Diabetes, 1st Edition

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

 
Diabetes, 1st Edition,Victor Preedy,ISBN9780124058859
 
 
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V Preedy   

Academic Press

9780124058859

9780124055223

280

276 X 216

Translational coverage of how dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress contribute to and protect from diabetes and diabetic complications

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Key Features

  • Nutritionists will use the information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease and propose new diet-related strategies to prevent such conditions arising in another unrelated disease.
  • Dietitians will prescribe new foods or diets containing antioxidants for conditions that are refractory by conventional pharmacological treatments.
  • Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teams.
  • Nutritionists and dietitians will learn about cell signaling and will be able to suggest preventive or therapeutic strategies with antioxidant-rich foods to reduce damage done by diseases involving abnormal cell signaling.

Description

Diabetes: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants bridges the trans-disciplinary divide among diabetologists, endocrinologists, and nutritionists in understanding and treating diabetes. The book covers, in a single volume, the science of oxidative stress in diabetes and the potentially therapeutic use of natural antioxidants in the diet or food matrix. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are described in concert with other processes such as apoptosis, cell signaling, receptor-mediated responses and more. This approach recognizes that diseases are usually multifactorial and that oxidative stress is a single component of this.

Pharmacological treatments for diabetes are commonly marked by unwanted side effects, leading to treatment efforts using naturally occurring substances. But a plant-based approach alone is not sufficient; understanding the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of diabetes is vital for clinical workers, dietitians, and nutritionists.

This translational work provides that understanding. The book begins by covering the basic biology of oxidative stress from molecular biology to imaging in relation to diabetes. There are chapters on neuropathy, nephropathy, atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, and retinopathy. The book then moves on to antioxidants in foods, including plants, components of the diet, and their relevance to diabetes.

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, diabetologists, endocrinologists, and researchers across these areas

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier). Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK

View additional works by Victor R. Preedy

Diabetes, 1st Edition

Preface

Contributors

Section I: Oxidative Stress and Diabetes

Chapter 1. Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Neuropathy

Abstract

Acknowledgments

List of Abbreviations

Introduction and Epidemiology

Natural History and Prognosis

Hyperglycemia as a Crucial Cause of Diabetic Neuropathy

Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Neuropathy

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Treatment in Diabetic Neuropathy

Therapeutic Potential of a New Antioxidant Protein Delivery in Diabetic Neuropathy

From Experimental Evidence of Neuropathy in Animals to the Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy in Man

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 2. Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetics and Oxidative Stress

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction – Diabetes and Cerebral Ischemia

Pathophysiological Roles of Free Radicals

Diabetes and Free Radicals

Cerebral Ischemia

Free Radical Production during Ischemia/Reperfusion

NOS Pathway

The Role of Iron

Mitochondrial Production of Free Radicals

Reperfusion

Free Radicals and Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Cell Death Pathways

Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Cerebral Ischemia

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 3. Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Oxidative Stress

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Hallmarks of DM

Oxidative Stress

Hyperglycemia

Lipotoxicity

ROS and RNS in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Superoxide

Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite

Hydroxyl Radical

The Modulation of Cell Signaling Pathways

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 4. Diabetic Retinopathy and Oxidative Stress

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Histopathology of DR

Oxidative Stress Mechanisms

Oxidative Stress and DR

Summary Points

References

Chapter 5. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Diabetes

Abstract

Acknowledgements

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Oxidative Stress: ROS and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)

Diabetes

Diabetes, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

ROS Production and Diabetic Complications

Antioxidants and Diabetes

Dietary Antioxidants

Antioxidants, Mitochondria and Diabetes

Conclusions

Summary points

References

Chapter 6. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Distribution of Iron in the Body

Iron Homeostasis

Oxidative Stress

Iron and Oxidative Stress

Oxidative Stress in Diabetes

Iron and Diabetes

Iron Overload States

Iron Deficiency

The Role of Iron in Diabetes without Overt Iron Overload

The Role of Iron in Complications of Diabetes

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Section II: Antioxidants and Diabetes

Chapter 7. α-Tocopherol Supplementation, Lipid Profile, and Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Vitamin E and Diabetes

A Possible Mechanism Underlying the Effects of α-Tocopherol in Diabetes Mellitus

α-Tocopherol Supplementation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Is Vitamin E Supplementation Recommended for Diabetic Complications?

Final Considerations

Summary Points

References

Chapter 8. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on Antioxidant Enzymes in Diabetic Patients

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Combinations Containing S. miltiorrhiza

Active Components in S. miltiorrhiza

Summary Points

References

Chapter 9. Antioxidant Spices and Herbs Used in Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Culinary Herbs

Spices

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 10. Resveratrol and Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

The Role of Resveratrol in the Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

The Role of Resveratrol in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Summary Points

References

Chapter 11. Vitamin D, Oxidative Stress and Diabetes: Is There A Link?

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Vitamin D

Factors Affecting Vitamin D Status

Oxidative Stress in Diabetes: Development and Complications

Vitamin D and Diabetes

Vitamin D as an Antioxidant

Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin D in Diabetes: Direct vs. Indirect Effect

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 12. Glutamine and Antioxidant Potential in Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction to Glutamine

Immunomodulatory Effects of GLN

GLN and Diabetes

GLN and Hyperglycemia-Induced Complications

Mechanisms of GLN in Attenuating Oxidative Stress

Proposed Molecular Mechanisms Other than Antioxidant Effects

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 13. The Anti-Oxidative Component of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Brain in Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction: Oxidative Stress in Diabetes

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

DHA and Oxidative Stress

Neuroprotectin D1

DHA and Oxidative Stress in the Brain

References

Chapter 14. Diabetic Nephropathy and Tocotrienol

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Biological Markers Involved in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Nephropathy

Tocotrienols

Experimental Study Stating the Use of Tocotrienol in Diabetic Nephropathy

Tocotrienol and Diabetic Nephropathy: Possible Mechanism of Action

Effect on glycemic Index and Renal Physiology

Prevention of Renal Oxidative Stress

Inhibitory Effect on Proinflammatory and Profibrotic Cytokines

Effect on NF-κB Signaling and Renal Apoptosis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 15. Polyphenols, Oxidative Stress, and Vascular Damage in Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Endothelial Dysfunction

Polyphenols and Antioxidant Mechanisms in Diabetes

Polyphenols and Vascular Regeneration in Diabetes

Conclusions and the Road Ahead

Summary Points

References

Chapter 16. Vitamin E and Vascular Protection in Diabetes

Abstract

Acknowledgments and Disclosure

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Haptoglobin

Haptoglobin Gene and Protein Structure

Geographical Distribution

Hp Antioxidant Function

Different Hp Types Differ in Their Ability to Inhibit Hb Redox Activities

Hp and High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

Vitamin E

Epidemiological Studies of Vitamin E Supplementation for Hp 2–2 Diabetic Individuals

In Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 17. The Use of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Cardiovascular Protection in Patients with Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba Extract

Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Glucose Metabolism

Protective Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extracts on Cardiovascular Health

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 18. The Protective Role of Taurine in Cardiac Oxidative Stress under Diabetic Conditions

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress

The Role of Mitochondria in ROS Production

Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) Mediated ROS Production

The Role of NADPH Oxidase in ROS Production

The Role of CaMKII in ROS Production

The Role of Fatty Acids in ROS Production

The Role of the Polyol Pathway in ROS Production

The Role of Nrf2 in ROS Production

The Role of Xanthine Oxidase in ROS Production

The Role of Increased Hexosamine Flux in ROS Production

The Role of PKC Activation in ROS Production

The Role of Angiotensin II Activation in ROS Production

Endogenous Antioxidant Mechanisms

The Beneficial Role of Taurine

Mechanisms of the Anti-Hyperglycemic Action of Taurine

The Antioxidant Mechanism of Taurine against Cardiac Oxidative Stress under Diabetic Conditions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 19. Statins, Diabetic Oxidative Stress and Vascular Tissue

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Oxidative Stress and Diabetes

Statins: Discovery and Mechanisms

Impact of Statins on Oxidative Stress

Diabetic Macrovascular Disease: Clinical Evidence

Diabetic Microvascular Disease: Clinical Evidence

Summary and Future Directions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 20. Resveratrol and Cerebral Arterioles during Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Oxidative Stress and Impaired Cerebrovascular Function in T1D

Influence of Resveratrol on Vascular Function

Summary Points

References

Chapter 21. Herbal Chrysanthemi Flos, Oxidative Damage and Protection against Diabetic Complications

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Diabetes

Chrysanthemi Flos

Effects of CF on Diabetes and Its Complications

Effect of CF on Other Biological Activities

Chemical Constituents of CF and Their Activities

Toxic Effects of CF

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 22. Antioxidant Supplements and Diabetic Retinopathy

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

In Vitro Studies

Animal Studies

Clinical Studies

Final Comments and Future Directions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 23. Lutein and Oxidative Stress-Mediated Retinal Neurodegeneration in Diabetes

Abstract

Acknowledgment

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

General Information about Lutein

Clinical Data for Lutein

Retinal Neurodegeneration in Diabetes

ROS Accumulation in the Diabetic Retina

General Influences of ROS in Pathogenesis

Lutein’s Suppressive Effects on ROS in the Retina

Lutein’s Neuroprotective Effects in the Diabetic Retina

Summary Points

References

Chapter 24. Epidemiologic Evidence on Antioxidant-related Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Association Between Antioxidant-related Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy

Discussion

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 25. Oxidative Stress and the Lung in Diabetes: The Use of Pomegranate Juice

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

The Lung as a Target Organ in Diabetes

Polyphenols as Antioxidants

Pomegranate

Clinical Evidence Regarding Pomegranate

Antidiabetic Properties of Pomegranate

The Effect of Pomegranate on Diabetic Lung Injury

Summary Points

References

Chapter 26. Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress and Preeclampsia in Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in Pregnancies Complicated by T1DM

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status in PE

Antioxidant Supplementation and PE: Findings from Experimental Studies

Antioxidant Supplementation and PE: Findings from Clinical Trials

Summary Points

References

Index

Color Plates

Quotes and reviews

"Each volume in the Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants series focuses on the phenomena in a single organ, disease, or pathology. Diabetes takes the spotlight here, with discussions of such matters as mitochondrial oxidative stress in diabetes, antioxidant spices and herbs used in diabetes…The material is for dietitians and nutritionists, food scientists, health care workers, and researchers."--ProtoView.com, February 2014
"The book is written for both practitioners and scientists studying this topic… It is a useful reference for practitioners wanting to expand their available treatment options…This is a comprehensive review of the mechanisms leading to diabetic complications with a specific focus on oxidative stress as well as an important review of antioxidant therapies that have been studied in the diabetic population." Rating: 3 Stars--Doody.com, February 21, 2014

 
 
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