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Human Motion Simulation
 
 

Human Motion Simulation, 1st Edition

Predictive Dynamics

 
Human Motion Simulation, 1st Edition,Karim Abdel-Malek,Jasbir Arora,ISBN9780124051904
 
 
 

  &      

Academic Press

9780124051904

9780124046016

288

235 X 191

Predict realistic human motion without the need for pre-recorded data or animations with this optimization-based approach to human simulation.

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Key Features

  • Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation
  • Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics
  • Develops an innovative optimization-based approach to predicting human movement
  • Extensively illustrated with 3D images of simulated human motion (full color in the ebook version)

Description

Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom.

Readership

students in advanced biomechanics courses, kinesiology, exercise science, human motion, etc. A reference for professionals studying human movements, such as biomechanists, motor behaviorists, ergonomists, safety equipment designers, and rehabilitation specialists.

Karim Abdel-Malek

Karim Abdel-Malek is a professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering and the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa. He obtained his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Abdel-Malek is the Founder and Director of the Virtual Soldier Research (VSR) program; Director of the Center for Computer Aided Design; former Associate Editor of the International Journal of Robotics and Automation; former Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Human Factors Modeling & Simulation; and a Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa

Jasbir Arora

Jasbir Singh Arora is an F. Wendell Miller Professor of Engineering, a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and a Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa. He obtained his PhD in Mechanics and Hydraulics from the University of Iowa. Dr. Arora is the Associate Director of the Center for Computer Aided Design. He is a Senior Advisor for the International Journal of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization and he is on the Editorial Board of the International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and a Senior Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Arora is an internationally recognized researcher in the field of optimization and his book Introduction to Optimum Design, 3rd Edition (Academic Press, 2012, 978-0-12-381375-6) is used worldwide. Jasbir Singh Arora is an F. Wendell Miller Professor of Engineering, a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and a Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa. He obtained his PhD in Mechanics and Hydraulics from the University of Iowa. Dr. Arora is the Associate Director of the Center for Computer Aided Design. He is a Senior Advisor for the International Journal of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization and he is on the Editorial Board of the International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and a Senior Member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Arora is an internationally recognized researcher in the field of optimization and his book Introduction to Optimum Design, 3rd Edition (Academic Press, 2012, 978-0-12-381375-6) is used worldwide.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Iowa, iowa City, IA, USA

View additional works by Jasbir Arora

Human Motion Simulation, 1st Edition

Dedication

Preface

Acknowledgments

Current Faculty and Staff

Current Students

Past Students and Collaborators

Past Summer Interns

Visiting Faculty and Scientists

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 What is predictive dynamics?

1.2 How does predictive dynamics work?

1.3 Why data-driven human motion prediction does not work

1.4 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 2. Human Modeling: Kinematics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 General rigid body displacement

2.3 Concept of extended vectors and homogeneous coordinates

2.4 Basic transformations

2.5 Composite transformations

2.6 Directed transformation graphs

2.7 Determining the position of a multi-segmental link: forward kinematics

2.8 The Denavit–Hartenberg representation

2.9 The kinematic skeleton

2.10 Establishing coordinate systems

2.11 The Santos® model

2.12 Variations in anthropometry

2.13 A 55-DOF whole body model

2.14 Global DOFs and virtual joints

2.15 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 3. Posture Prediction and Optimization

3.1 What is optimization?

3.2 What is posture prediction?

3.3 Inducing behavior

3.4 Posture prediction versus inverse kinematics

3.5 Optimization-based posture prediction

3.6 A 3-DOF arm example

3.7 Development of human performance measures

3.8 Motion between two points

3.9 Joint profiles as B-spline curves

3.10 Motion prediction formulation

3.11 A 15-DOF motion prediction

3.12 Optimization algorithm

3.13 Motion prediction of a 15-DOF model

3.14 Multi-objective problem statement

3.15 Design variables and constraints

3.16 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 4. Recursive Dynamics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 General static torque

4.3 Dynamic equations of motion

4.4 Formulation of regular Lagrangian equation

4.5 Recursive Lagrangian equations

4.6 Examples using a 2-DOF arm

4.7 Trajectory planning example

4.8 Arm lifting motion with load example

4.9 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 5. Predictive Dynamics

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Problem formulation

5.3 Dynamic stability: zero-moment point

5.4 Performance measures

5.5 Inner optimization

5.6 Constraints

5.7 Types of constraints

5.8 Discretization and scaling

5.9 Numerical example: single pendulum

5.10 Example formulations

5.11 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 6. Strength and Fatigue: Experiments and Modeling

6.1 Joint space

6.2 Strength influences

6.3 Strength assessment

6.4 Normative strength data

6.5 Representing strength percentiles

6.6 Mapping strength to digital humans: strength surfaces

6.7 Fatigue

6.8 Strength and fatigue interaction

6.9 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 7. Predicting the Biomechanics of Walking

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Joints as degrees of freedom (DOF)

7.3 Muscle versus joint space

7.4 Spatial kinematics model

7.5 Dynamics formulation

7.6 Gait model

7.7 Zero-Moment point (ZMP)

7.8 Calculating ground reaction forces (GRF)

7.9 Optimization formulation

7.10 Numerical discretization

7.11 Example: predicting the gait

7.12 Cause and effect

7.13 Implementations of the predictive dynamics walking formulation

7.14 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 8. Predictive Dynamics: Lifting

8.1 Human skeletal model

8.2 Equations of motion and sensitivities

8.3 Dynamic stability and ground reaction forces (GRF)

8.4 Formulation

8.5 Predictive dynamics optimization formulation

8.6 Computational procedure for multi-objective optimization

8.7 Predictive dynamics simulation

8.8 Validation

8.9 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 9. Validation of Predictive Dynamics Tasks

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Motion determinants

9.3 Motion capture systems

9.4 Methods

9.5 Validation of predictive walking task

9.6 Validation of box-lifting task

9.7 Feedback to the simulation

9.8 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 10. Concluding Remarks

10.1 Benefits of predictive dynamics

10.2 Applications

10.3 Future research

Reference

Bibliography

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Index

 
 
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