Metabolism

4 LCN13 Regulation of Lipid Metabolism

5 Regulation of Nutrient Metabolism by Other LCN Family Members

6 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Sixteen. Sirtuin 1 Deacetylase: A Key Regulator of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

1 Introduction

2 SIRT1 as a Master Regulator of Metabolism

3 Regulation of Hepatic Fat (TG) Metabolism by SIRT1

4 Regulation of Hepatic Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism by SIRT1

5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives


Chapter Seventeen. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and Obesity

1 Introduction


3 Biological Roles of PTP1B

4 Genetic Deletion of PTP1B in Mice

5 Inhibitors of PTP1B


Chapter Eighteen. Nomilin as an Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Agent

1 Introduction

2 Bile Acid Biosynthesis

3 Biological Functions of Bile Acids as Farnesoid X Receptor Ligands

4 TGR5, a Bile Acid Receptor

5 TGR5 Agonists

6 A Citrus Limonoid, Nomilin

7 Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of TGR5 Agonists

8 The Future



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